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Nov 2, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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New Perspectives on Computer Concepts

2011
Instructor’ s Manual

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Computer Concepts

Chapter

One: Computers and Digital Basics

A Guide to this Instructor’s Manual:

We have designed this Instructor’s Manual to supplement and enhance your teaching
experience through classroom activities and a cohesive chapter summary.



This document is organized chronologically, using the same heading in
blue

that you see in the
textbook.

Under each heading you will find (in order): Lecture Notes that summarize the
section, Figures and Boxes found in the section (if any), Teacher Tips,
Classroom Activities, and
Lab Activities.

Pay special attention to teaching tips, and activities geared towards quizzing
your students, enhancing their critical thinking skills, and encouraging experimentation within
the software.



In addition to this Ins
tructor’s Manual, our Instructor’s Resources CD also contains PowerPoint
Presentations, Test Banks, and other supplements to aid in your teaching experience.



For your students:

Our latest online feature, CourseCasts, is a library of weekly podcasts desi
gned to keep your
students up to date with the latest in technology news.

Direct your students to
http://coursecasts.course.com
, where they can download the most recent CourseCast onto their
mp3 player. Ken Bal
dauf, host of CourseCasts, is a faculty member of the Florida State
University Computer Science Department where he is responsible for teaching technology
classes to thousands of FSU students each year. Ken is an expert in the latest technology and
sorts t
hrough and aggregates the most pertinent news and information for CourseCasts so your
students can spend their time enjoying technology, rather than trying to figure it out. Open or
close your lecture with a discussion based on the latest CourseCast.


Tabl
e of Contents

Chapter Objectives

2

Section A: All Things Digital

2

Section B: Digital Devices

4

Section C: Digital Data Representation

7

Section D: Digital Processing

9

Section E: Password Security

10

Glossary of Key Terms

1
3


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Chapter Objectives

Students will have mastered the material in Chapter One
when they can

answer the following
questions
:



How is technology fueling the digital
revolution?



What is convergence and how does it
apply to digital devices

we use everyday?



In what ways does digital technology
affect society
?



How do computers work with input,
output, processing, storage,

and stored
programs?



What’s the difference between an
operating system and application

software?



How do personal computers differ from
servers, mainframes,

and
supercomputers?



Are PDAs, porta
ble players, and
smartphones classified as

computers?



Why are microcontrollers the computers
no one sees?



Aren’t data and information the same
thing?



What’s the difference between analog
and digital?



How do digital devices use 1s and 0s to
work with
numbers,

text, images, and
sound?



Why is there so much jargon pertaining
to bits and bytes?



What hardware components manipulate
the bits that represent

data?



Why do computers need programs?



How do a microprocessor’s ALU and
control unit work?



How do hacker
s steal passwords?



How can I create secure passwords?


READING ASSIGNMENT FASTPOLL T/F QUESTIONS:

010100

The Web is just another name for the Internet. (Answer: False) (7)

010200

A computer’s operating system is a type of application software. (Answer: False) (16)

010300

Microcontrollers are special purpose microprocessors that can be embedded in devices
such as refrigerators, cars, and washing machines. (Answer: True) (20)

010400

A bit is a binary digit, such as a 1 or 0. (Answer: True) (23)

010500

ASCII, EBCDIC, and Unicode are used to represent character data. (Answer: True) (25)

010600

A megabyte is 1024 bits. (Answer: False) (26)

010700

Microprocessors are a type of integrated

circuit. (Answer: True) (27)

010800

C, COBOL, and Java are examples of programming languages. (Answer: True) (29)

010900

A compiler converts source code to object code. (Answer: True) (30)

011000

The list of codes for a microprocessor’s instruction set is

called machine language.
(Answer: True) (30)

011100

A microprocessor holds data in the interpreter register. (Answer: False) (31)

011200

A dictionary attack is a virus that hides out in the spelling checker for your word
processing software. (Answer: False) (36)

SECTION A: ALL THINGS DIGITAL

SECTION A OPENER QUESTION:

012100

Computers and the digital revolution have changed our lives in ma
ny fundamental ways. If
you were on the front lines of the digital revolution when computers were first developed to break
codes and calculate missile trajectories, you were most likely living in what time period?

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a. World War I

b. The roaring twenties

c.
World War II

d. The 1960s

(Answer: c)

The Digital Revolution (4)

LECTURE NOTES



Familiarize students with basic definitions from the digital era.



Introduce blogs
.



Discuss the impact blogs have had on national politics and/or the media.



Introduce online soci
al networks, such as MySpace and Friendster.



Use iTunes as an example of a source for downloads while discussing this topic.


FIGURES



Figure

1
-
1, Figure 1
-
2, Figure 1
-
3, Figure 1
-
4, Figure 1
-
5, Figure 1
-
6


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Class Discussion: Digital
devices have

infiltrated almost every

aspect of daily life. Ask students
to
think

about a life without the digital devices they rely on, such as cell phones, PDAs, the
computer. How would they accomplish regular tasks such as looking up a telephone number?

Convergence (8)

LECTURE NOTES



Explain why convergence seems to take so long.



List some implications of convergence for the consumer.



Students should be able to talk about the impact of convergence on convenience, functionality, and
quality.


FIGURES



Figur
e 1
-
7


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Critical Thinking: The potential downside of convergence is quality. Ask students to consider this
and come up with some examples of a potential decline in quality, but an increase in features in a
device they’re familiar with.


TEACHER TIP

Waiting for convergence to occur can be frustrating for impatient consumers. Discuss a situation in which
users are clamoring for a product, or for a product to have a feature set added to it, but the technology has
not yet caught up with the
demand. Cell phones, voice communication, and handheld computers are
examples of technologies in convergence. Can students identify features or capabilities that are still lacking
in these technologies? How have these technologies evolved and improved in r
ecent years?

Ask students to
discuss features they would like to see in these devices?


Digital Society (10)

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LECTURE NOTES



Explain the impact a digital society has on privacy.



Discuss RFID tags or GPS in this context.



Discuss the use of an anonymizer.



Students may not have previously given much thought to the digital divide (either inside the U.S. or
globally), or to the impact of technology on economically depressed regions, as in the example of
the Village Phone Project described on page 13.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
8, Figure 1
-
9, Figure 1
-
10, Figure 1
-
11


TEACHER TIP

Students may not have given much thought to the impact of technology on economically depressed regions,
as in the example of the Village Phone Project described on page 13. Ask students to hypot
hesize about
some of the effects of globalization in countries with developed technologies versus those with economies
that are just emerging. How might digital technology improve the quality of life in less technically
developed countries? Could digital t
echnology have negative effects on these cultures and economies?


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Quick Quiz:

1.

The
_________

is an ongoing process of social, political, and economic change brought about by
digital technology, such as computers and the Internet. (Answ
er:
d
igital revolution.)

2.

True/False: Bulletin boards are personal journals posted online for general public access.
(Answer: False.)

3.

_________

property refers to the ownership of certain types of information, ideas, or
representations.

a.

Digital

b.

Intellectual

c.

Online

d.

Licensed

(Answer: B)


SECTION B: DIGITAL DEVICES

SECTION B OPENER QUESTION:

012200

Today, consumers can choose from a wide variety of digital devices, including personal
computers, workstations, videogame consoles, smartphones, iPods, and PDAs. Knowing the
strengths of these devices helps you make the right choice. What is the fundamen
tal difference
between videogame consoles, personal computers, and smartphones?

a. Video game consoles and smartphones are not be classified as computers because they don’t
have stored program capabilities like real computers.

b. Videogame consoles and sma
rtphones fill specialized niches and are not replacements for
personal computers.

c. Personal computers and smartphones can be used to access the Internet, whereas videogame
consoles cannot.

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d. Personal computers and smartphones have better graphics than v
ideogame consoles.

(Answer: b)

Computer Basics (14)

LECTURE NOTES



Review the basic terminology introduced in this section. Students need to be familiar with these
terms to be able to discuss computers.



Go over the definition of a computer. Although the
definition of computers given in this chapter is
thorough and has stood the test of time, you might want your students to come up with their own
definition of a computer.



Review the tasks of a computer.



Explain computer programs, data, input, and output.



E
xplain and demonstrate a file, if possible.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
12, Figure 1
-
13


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Quick Quiz:

1.

_________ is the result produced by a computer. (Answer: Output.)

2.

_________ is an area of a computer that temporarily holds data waiting to be
processed, stored,
or output
ted
. (Answer: Memory.)

3.

________ refers to the symbols that represent facts, objects, and ideas. (Answer: Data.)


TEACHER TIP

Ask students to
describe

how they use computers in a normal day. List the examples on a whiteboard and
ask students if using a computer has made carrying out daily or routine tasks more efficient and accurate.


LAB ACTIVITY



The New Perspectives Lab “Operating a Personal Computer” on page 46 deals with issues that relate
to this section of the textbook.
Using a project
ion

device, go through the lab during class, or assign
this lab for students to do on their own.


Personal Computers, Servers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers (16)

LECTURE NOTES



Explain that computers can be categorized according to function
(PC vs. server), size (handheld
computer vs. mainframe) or platform (Windows vs. Mac OS).



Review the categories of computers.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
14, Figure 1
-
15, Figure 1
-
16, Figure 1
-
17, Figure 1
-
18


TEACHER TIP

Ask students what features and capabilities
make a computer a computer. Ask students to debate the
question of whether an Xbox or other video game console can be characterized as a computer.

What about
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their cell phones? How often in a typical day do individuals encounter computers?


CLASSROOM AC
TIVITIES



Quick Quiz:

1.

Wii, PlayStation, and Xbox are examples of what? (Answer: Videogame consoles.)

2.

True or False: A computer falls into the supercomputer category if it is, at the time of
construction, one of the largest computers in the world. (Answer:
False.)

Why?


PDAs,
Smartp
hones
, and Portable Media Players
(19)

LECTURE NOTES



Discuss differences in design between personal computers and handheld computers.



Students should be able to describe differences between personal computers and handheld
compute
rs.



Discuss differences in processing power. Define what tasks are best performed by a handheld
computer, a desktop PC, and a supercomputer.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
19, Figure 1
-
20, Figure 1
-
21


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Class Discussion: Ask students if they use PDA
s and how. Which ones seem to be the most popular
with students?


Microcontrollers (20)

LECTURE NOTES



Discuss the ubiquity of the microcontroller. Ask students to consider how many devices contain
microcontrollers.



Discuss the significance of microcontrollers.



Discuss the impact of microcontroller technology on machines and appliances.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
22


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Class Discussion: Handheld computers do not use the same sort of input, processing,
output
, and
storage components used by traditional desktop computers. Have students discuss the components
of handheld devices and the role of each component. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of
the components in handheld devices vs. their correspo
nding components in a desktop computer.
For example, how does a handheld computer’s touch screen compare to the keyboard of a desktop
computer? List advantages and disadvantages of each type of component.



Quick Quiz:

1.

A(n)
_________

is a special
-
purpose mic
roprocessor that is built into the machine it controls.
(Answer:
m
icrocontroller.)

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2.

True/False: Just about any personal computer, workstation, mainframe, or supercomputer can be
configured to perform the work of a server. (Answer: True.)

3.

Any software or dig
ital device that requests data from a server is referre
d to as a(n)
_________
.

a.

minicomputer

b.

client

c.

mainframe

d.

terminal

(Answer: B)


SECTION C: DIGITAL DATA REPRESENTATION

SECTION C OPENER QUESTION:

012300

When you shop for digital devices, their capabilities are often touted in terms of speed and
capacity. Suppose you’re shopping for a USB Flash drive. A friend recommends one that’s 64 GB.
What does that mean?

a.

It operates at 64 gigabits per second.

b.

It hold
s 64 billion bytes of data.

c.

It holds 64 million 0s and 1s to represent data.

d.

It uses 64
-
bit ASCII code to hold data.

(Answer: b)

Data Representation Basics (22)

LECTURE NOTES



Explain the different meanings of “data” and “information” when using computers.



Discuss the use and purpose of codes, such as ASCII.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
23


TEACHER TIP

Some students might think of “codes” as a method of secretly transmitting information. However, in
computing, many codes (such as the ASCII code) simply change the form

of the information

their purpose
is not to hide the meaning of information.


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Class Discussion: Ask students to compare and contrast information and data.


Representing Numbers, Text, and Pictures (23)

LECTURE NOTES



Discuss the
representation of numbers, text, and pictures in a digital medium.



Discuss the role of computer hardware.



Explain that computers use the flow of electricity to “read” and “write” binary digits. 0 means that
there is no current flow, and 1 means that the e
lectrical current does flow.



Use Figure 1
-
24 to show basic coverage of binary numbers.

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Present the concept of binary numbers. Give students an opportunity to practice some binary
-
decimal and decimal
-
binary conversions.



Distinguish between binary codes and
binary numbers. Explain that binary codes use 0s and 1s to
represent numbers, numerals, characters, symbols, and lists of things, while binary numbers use 0s
and 1s to represent a numeric quantity, and can be converted to decimal numbers.



Review ASCII, EBC
DIC, and Unicode.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
24, Figure 1
-
25, Figure 1
-
26, Figure 1
-
27, Figure 1
-
28


TEACHER TIP

You can
present the rudiments of number theory in base 10 and base 2. Give examples of how you convert
from base 2 to base 10; and from base 10 to base
2. Use a car odometer as an example. Ask students what
happens when the odometer reaches 10?

The same answer will apply to binary.


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Assign a Project: Ask students to write a short paragraph expla
ining the binary number system and
where it might be used. What professions would need to be concerned with binary numbers and
why?


LAB ACTIVITY



The
New
Perspectives

Lab

“Working with Binary Numbers” on page 46 deals with issues that relate
to this section of the textbook. Go through the lab during class time if you have a computer with a
projection device, or assign this lab for students to do on their own.


Quantifying
Bits and Bytes (26)

LECTURE NOTES



Help students understand the terms and abbreviations used in describing digital devices.



Use Figure 1
-
29 to review what the prefixes kilo
-
, mega
-
, and giga
-

mean.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
29


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Quick Quiz:

1.

Wh
at is

the appropriate term for each of the following:



1,024 bits (Answer: kilobyte.)



1,048,576 bytes (Answer:

megabyte.)



One billion bytes (Answer: gigabyte.)


Circuits and Chips (27)

LECTURE NOTES



Explain that bits take the form of electrical pulses.



Explain that the terms
computer chip
,
microchip
,
and
chip

all refer to integrated circuits.

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Make sure students understand that the black ceramic case is not a
computer chip
. The chip is
inside

the black case.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
30, Figure 1
-
31, Figure 1
-
32


TEACHER TIP

If possible, open a real computer case,
and
then remove and pass around some of the key components such
as a video card, disk drive, and ribbon cables.

Ask the students to identify these objects. Once they have
been handled, ask a couple students to place the components back into the case.


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Group Activity: Divide students into groups. Let students take apart some computers themselve
s.
Give students a screwdriver and help them disassemble and then reassemble a computer (usually an
old or broken one). Student groups of four work well, but make sure that each group member has
an opportunity to wield the screwdriver.

(Note: You may also
do this exercise with an old
SmartPhone or PDA.)



Quick Quiz:

1.

A(n)
_________

is a super
-
thin slide of semiconducting material packed with microscopic
circuit elements, such as wires, transistors, capacitors, logic gates, and resistors. (Answer:
i
ntegrated c
ircuit, IC.)

2.

True/False: Character data is composed of letters, symbols, and numerals that can be used in
arithmetic operations. (Answer: False.)

3.

A prefix which refers to a mi
llion bytes of storage is
_________
.

a.

kilo
-

b.

giga
-

c.

mega
-

d.

tera
-
(Answer:
c
.)


SECTION D: DIGITAL PROCESSING

SECTION D OPENER QUESTION:

012400

Programmers write computer programs for word processing, displaying photos, playing
music, and showing movies. What programmers write, however, is not what a computer actually
processes. Why is this the case?

a.

Because programmers usually write programs usi
ng high
-
level programming languages that
have to be converted into machine language that computers can work with.

b.

Because programs are basically outlines that programmers have to fill out using op codes.

c.

Because high
-
level languages are too detailed for co
mputers to process, so programs
written in these languages have to be simplified.

d.

Because computer programmers make too many errors for programs to run successfully.

(Answer: a)

Programs and Instruction Sets (29)

LECTURE NOTES



Review the difference between

compilers and interpreters. Demonstrate both
,

if possible.

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Explain that interpreters are generally less expensive than compilers, but execute more slowly. The
other key difference between compilers and interpreters lies in the way in which each translate
s. In
a compiled program, the translation occurs only once. In an interpreted program, the translation
takes place on each iteration of the loop.

FIGURES



Figure 1
-
33, Figure 1
-
34, Figure 1
-
35, Figure 1
-
36


TEACHER TIP

Use Figure 1
-
34 to demonstrate how a c
ompiler works
. U
se Figure 1
-
35 to show how an interpreter works.


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Class Discussion: Ask students to list programming languages they’ve heard of or worked with.



Quick Quiz:



A collection of preprogrammed activities is called a(n) _______
__. (Answer: instruction set.)



True/False: An interpreter is an alternative to a compiler. (Answer: True.)


Processor Logic (31)

LECTURE NOTES



Discuss how a computer chip works at the integrated circuit level.



Explain that the central processing unit of a microcomputer is a single chip called a microprocessor.



Identify the microprocessor on a computer.



Explain that the ALU performs arithmetic and logical operations in the microprocessor chip.



Explain that the

control unit directs and coordinates processing based on a set of instructions.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
37, Figure 1
-
38, Figure 1
-
39, Figure 1
-
40


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Class Discussion: Present students with examples of programs written in programming
languages

like C or Java. Show students
some simple

source code and explain its purpose.



Quick Quiz:



The human
-
readable version of a program created in a high
-
level language by a programmer is
called _________ code. (Answer: source.)



True/False: An interpreter tran
slates all the instructions in a program as a single batch, and the
resulting machine language instructions (object code) are placed in a new file. (Answer: False.)



All of the following are examples of programming languages EXCEPT
:

a.

COBOL

b.

C

c.

ALU

d.

Java

(Answer:
c
.)


SECTION E: PASSWORD SECURITY

SECTION E OPENER QUESTION:

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012500

Security experts stress that the use of “strong” passwords can prevent identity theft and
help to keep your computer files secure. Which of the following passwords is likely to b
e the most
secure?

a.

12345 because it is all numbers.

b.

Hippocampus, because it is a long and unusual word.

c.

Il2baomw, because it combines numbers with a nonsense word.

d.

Football88, because it combines a word and numbers.

(Answer: c)

Authentication Protocols
(34)

LECTURE NOTES



Explain that authentication protocols are methods of confirming a person’s identity using something
the person knows, something the person possesses, or something the person is.



Discuss biometrics. Ask students about their awareness of t
his method of identification, either from
real
-
world experience or from the media and films.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
41, Figure 1
-
42


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Quick Quiz:

1.

Security experts use the term __________ to refer to any method that confirms a person’s
identity using something the person knows, something the person possesses, or something the
person is. (Answer:
a
uthentication protocol.)

2.

True/False: A password is a s
eries of characters that verifies a user ID. (Answer: True.)


Password Hacks (36)

LECTURE NOTES



Review identity theft and ask students if they’
v
e ever been the victim of identity theft.



Discuss the serious and far
-
reaching implications of identity theft, a
t the most extreme end of which
can be an individual’s need to get a new Social Security number, for example.



Explain what students can do to reduce the chance that they will be a victim of identity theft.



Discuss brute force attacks, sniffing, and phishin
g.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
43, Figure 1
-
44


TEACHER TIP

To generate discussion about identity theft, show examples of e
-
mails from legitimate organizations, and
compare and contrast those message with e
-
mails from hackers mimicking the same organization.


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Class Discussion: Have students provide examples of good and bad passwords. Why are certain
passwords more secure than others? What are some good examples for the use of biometrics?


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Secure Passwords (38)

LECTURE
NOTES



Refer students to the list in Figure 1
-
45 for tips on how to create a secure password.



Remind students of the importance of never sharing their password.



Review tiered passwords.



Demonstrate password manager software.


FIGURES



Figure 1
-
45, Figure 1
-
46, Figure 1
-
47, Figure 1
-
48
, Figure 1
-
49


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES



Class Discussion: Discuss the advantages of using a password manager. Do students think this is
a good idea? Why or why not? Would students use one themselves?



Quick Quiz:

1.

A(n) _________ uses a series of characters that becomes a person’s unique identifier, similar to a
Social Security number. (Answer:
u
ser ID.)

2.

True/False: The longer the password, the tougher it is to crack. (Answer: True.)

3.

Of all of the methods of stealing

passwords, which one has a legitimate use (by network
administrators) and an illegitimate use (for intercepting your password when it is sent over a
computer network)?

a.

sniffing

b.

phishing

c.

keylogging

d.

brute force attack

(Answer:
a
.)



WHAT DO YOU THINK?

013100

Should users of location
-
enabled devices be informed when location

tracking is in use?

a.

Yes

b.

No

c.

Not sure


013200

Do you think most people are aware of the privacy issues associated

with location
-
enabled
devices?

d.

Yes

e.

No

f.

Not sure


013300

Should users of location
-
aware devices be permitted to enable and

disable tracking features
on their devices?

g.

Yes

h.

No

i.

Not sure





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Glossary of Key Terms




A
LU, 31



Analog data, 22



Anonymizer tools, 10



Application software, 16



ASCII, 24



Authentication protocol, 34



Binary number system, 23



Biometrics, 34



Bit, 23



Blogs, 6



Brute force attack, 37



Bulletin boards, 6



Byte, 26



Case sensitive, 35



Central processing unit, 15



Character data, 24



Chat groups, 6



Client, 18



Compiler, 30



Compute
-
intensive, 19



Computer, 14



Computer network, 7



Computer program, 15



Control unit, 31



Convergence, 8



CPU, 15



Cyberspace, 7



Data, 15



Data representation, 22



Dictionary attack, 36



Digital data, 22



Digital divide, 12



Digital revolution, 4



Digitization, 7



Download, 8



EBCDIC, 25



E
-
mail, 6



Extended ASCII, 24



File, 15



Gigabit, 26



Gigabyte, 26



Globalization, 12



Handheld
computer, 19






Identity theft, 36



Input, 15



Instruction cycle, 32



Instruction set, 30



Integrated circuit, 27



Intellectual property, 11



Internet, 6



Interpreter, 30



Kilobit, 26



Kilobyte, 26



Machine code, 30



Machine language, 30



Mainframe computer, 18



Megabit, 26



Megabyte, 26



Memory, 15



Microcontroller, 20



Microprocessor, 15



Numeric data, 23



Object code, 30



Online social networks, 6



Op code, 31



Open source, 12



Operand, 31



Operating system, 16



Output, 15



Password, 35



Password manager, 40



PDA, 19



Personal

computer, 17



Phishing, 37



Portable media player, 20



Processing, 15



Programming language, 29



Registers, 31



Semiconducting materials, 27



Server, 18



Smartphone, 20



Sniffing, 37



Software, 15



Source code, 29



Storage, 15



Stored program, 16

New Perspectives on Computer Concepts

2011
Instructor’ s Manual

14

of
14



Supercomputer, 18



System board, 28



System software, 16



Unicode, 25



User ID, 34



Videogame console, 17



Web, 7



Workstation, 17



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