Drug Classifications - Hisname.org

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Dec 14, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Drug Classifications



The following is a list of the major drug classific
ations with
“Memory tricks
".



A

o

Antianemics: prevention and treatment of anemias

o

Antianginals



nitrates: used to treat and prevent attacks of angina; acute treatment



calcium channel blockers and beta blockers are used prophylactically for longer
-
term management

o

Antianxiety agents



benzodiazepines: better for intermittent or short
-
term use in the management of anxiety



buspirone, paroxetine, venlafaxine: better for long
-
t
erm use

o

Antiarrhythmics: suppression of cardiac arrhythmias



generally classified by their effects on cardiac conduction tissue (Class IA, IB, IC, II, III & IV)



atropine and digoxin: also used as antiarrhymics

o

Antiasthmatics: management of acute and chronic

episodes of reversible bronchoconstriction

o

Anticholinergics



atropine: bradyarrhythmias



ipratropium: bronchospasm



atropine: also used as ophthalmic mydriatic



benztropine: management of Parkinson's disease

o

Anticoagulants: prevention and treatment of thrombo
embolic disorders

o

Anticonvulsants: decrease the incidence and severity of seizures due to different etiologies

o

Antidepressants

o

Antidiabetics



insulin: type 1 diabetes mellitus



oral agents used primarily in type 2 diabetes mellitus

o

Antidiarrheals: for
control and symptomatic relief of acute and chronic nonspecific diarrhea

o

Antiemetics: used to manage nausea and vomiting due to many causes, including surgery, anesthesia,
and antineoplastic and radiation therapies

o

Antifungals:

memory trick
-

most end with

"AZOLE"

o

Antihistamines



used for relief of symptoms associated with allergies and as adjunctive therapy in anaphylactic
reactions



some are used to treat insomnia and Parkinson
-
like reactions

o

Antihypertensives: including, but not limited to, the following



A
CE inhibitors: treatment of choice for hypertension;

memory trick
-

most end with "PRIL"



angiotension receptor blockers:

memory trick
-

most end with "SARTAN", including losartan
(Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan)



beta blockers (see below)



calcium channel blocke
rs (see below)

o

Anti
-
infectives: treatment and prophylaxis of various bacterial infections

o

Antineoplastics: used in the treatment of various solid tumors, lymphomas, and leukemias

o

Antiplatelet agents: used to treat and prevent thromboembolic events, e.g., s
troke, myocardial infarction

o

Antipsychotics

o

Antipyretics: used to lower fever of many causes, including infection, inflammation, and neoplasms

o

Antirheumatics: used to manage symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and slow down joint destruction and
preserve join
t function

o

Antituberculars: used in the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis

o

Antiulcer agents



used in the treatment and prophylaxis of peptic ulcer and gastric hypersecretory conditions, e.g.,
Zollinger
-
Ellison syndrome



memory trick
-

most end with "PR
AZOLE", including omeprazole (Prilosec), pantoprazole
(Protonix), esomeprazole (Nexium)

o

Antivirals:

memory trick
-

many end with "CY[I]CLOVIR", including acyclovir (Zovirax), valacyclovir
(Valtrex)







B

o

Beta blockers:



used in the management of
hypertension, angina pectoris, tachyarrhythmias, migraine headache
(prophylaxis), MI (prevention), glaucoma (opthlalmic use), CHF (carvedilol and sustained
-
release
metoprolol only), hyperthyroidism (management of symptoms only)



memory trick
-

most end with

'OLOL", "ALOL" or "ILOL"

o

Bone resorption inhibitors



used to treat and prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women



also used to treat osteoporosis due to corticosteriod therapy, treatment of Paget's disease of the
bone, and management of hypercalcemia



C

o

C
alcium channel blockers



used in the treatment of hypertension (amlodipine, diltiazem, felodipine, isradipine, nicardipine,
nifedipine, nisoldipine, verapamil)



also used in the treatment and prophylaxis of angina pectoris or coronary artery spasm
(amlodipin
e, diltiazem, felodipine, nicardipine, verapamil)



memory trick
-

most end with "DIPINE"

o

Corticosteriods:



used in replacement doses (20 mg of hydrocortisone or equivalent) systematically to treat
adrenocortical insufficiency



larger doses are usually used fo
r their antiiinflammatory, immunosuppressive, or antineoplastic
activity



D

o

Diuretics



thiazide diuretics and loop diuretics are used alone or in combination in the treatment of
hypertension or edema due to CHF or other causes



potassium
-
sparing diuretics
have weak diuretic and antihypertensive properties and are used to
conserve potassium in clients receiving thiazide or loop diuretics



osmotic diuretics are often used in the management of cerebral edema



H

o

Hormones



used in the treatment of deficiency states

including diabetes (insulin), diabetes insipidus
(desmopressin), hypothyroidism (thyroid hormones), and menopause (estrogens or
estrogens/progestins)



hormones may be used to treat hormonally sensitive tumors (androgens, estrogens)



I

o

Immunosuppressants:



mo
st are used in the prevention of transplantation rejection reactions



others are used in the management of selected autoimmune diseases (nephrotic syndrome of
childhood and severe rheumatoid arthritis)



L

o

Laxatives: used to treat or prevent constipation or t
o prepare the bowel for radiologic or endoscopic
procedures

o

Lipid
-
lowering agents:



used as a part of a total plan, including diet and exercise, to reduce blood lipids in an effort to
reduce the morbidity and mortality of atherosclerotic cardiovascular dise
ase and its sequelae



memory trick
-

many end with "STATIN", e.g., atorvastatin (Lipitor), simvastatin (Zocor),
rosuvastatin (Crestor)



M

o

Minerals/electrolytes/pH modifiers



used in the prevention and treatment of deficiencies or excesses of electrolytes and
maintenance
of optimal acid/base balance for homeostasis



acidifiers and alkalinizers are also used to promote urinary excretion of substances that
accumulate in some disease states, e.g., kidney stones



N

o

Nonopioid analgesics: used to control mild to modera
te pain and/or fever

o

Nonsteroidal anti
-
inflammatory agents: used to control mild to moderate pain, fever, and various
inflammatory conditions, e.g., rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis



O

o

Opioid analgesics: used in the management of moderate to severe
pain




S

o

Sedative/hypnotics



used to provide sedation, usually prior to procedures



selected agents are useful as anticonvulsants, skeletal muscle relaxants, adjuncts in general
surgery and adjuncts for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome

o

Skeletal mu
scle relaxants



used to treat spasticity (associated with spinal cord diseases or lesions)



used as adjunctive therapy in the symptomatic relief of acute painful musculoskeletal conditions



IV dantrolene is also used to treat and prevent malignant hyperthermi
a



T

o

Thrombolytics: used for the acute management of coronary thrombosis (MI), massive pulmonary emboli,
deep vein thrombosis, and arterial thromboembolism



V

o

Vascular headache suppressants



used for the treatment of vascular headaches, e.g., migraine and clu
ster headaches;

memory trick
-

many end with "TRIPTAN", including sumatriptan (Imitrex)



other agents are used for suppression of frequently occurring vascular headaches, e.g., some beta
blockers and calcium channel blockers






















Adverse
Effects of a Drug Class or Type

Antihypertensives: orthostatic hypotension, fluid/electrolyte imbalance



assist with activity; eliminate drug interactions, vasodilators, central nervous system depressants


monitor blood pressure, pulse, respirations; serum
electrolyte levels


assess breath sounds, development of edema, dizziness


teaching: get help to stand, report dizziness; avoid alcohol, sedatives, over
-
the
-
counter agents, caffeine

Anticholinergic agents: dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision



provide
sips of water, oral care; assist with activity; remove environmental hazards


monitor bowel pattern of elimination
,
assess vision and oral mucous membranes


teaching: frequent oral care; avoid dangerous activity; ask for help to stand

Anticoagulants and anti
platelet agents: bleeding



minimize invasive procedures, shaving; provide gentle oral care; assist with activity


monitor coagulation tests, complete blood count
,
assess for bleeding and observe for bruising


teaching: avoid dangerous activity; avoid shaving

with straight edge razor; wear MedicAlert® identification,
avoid NSAIDs, alcohol, many herbal remedies

Anticonvulsants: central nervous system depression, myelosuppression (infection and bleeding)



assist with activity; protect airway, breathing; minimiz
e invasive procedures


monitor complete blood count with differential; seizure activity


assess temperature; change in skin color (redness), swelling or drainage


teaching: wear MedicAlert® identification, avoid dangerous activity, wash hands, avoid crowds; n
eed for
follow
-
up care and testing

Antidysrhythmic agents: new or more dangerous dysrhythmias, changes in blood pressure



maintain fluid and electrolytes balance; sinus rhythm; assist with position changes


monitor pulmonary function tests, EKG, serum elect
rolytes


assess blood pressure, pulse; SaO
2
(SaO
2

should be greater than 95%); level of consciousness


teaching: ask for help to stand; technique for counting pulse (and to report irregular pulse)

Anti
-
infective agents: renal and hepatic dysfunction


obtain
cultures

before
administration; verify administration guidelines; screen for renal and hepatic
dysfunction, allergy, nephrotoxic or hepatotoxic drugs


monitor renal and liver function tests


assess for jaundice, dark stool or urine, nausea and vomiting


repor
t nausea, vomiting, dark stool or urine, jaundice; need for follow
-
up care and testing

Loop, thiazide diuretics: circulatory collapse, myelosuppression, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, ototoxicity



verify infusion guidelines, blood, serum electrolytes, an
d urinary output before giving


monitor serum electrolytes (sodium and potassium); urinary output


assess breath sounds, edema, blood pressure


teaching: report palpitations, weakness, irregular pulse, decreased urinary output, temperature

Female hormones: th
romboembolic disorders, increased risk of breast and endometrial cancer, hyperglycemia,
hypercalcemia, depression, seizures



monitor peripheral perfusion; serum calcium, glucose


assess for edema, leg pain or tenderness


teaching: report lumps, abnormal blee
ding; muscle twitching