Planning and Design Considerations

fearlessquickMobile - Wireless

Dec 12, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Planning and Design Considerations

For a 4G LTE Network


Presented by:

Engineering Associates, Inc.

Professional Engineering Firm

2012 ACE/RUS

School and Symposium

Previous Speakers with Wireless Topics


Leo Zoucha


Connecting in the Wireless Networks (Backhaul)



Don Swedenburg


Will LTE be the Death of the Landline?



Gordon
Caverly
, Ben
Pidek


Wireless Video in the Home



2

-

CONFIDENTIAL

Overview


Funding Options


Design Criteria


Technology Considerations


Frequency Bands


Core Design


RF Design
-

RAN


Backhaul Considerations


Bandwidth Efficiency & Traffic Planning


Investment/Pricing Models



3

-

CONFIDENTIAL

Funding Options


Connect America Fund


Universal Service Fund transitioning to Connect America
Fund


Objective is to Accelerate Broadband Build
-
Out in Rural
Areas


Additional $300M of CAF Funding Available to Incumbent
Providers that Commit to FCC Broadband Requirements for
Unserved Areas


4 MB/s Downstream; 1 Mb/s Upstream


Remaining Areas to Receive CAF Money Based Upon
Broadband Cost Models and Competitive Bidding





4



CONFIDENTIAL

Funding Options


RUS Broadband Loans


Provides Funds to Provide Broadband Service in Eligible
Rural Areas


Includes New Construction, Improvements, and Acquisition


No More than One Loan Awarded per Service Area



Broadband Grants


Funding is Ongoing but Application Process has Ended


Additional Funding Would Require New Legislation




5



CONFIDENTIAL

Design Criteria


Which Spectrum Licenses are Available?


Is Coverage Area Urban or Rural?


Are Existing Towers Available or Will Tower Construction
be Required?


Applications
-

Fixed Solution vs. Mobility?


CPE


Outdoor, USB Desktop, Dongle, or Handsets


What Backhaul Options are Available?


Product Availability and Number of Vendor Options?


Ensure Design Reflects Goals for Geographic Coverage
and Broadband Speed?



6



CONFIDENTIAL

700 MHz Band Plan

700 MHz


Lower Band 48 MHz; Upper Band 60 MHz

Most Blocks are 6 MHz, Allowing 5 MHz LTE Carrier

35% Build
-
Out Required by June 13, 2013 for A,B, & E

40% Build
-
Out Required by June 13, 2013 for Upper C



7

-

CONFIDENTIAL

700 MHz Details


Block A


12 MHz Lower Band Paired


Block B


12 MHz Lower Band Paired


Block C


12 MHz Lower Band Paired and 22 MHz Upper

Band Paired


Block D


6 MHz Lower Band Unpaired (Video) and 10

MHz Upper Band Paired (Public Safety)


Block E


6 MHz Lower Band Unpaired (Video)


8



CONFIDENTIAL

700 MHz Spectrum Ownership


Verizon


22 MHz Upper C Block Nationwide (except Alaska
and

U.S. Territories) and Scattered Lower A and B Blocks


AT&T


Scattered Lower B and C Blocks (Mostly Metro Areas);

Purchasing Unpaired Lower D Block Nationwide and
Unpaired

E Block in some Major Markets from QualComm
(for LTE Use)


Sprint


No 700 MHz


T
-
Mobile


No 700 MHz


Regional Carriers


Lower B and C Blocks (Mostly Rural)


Public Safety


10 MHz Upper D Block


9



CONFIDENTIAL

AWS Band Plan


AWS


Advanced Wireless Service; 1.7 GHz; 2.1 GHz

Blocks are 6 or 10 MHz, Allowing 5 or 10 MHz LTE Carrier

Substantial Service Build
-
Out Deadline is 2021

10

-

CONFIDENTIAL

PCS Band Plan


PCS


Broadband Radio Service; 1.9 GHz

11



CONFIDENTIAL

BRS/EBS Band Plan


BRS


Broadband Radio Service; 2.6 GHz








EBS (Educational Broadband Service) was not licensed for commercial services, although
its use has been postulated for LTE in some markets.


Due to current Band 7 ecosystem using FDD, BRS is of limited use until Band 41 TDD
ecosystem becomes reality.


12



CONFIDENTIAL

RF Design
-

RAN


Using RF Analysis Tool, Determine Predicted Coverage

Levels and Aggregate Speeds Based Upon

Technology and CPE Selection


Utilize Various GIS Data To Evaluate Possible Tower Sites


Select First Choice Tower Locations in Populated Areas


Select Additional Tower Locations to Fill in Rural Areas


Identify Areas Where New Towers May Be Required


Generate Site Search Rings When Necessary


Analyze Results and Add or Delete Sites as Required


13



CONFIDENTIAL

Service Area Of Interest


Network Planning / Design Tools
-
GIS Software


E911 Location Data


Highway/Street Traffic Count Vector Data


Minimum UL/DL Throughput Requirements


Network Resource Locations


Propagation Tools



Propagation Software Tools


Integrated With GIS Software


Target to Customer Design


Backhaul (Microwave) Feasibility Tool


Operations Reports to Assist with

Customer Service


Shaded Relief Showing Topography of Area

E911 Points for Potential Locations

Evaluate Network Objective


Percentage of Projected Coverage Area


Coverage of Major Thoroughfares


Ability For Sites To Be Contiguous


Fixed Locations and/or Mobile Devices


Network Parameters


Technology Type


Frequency Band(s)


Network Backbone/Backhaul

18

Existing Cellular Coverage in Planned
Service Area

Coverage Objective for Planned Service Area

Establish Search Area Ring (SAR)

Search Area Ring (SAR)

Description:

Identify feasible sites for providing necessary coverage as to existing
network.


The SAR includes the following activities and deliverables:


Importing target coverage zones


Develop alternate search area rings

Base map indicating:


RSA Boundaries


E911 addresses (When Necessary)


Existing Coverage


Contours


Topography


Roadways


Target and Propagation overlay demonstrating RF coverage as related to
target zones for specified frequencies
.

21

Review Co
-
Location Possibilities

22

Establish Site Location

Projected Coverage in Planned Service Area


PERCENTAGE OF PROJECTED COVERAGE AREA


COVERAGE OF MAJOR THOROUGHFARES

LTE Coverage Maps

LTE Downlink (USB Dongle)
2Mbps
to
8Mbps

Four Towers with Five Mile Radius; Roughly 16 Miles x 16 Miles

24



CONFIDENTIAL

LTE Coverage Maps

LTE Uplink (USB Dongle)
2Mbps
to
6Mbps

Four Towers with Five Mile Radius; Roughly 16 Miles x 16 Miles

25



CONFIDENTIAL

Backhaul


LTE demands high
-
capacity backhaul


Leased T1’s will prove inadequate


Viable choices are fiber or microwave

26



CONFIDENTIAL

Core Design


Design Core Network Based Upon Projected Number of

Subscribers and Bandwidth Requirements


Is VoIP Required or Data Only?


Ancillary/OEM Solutions Needed


Billing


Network Management,


Subscriber Provisioning


Regulatory (E911, CALEA)


Identify Existing Equipment Required to Interface


Evaluate Building Feasibility Related to Redundant

Backhaul Facilities, Security, and Back
-
up Power

27



CONFIDENTIAL

LTE Evolved Packet Core

28



CONFIDENTIAL

Technology Considerations


700 MHz is Fundamental Design Based Upon Coverage;

However, Bandwidth is Limited


Reserve 700 MHz for Rural Areas that Require More Reach

but Serves Fewer Subscribers


Use AWS, BRS, or PCS for Capacity in Populated Areas

with Shorter Reach


29



CONFIDENTIAL

LTE vs. WiMax


Although LTE and WiMAX are Similar in Technology,

Vendors have Moved Development Emphasis to LTE


WiMAX has Less Vendor Competition Today


LTE will have Longer Product Life and Future Prices are
More Likely to Decrease


30



CONFIDENTIAL

Technology Comparison

700 MHz

WiMAX

LTE

Downlink

OFDMA

OFDMA

Uplink

OFDMA

SC
-
FDMA

MIMO Supported Today

2x2

4x2 downlink,

1x4 uplink

Cell edge interference

control

Soft frequency re
-
use

Inter
-
cell Interference
control

Mobility

Hard

handoff

Full mobility

Microcells available

Yes

Yes

VoIP Support

w/ optional

core
node

w/ optional IMS core

31



CONFIDENTIAL

Technology Comparison

700 MHz

WiMAX

LTE

Router CPE

Yes

Yes

USB Dongle CPE

Yes

Yes

Outdoor CPE

Yes

Yes

Smart Phones

No

Future

Built
-
in Laptop Support

Not at 700 MHz

Future

Vendors

at 700 MHz

One

Five or More

Industry Group

IEEE/WiMax Forum

3GPP

32



CONFIDENTIAL

Bandwidth Efficiency

700 MHz

LTE

Available Licensed Bandwidth (MHz)

6 + 6

Usable Bandwidth (MHz)

5 + 5

Spectral

efficiency, downlink (bps/Hz)

1.67

Spectral

efficiency, uplink (bps/Hz)

0.89

Average Throughput per 3
-
sector

site,

downlink (Mbps)

25.05

Average Throughput per 3
-
sector

site,

uplink (Mbps)

13.35

Loading Factor, downlink

70%

Loading Factor, uplink

60%

33



CONFIDENTIAL

* Performance data is averaged from various vendors’ claims as of 2011.

Subscriber Traffic Model

700 MHz

LTE

Traffic per Subscriber per Month (GB)

30

Downlink Traffic (%)

70%

Uplink Traffic (%)

30%

Hours in the Busy Period per Day

4

Percent of Daily Traffic Carried in Busy

Period

25%

Downlink Busy Hour Traffic per Subscriber

97 kbps

Uplink Busy Hour Traffic per Subscriber

42 kbps

Subscribers Supported per Sector

60

Subscribers Supported per Base Station

(3 sectors)

180

34



CONFIDENTIAL

* Performance data is averaged from various vendors’ claims as of 2011.

Estimate of Investment

700 MHz

LTE

Access Network

3
-
Sector Single
-
5MHz
-
Carrier

Macro Cell

$55,000

Investment per Subscriber

$306

Core Network

Broadband Data
-
Only Core Network

$3,000,000

Incremental

for
VoIP Core Network

$1,400,000

CPE Terminals

Desktop/Fixed CPE

$395

USB Dongle

$200

35



CONFIDENTIAL

* Pricing data is averaged from various vendors’ proposals as of 2011.

Pricing
-

Example Network #1

700 MHz

LTE

Base Stations

50

Subscribers Supported

9000

Total Investment

$9,827,500

Investment per Subscriber

$1,092

36



CONFIDENTIAL

* Pricing data is averaged from various vendors’ proposals as of 2011.

Pricing
-

Example Network #2

700 MHz

LTE

Base Stations

100

Subscribers Supported

18,000

Total Investment

$15,255,000

Investment per Subscriber

$848

37



CONFIDENTIAL

* Pricing data is averaged from various vendors’ proposals as of 2011.

Pricing
-

Example Network #3

700 MHz

LTE

Base Stations

200

Subscribers Supported

36,000

Total Investment

$26,110,000

Investment per Subscriber

$725

38



CONFIDENTIAL

* Pricing data is averaged from various vendors’ proposals as of 2011.

Summary
-

Start to Finish Process


Feasibility Study and Business Case


Preliminary RF/Backhaul Network Design


RFP Preparation, Proposal Analysis, and Contract
Negotiation


Site Acquisition and Lease Negotiations


Permitting / Legal


Detailed RF/Backhaul Network Design


Project Management and Asset Management


Construction Management


As Built Drawings





39



CONFIDENTIAL

Thank You

Engineering Associates, Inc.

1220 Old Alpharetta Road, Suite 390

Alpharetta, GA 30005

678
-
455
-
7266

engineeringassociates.com


40



CONFIDENTIAL