# Aircraft Dynamics. From Modeling to Simulation

Urban and Civil

Nov 16, 2013 (4 years and 5 months ago)

84 views

Brochure

Aircraft Dynamics. From Modeling to Simulation

Description:
Napolitano's Aircraft Dynamics is designed to help readers extrapolate from low level formulas, equations,
and details to high level comprehensive views of the main concepts. The text also helps readers with
fundamental skills of learning the "basic modeling" of the aircraft aerodynamics and dynamics. The main
objective is to organize the topics in "modular blocks" each of them leading to the understanding of the
inner mechanisms of the aircraft aerodynamics and dynamics, eventually leading to the development of
simple flight simulations schemes.
Contents:
1. Aircraft Equations of Motion 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Reference Frames and Assumptions 2
1.3 Conservation of the Linear Momentum Equations (CLMEs) 3
1.4 Conservation of the Angular Momentum Equations (CAMEs) 6
1.5 Conservation of the Angular Momentum Equations (CAMEs) with Rotor Effects 10
1.6 Euler Angles 11
1.7 Flight Path Equations (FPEs) 12
1.8 Kinematic Equations (KEs) 14
1.9 Gravity Equations (GEs) 16
1.10 Summary of the Aircraft Equations of Motion 16
1.11 Definition of Steady-State and Perturbation Conditions 17
1.12 Aircraft Equations of Motion at Steady-State Conditions 18
1.13 Aircraft Equations of Motion at Perturbed Conditions 19
1.14 Small Perturbation Equations from a Steady-State Level Flight 22
1.15 Summary 23
References 26
Student Sample Problems 26
Problems 32
2. Review of Basic Concepts of Aerodynamic Modeling 37
2.1 Introduction 37
2.2 Review of Key Aerodynamic Characteristics for Wing Sections 37
2.3 Wing Planforms and Wing Lift Curve Slope 42
2.4 Review of the Downwash Effect and Effectiveness of Control Surfaces 48
2.5 Determination of the Aerodynamic Center for Wing and Wing1Fuselage 53
2.6 Approaches to the Modeling of Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 57
2.6.1 Wind Tunnel Analysis 57
2.6.2 CFD Analysis 58
2.6.3 Parameter IDentification from Flight Data 59
2.6.4 Correlation from Wind Tunnel Data and Empirical “Build-Up” Analysis 60
2.7 Summary 60
References 61
Student Sample Problems 62
Problems 75
3. Modeling of Longitudinal Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 78
3.1 Introduction 78
3.2 Aircraft Stability Axes 79
3.3 Modeling of the Longitudinal Steady-State Aerodynamic Forces and Moment 79
3.4 Modeling of FAX1 80
3.5 Modeling of FAZ1 83
3.6 Modeling of MA1 87
3.7 Aircraft Aerodynamic Center 89
3.8 Summary of the Longitudinal Steady-State Aerodynamic Forces and Moment 91
3.9 Modeling of the Longitudinal Small Perturbation Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 91
3.9.1 Modeling of (cD1 , cL1 , cm1) 93
3.9.2 Modeling of ðcDu , cLu , cmu Þ 93
3.9.3 Modeling of (cDa_ , cLa_ , cma_ ) and (cDq , cLq , cmq) 94
3.10 Summary of Longitudinal Stability and Control Derivatives 96
3.11 Summary 100
References 100
Student Sample Problems 101
Case Study 110
Short Problems 127
Problems 128
4. Modeling of Lateral Directional Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 135

4.1 Introduction 135
4.2 Modeling of FAY1 137
4.2.1 Conceptual Modeling of cYß 138
4.2.2 Mathematical Modeling of cYß 140
4.2.3 Modeling of cYdA 147
4.2.4 Modeling of cYdR 147
4.3 Modeling of LA1 149
4.3.1 Conceptual Modeling of clß 150
4.3.2 Mathematical Modeling of clß 155
4.3.3 Modeling of cldA 160
4.3.4 Modeling of cldR 166
4.4 Modeling of NA1 168
4.4.1 Conceptual Modeling of cnß 169
4.4.2 Mathematical Modeling of cnß 172
4.4.3 Modeling of cndA 174
4.4.4 Modeling of cndR 176
4.5 Summary of the Lateral Directional Steady-State Force and Moments 177
4.6 Modeling of the Small Perturbation Lateral Directional Aerodynamic Force and Moments 178
4.6.1 Modeling of cYß_ , cl _ ß , cn _ ß 180
4.6.2 Modeling of cYp 180
4.6.3 Modeling of clp 181
4.6.4 Modeling of cnp 183
4.6.5 Modeling of cYr 185
4.6.6 Modeling of clr 185
4.6.7 Modeling of cnr 187
4.7 Summary of Longitudinal and Lateral Directional Aerodynamic Stability and Control Derivatives 189
4.8 Final Overview and Ranking of the Importance of the Aerodynamic Coefficients 196
4.9 Summary of the Modeling of the Longitudinal and Lateral-Directional Aerodynamic
Forces and Moments 198
References 200
Student Sample Problems 200
Case Study 236
Short Problems 262
Problems 263
5. Review of Basic Aircraft Performance and Modeling of Thrust Forces and Moments 268
5.1 Introduction 268
5.2 Review of Different Aircraft Propulsion Systems 268
5.2.1 Piston Engine (Propeller) Aircraft Engines 269
5.2.2 Turboprop Aircraft Engines 270
5.2.3 Turbojet Aircraft Engines 271
5.2.4 Turbofan Aircraft Engines 272
5.2.5 Ramjet Aircraft Engines 273
5.3 Review of Basic Aircraft Performance 273
5.4 Power at Level Flight 274
5.4.1 Maximum Aerodynamic Efficiency 275
5.4.2 Minimum Aerodynamic Drag 275
5.4.3 Minimum Power Required 277
5.5 Determination of Power Required 279
5.6 Determination of Power Available 282
5.7 Modeling of the Thrust Forces and Moments 287
5.7.1 Modeling of the Steady-State Thrust Forces and Moments 288
5.7.2 Modeling of the Small Perturbation Thrust Forces and Moments 291
5.8 Summary 294
References 296
Student Sample Problems 296
Problems 304
6. Aircraft Stability and Design for Trim Conditions 305
6.1 Introduction 305
6.2 Concept of Aircraft Stability 305
6.3 Criteria for Aircraft Static Stability 306
6.3.1 Static Stability Criteria ---1 (SSC ---1) 307
6.3.2 Static Stability Criteria ---2 (SSC ---2) 308
6.3.3 Static Stability Criteria ---3 (SSC ---3) 308

6.3.4 Static Stability Criteria ---4 (SSC ---4) 309
6.3.5 Static Stability Criteria ---5 (SSC ---5) 310
6.3.6 Static Stability Criteria ---5, ---6, and ---7 (SSC ---5, SSC ---6, SSC ---7) 311
6.3.7 Static Stability Criteria ---9 (SSC ---9) 311
6.3.8 Static Stability Criteria ---10 (SSC ---10) 312
6.4 Longitudinal Analysis of Steady-State Straight Flight 313
6.5 Lift Chart and Trim Diagram 322
6.5.1 Lift Chart 322
6.5.2 Trim Diagram 324
6.5.3 Trim Diagrams for Different Classes of Aircraft 329
6.5.4 Trim Diagrams for Thrust Axis Above/Below Center of Gravity 329
6.6 Lateral Directional Analysis of Steady-State Straight Flight 332
6.7 Summary 340
References 340
Student Sample Problems 340
Problems 349
7. Solution of the Aircraft Equations of Motion Based on Laplace Transformations and Transfer Functions
352
7.1 Introduction 352
7.2 Application of Laplace Transformations to the Longitudinal Small Perturbation Equations 353
7.3 RouthHurwitz Analysis of the Longitudinal Stability 358
7.4 Longitudinal Dynamic Modes: Short Period and Phugoid 360
7.5 Solution of the Longitudinal Equations 361
7.6 Short Period Approximation 363
7.7 Phugoid Approximation 366
7.8 Summary of the Longitudinal Equations 369
7.9 Application of Laplace Transformations to the Lateral Directional Small Perturbation Equations 371
7.10 RouthHurwitz Analysis of the Lateral Directional Stability 376
7.11 Lateral Directional Dynamic Modes: Rolling, Spiral, and Dutch Roll 377
7.12 Solution of the Lateral Directional Equations 379
7.13 Rolling Approximation 382
7.14 Summary of Lateral Directional Equations 385

7.15 Sensitivity Analysis for the Aircraft Dynamics 386
7.15.1 Short Period Sensitivity Analysis 387
7.15.2 Phugoid Sensitivity Analysis 394
7.15.3 Sensitivity Analysis for the Lateral Directional Parameters 398
7.16 Summary 407
References 407
Student Sample Problems 407
Problems 430
8. State Variable Modeling of the Aircraft Dynamics 432
8.1 Introduction 432
8.2 Introduction to State Variables for Nonlinear Systems 433
8.3 Introduction to State Variables for Linear/Linearized Systems 433
8.4 State Variable Modeling of the Longitudinal Dynamics 435
8.5 State Variable Modeling of the Lateral Directional Dynamics 440
8.6 Augmentation of the Aircraft State Variable Modeling 445
8.6.1 Modeling of the Altitude ðhÞ 445
8.6.2 Modeling of the Flight Path Angle ð?Þ 446
8.6.3 Modeling of the Engine Dynamics 446
8.6.4 Modeling of the Actuator Dynamics 446
8.6.5 Modeling of the Atmospheric Turbulence 447
8.7 Summary of State Variable Modeling of the Aircraft Dynamics 447
8.8 Summary 450
References 450
Student Sample Problems 450
Problems 470
9. Introduction to Modern Flight Simulation Codes 476
9.1 Introduction 476
9.2 Introduction to the Flight Dynamics & Control (FDC) Toolbox 479
9.2.1 Equations of Motion within the FDC Simulation Environment 479
9.2.2 FDC Modeling of Beaver Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 483
9.2.3 Alternative Approach for FDC Modeling of Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 485
9.2.4 Case Study ---1: FDC Modeling of Look-Up Tables Based Aerodynamic Coefficients 486
9.2.5 FDC Modeling of the Gravity Force 493
9.2.6 FDC Modeling of the Atmospheric Turbulence Force 493
9.2.7 FDC Modeling of the Beaver Propulsive Forces and Moments 494
9.2.8 Case Study ---2: FDC Modeling of Propulsive Forces and Moments 496
9.2.9 Auxiliary FDC Blocks 498
9.3 Introduction to the Aerospace Blockset by Mathworks 503
9.3.1 General Organization of the Aerospace Blockset 503
9.3.2 Introduction to the Environment Library 504
9.3.3 Introduction to the Flight Parameters Library 506
9.3.4 Introduction to the Equations of Motion Library 506
9.3.5 Introduction to the Aerodynamics Library 508
9.3.6 Introduction to the Propulsion Library 508
9.3.7 Introduction to the Utilities Library 509
9.3.8 Introduction to the Mass Properties Library 510
9.3.9 Introduction to the Actuators Library 511
9.3.10 Introduction to the GNC and Animation Libraries 511
9.4 Introduction to AIRLIB 512
9.4.1 AIRLIB’s Strucure 512
9.4.2 Generic Aircraft Model: Continuous-time Block 512
9.4.3 Generic Aircraft Model: Discrete-time Block 515
9.4.4 Collection of Aircraft Models 516
9.4.5 Alternative Model Implementation 517
9.4.6 Additional Tools within AIRLIB: The Function ‘air3m’ 517
9.4.7 Additional Tools within AIRLIB: The Function ‘ab2dv’ 518
9.5 Summary 518
References 518
Student Sample Problems 519
10. Pilot Ratings and Aircraft Handling Qualities 523
10.1 Introduction 523
10.2 Aircraft Flight Envelope 524

10.3 Levels of Aircraft Flying Qualities: Cooper-Harper Pilot Rating 526
10.3.1 Aircraft Control Authority 526
10.3.3 Pilot Compensation 529
10.3.4 Levels of Flying Qualities 529
10.4 Classes of Aircraft 531
10.5 Classification of Aircraft Maneuvers and Mission Profile 531
10.6 Flying Quality Requirements for the Longitudinal Dynamics 532
10.6.1 Longitudinal Control Forces 533
10.6.2 Requirements for the Damping for the Phugoid Mode 535
10.6.3 Requirements for the Short Period Mode 536
10.7 Flying Quality Requirements for the Lateral Directional Dynamics 536
10.7.1 Lateral Directional Control Forces 536
10.7.2 Requirements for the Dutch Roll Mode 538
10.7.3 Requirements for the Spiral Mode 539
10.7.4 Requirements for the Rolling Mode 539
10.7.5 Requirements for the Roll Control Effectiveness 539
10.8 Summary 541
References 541
Appendix A Review of Useful Topics 543
Appendix A.1 Review of Vector Operations 544
Appendix A.2 Review of Matrix Operations 548
Appendix A.3 Review of Center of Gravity and Inertial Properties 558
Appendix A.4 Review of Application of Laplace Transform to Linear Constant Coefficients Differential
Equations 564
Appendix A.5 Review of First and Second Order Systems 575
Appendix A.6 Review of Standard Atmospheric Model 581
Appendix B Data for Different Aircraft 584
Appendix B.1 Introduction 584
Appendix B.2 Aircraft 1—Cessna 182 586
Appendix B.3 Aircraft 2—Cessna 310 589

Appendix B.4 Aircraft 3—Beech 99 592
Appendix B.5 Aircraft 4—Cessna T37-A 595
Appendix B.6 Aircraft 5—Cessna 620 598
Appendix B.7 Aircraft 6—Learjet 24 601
Appendix B.8 Aircraft 7—Boeing 747-200 604
Appendix B.9 Aircraft 8—SIAI Marchetti S-211 607
Appendix B.10 Aircraft 9—Lockheed F-104 610
Appendix B.11 Aircraft 10—McDonnell Douglas F-4 613
Reference 615
Appendix C Detailed Drawings for Different Aircraft 616
Appendix C.1 Introduction 617
Appendix C.2 Aircraft 1—Aeritalia Fiat G-91 618
Appendix C.3 Aircraft 2—Beech 99 621
Appendix C.4 Aircraft 3—Boeing B52 624
Appendix C.5 Aircraft 4—Boeing B727-200 627
Appendix C.6 Aircraft 5—Boeing B737-600 630
Appendix C.7 Aircraft 6—Boeing B747-200 633
Appendix C.8 Aircraft 7—Boeing B757-200 637
Appendix C.9 Aircraft 8—Boeing B767-200 640
Appendix C.10 Aircraft 9—Cessna Citation CJ3 643
Appendix C.11 Aircraft 10—Cessna T37 645
Appendix C.12 Aircraft 11—General Dynamics F-16 649
Appendix C.13 Aircraft 12—Grumman F-14 652
Appendix C.14 Aircraft 13—Learjet 24 655
Appendix C.15 Aircraft 14—Lockheed F-104 658
Appendix C.16 Aircraft 15—Lockheed F-22 661
Appendix C.17 Aircraft 16—Lockheed L-1011 664
Appendix C.18 Aircraft 17—McDonnell Douglas C-17 667
Appendix C.19 Aircraft 18—McDonnell Douglas DC-8 670
Appendix C.20 Aircraft 19.1—McDonnell Douglas DC-9 Series 10 673
Appendix C.21 Aircraft 19.2—McDonnell Douglas DC-9 Series 30 677
Appendix C.22 Aircraft 19.3—McDonnell Douglas DC-9 Series 40 679

Appendix C.23 Aircraft 19.4—McDonnell Douglas DC-9 Series 50 681
Appendix C.24 Aircraft 20—McDonnell Douglas DC-10 683
Appendix C.25 Aircraft 21—McDonnell Douglas F-4 686
Appendix C.26 Aircraft 22—McDonnell Douglas F-15 689
Appendix C.27 Aircraft 23—Rockwell B-1 692
Appendix C.28 Aircraft 24—SIAI Marchetti S211 695
Appendix C.29 Aircraft 25—Supermarine Spitfire 699
Index
Ordering:
Order Online - http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2241957/
Order by Fax - using the form below
Order by Post - print the order form below and send to
Research and Markets,
Guinness Centre,
Taylors Lane,
Dublin 8,
Ireland.
Page 1 of 2
Fax Order Form

To place an order via fax simply print this form, fill in the information below and fax the completed form to 646-607-1907 (from
USA) or +353-1-481-1716 (from Rest of World). If you have any questions please visit

http://www.researchandmarkets.com/contact/

Order Information

Please verify that the product information is correct.

Product Format

Please select the product format and quantity you require:

* Shipping/Handling is only charged once per order.

Contact Information

Please enter all the information below in BLOCK CAPITALS

Product Name:
Aircraft Dynamics. From Modeling to Simulation
http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2241957/
Office Code:
OC8DIPOONUNTUT
Quantity
Hard Copy (Hard
Back):
€63€ + Euro 25 Shipping/Handling
Title:
Mr

Mrs
Dr

Miss
Ms

Prof
First Name:
Last Name:
Job Title:
Organisation:
City:
Postal / Zip Code:
Country:
Phone Number:
Fax Number:
* Please refrain from using free email accounts when ordering (e.g. Yahoo, Hotmail, AOL)
Page 2 of 2
Payment Information

Please indicate the payment method you would like to use by selecting the appropriate box.

(646) 607-1907 or (646) 964-6609 - From USA
+353-1-481-1716 or +353-1-653-1571 - From Rest of World
Pay by credit card:
American Express
Diners Club
Master Card
Visa
Cardholder's Name
Cardholder's Signature
Expiry Date
Card Number
CVV Number
Issue Date
(for Diners Club only)
Pay by check:
Please post the check, accompanied by this form, to:
Research and Markets,
Guinness Center,
Taylors Lane,
Dublin 8,
Ireland.
Pay by wire transfer:
Account number
833 130 83
Sort code
98-53-30
Swift code
ULSBIE2D
IBAN number
IE78ULSB98533083313083