San Jacinto Intermediate School

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Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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1

San Jacinto

Intermediate School

Science Fair Handbook

Table of Contents



Topic










Page


Table of

Contents
--------------------
------------------------------------------------
1

Science Journal Guide
-------------------------------
-------------------------------
2

Research Paper
------
----------------------------------
-------------------------------
3

Tools for Success
-------------
-----------------------------
--------------
------------
4

Schedule/Timeline of
Important Dates
-------------
---------------------------
-
5
-
6

Planning a Successf
ul Experiment
----------------
-
-----------------------------
7
-
8

Display Boa
rd Details and Examples
--
----------
-----------
-------------------
9
-
11

Guidelines for Citing References
-----------------------------
----------------
12
-
13

Presenting Your Proje
ct
--------------------------
---
------------------------------
14

Judging Criteria
---
---------------------------
---------
-----------------------------
15

Project Catego
ries
-----------------------
------------
--------
----------------------
16

Wh
ere Do You Start (from SEFH)
------
----------
------------------------------
17

Science Fair Experiment
Guidelines (from SEFH)
-------
--------------------
18

Science Fair Display Gui
delines (from SEFH)
----------
----------------------
18






Good websites to know and use:

http://www.sefhouston.org/

http://www.sefhouston.org/sites/sefh/files/docs/sefh
-
rules
-
guidelines
-
13.pdf

https://apps.societyforscience.org/isef/students/wizard/

http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science
-
fair
-
projects/project_ideas.shtml





2


Science Journal
(Required)

Keeping a science journal is essential and a required part of your project. It should be one of
your most valuabl
e tools. It will contain all of your thoughts, procedures, observations, and
research. The act of writing in the journal forces the researcher to stop and think about each
aspect of the experiment. This is part of doing “good” science. The following guidel
ines
should help you develop a proper scientific journal.



The notebook should be bound; not a loose
-
leaf notebook. Use a spiral or a
composition notebook.



The cover should have a title that reflects something about the project you did.
Do
not put your name

on the front cover or on any of the front pages. Your name
can only be placed on the last page of the journal.



The first page of the journal

should be your
Title Page
.



The next two pages should be reserved for the
Table of Contents
. Add entries to your
content pages as you progress through your experiment.



All the rest of the pages should be
numbered

on the top outside corner of the pages.



The right
-
hand pages should be used for making formal entries, recording information
on research and web sites you h
ave used. The left
-
hand pages should be used for
calculations, illustrations, diagrams, and scratch paper.
Date all entries.



Label all of your diagrams and illustrations.



Do not remove any pages from your journal and do not erase anything from
your journal

either.
If information on a particular page becomes invalid, draw a
single diagonal line through the information. Write a brief statement next to it briefly
explaining why you have crossed it out.



Keep careful records of what you do, when you do it, what
is happening, etc.



Remember to date each journal entry.



Begin recording in your journal right from the start. For example, your first journal
entry can be the information you and your parents discuss after looking through this
packet. What ideas/conversati
ons did you have? Write it down!



Photographs and computer printouts should be properly labeled and glued/taped on
the right
-
hand side pages. Pictures showing the process of your project are very
valuable and can be displayed on your tri
-
board and in your j
ournal.



Explain how you used the scientific process throughout your experiment.



It is required that you write a research report and include it in your journal. Be
sure to write your research paper on only the front sides of pages.



In summary, a project
notebook does not have to be perfect and beautiful. It is a
working document that might have a few stains and maybe a slightly torn page. It is
something you have used throughout your entire project. However, keep it as
presentable as possible. The entries

should be legible, complete, reasonably neat, and
logically presented.

3

Research

(Required)


The research portion of the project needs to follow the criteria listed below.



One page in length



Can be hand written in print or cursive or typed on a computer



N
eeds to cover some aspect of your project

o

It should not be a research paper where you researched the exact project
you are doing and just wrote a report about. Your project should be
original. You are simply researching about something having to do with
y
our project or what has previously been done concerning your project.



Should contain a bibliography referencing where the information was found.
YOU MUST HAVE 5 SOURCES.

o

Information on how to set up a bibliography is on page 14 of this
packet.



Write the f
inal copy of your research paper in your science journal



Format:


This part of the project is designed to allow the researcher to delve deeper into some
aspect of the topic. This will help show a depth of knowledge of the subject and
hopefully, make the en
tire project more meaningful.

Here is an example:



Experiment question: How many drops of water will fit on the head of a penny?


Someone doing this experiment could choose to do a research paper on the principles of
water tension. Another possible resear
ch topic could detail information on how pennies
are made. The research could be any topic that directly relates to some aspect of the
experiment.


You might also choose to write about information you found necessary to be able to start
working on your pro
ject. It might include details about some of your materials or design
of something necessary for the experiment.


The most important part of this section is to have a good bibliography with at least
five (5) sources.



4

Tools for Success




Start by focusing on a topic you
are already interested in and start asking questions!



Make good
observations

by paying attention and noticing details. Every time you
work on your experiment, take notes in your journal about your observations.



Think logica
lly.

What do your findings tell you about your experiment? What makes
sense?



Gather

as much information as possible.
Record

this information in your journal.



Repeat

your steps several times in order to reduce your margin of error.



Be
accurate when
measuring

and taking averages.



Label your measurements
. (linear, area, volume, time, temperature) You should
always

use
METRIC

units.



Make sure your
journal entries

and
display board are
neat and readable
.

What you
have written needs to make sense to other
s. Have someone
proofread

your display
board.



Communicate clearly

when writing and speaking.



Make
inferences

throughout your experiment.



Choose only
one variable

when testing your hypothesis.

















5

________

Week 1

9/
03/2013

Choose a branch of
science to investigate. Explore possible project ideas.




________

Week 2

9
/
09
/
2013


Submit your project idea for approval. Include the topic and the variable you will
test. Write as a scientific question.



Question due by
September 13, 2013
.

________

Week 3


9
/
16
/20
13

Begin a journal for record keeping.

Make a list of resources. Gather more
information.




________

Week 4

9/23/2013

Complete initial research. Write a hypothesis. Make a list of materials needed for
the experiment.




________

Week 5

9
/
30/
20
13

Decide on materials and procedures. Be sure to check with your parents and/or
your teacher to be certain materials will be available. Make procedure list and
include details.



Problem and
Hypothesis due by October

4
, 20
13
.

________

Week 6

1
0
/
07
/20
13

Work on plans for your experiment. Finalize your procedures with details. Make
plans for data collection.

SRC Form due 10/11/2013




________

Week 7


1
0
/
14/2013


Get materials for your experiment. Record your final procedure
and materials list in
your notebook. Prepare your experiment area.




Procedure and materials list due October 18, 2013

________

Week 8


1
0
/
21
/20
13

Begin your experiment. Take any baseline photographs. Record all data and
observations in your journal. Be

sure to include the dates and times of your data
collection.




________

Week 9

10/28
/20
13

Continue with your experiment.

Record notes and observations in your journal.
Take any photographs needed



Final Procedures and Material list due November 01,
2013

________

Week 10

11/04/2013

Continue with your experiment. Record notes and observations in your journal.
Take any photographs needed




________

Week 11


11/11
/20
13

Continue with your experiment. Record notes and observations in your journal.
Take

any photographs needed




________

Week 12


11
/
18
/20
13

Continue with your experiment. Record notes and observations in your journal.
Take any photographs needed



Journal Check November 22, 2013

________

Week 13

11
/
25/2013

Continue with your
experiment. Record notes and observations in your journal.
Take any photographs needed




________

Week 14

12/
02/2013

Continue with your experiment. Record notes and observations in your journal.
Take any photographs needed



Journal Check and at least
2 pictures due December 6, 2013




________

Week 15

12/
09/2013

Continue with your experiment. Record notes and observations in your journal.
Take any photographs needed




________

Week 16
Continue with your experiment. Record notes and observations in your journal.
6

12/
16/2013

Take any photographs needed
.




________

Week 17
12
/
23/2013

Complete your experiment. Take any final photographs needed. Design charts and
graphs. Prepare your conclusion based on the data you collected. Investigate real
world applications for your findings. Remember to record all resources used in your
journal and

on the display board.




________

Week 18
12
/
30/2013

Finalize board and
project

including journal
.




________

Week 19
0
1/06/2014

Present Projects to class and teachers. Make any changes to your presentation prior
to science fair.



Project
due with board January 8, 2014

________

Week 20
0
1/13/2014

School Science Fair January 14, 2014 (tentative)





7

Planning a Successful Experiment


Required Steps


***Your
science experiment should follow the steps of the Scientific Method.
All steps
should be clearly displayed on your tri
-
board.




Question / Problem



Hypothesis



Materials



Procedure



Data



Results



Conclusion



Application


It is simply and orderly method for investigating a problem.


Question
: Write a question you can answer by conducting an
experiment on a topic of interest to
you. Your question should be asked in such a way that it couldn’t be answered with a simple yes
or no. For example:



How does salt affect the freezing point of water?



What affects how fast a substance decomposes?

Pick a
topic you are interested in. It doesn’t have to be complicated. After selecting your topic,
learn everything about it.


Hypothesis
: This is a prediction. What do you think the answer to your question will be?
Remember:
The results to your experiment may or

may not match your original
hypothesis.

Sometimes you learn more from experiments that give you a different answer than
the one you were expecting.


List all of the
materials

you will need for your experiment.


Procedure
: These are the steps you used to p
erform your experiment. Once you consider
yourself an expert about your topic, make a plan as to how you will conduct your experiment.
Plan a procedure to test your hypothesis. Include the resources you use: books, people,
materials, and special equipment.


***Make sure you follow the Science Fair Guidelines.


Be sure to take
photographs

and/or make drawings of your set up and procedures. You can
attach some of the photos to your display board and place others in your journal.


Conduct the Experiment
: Follow the plan that you have written. While conducting the
experiments, make sure you keep
detailed notes in your journal

on everything that you
8

observe.
Record the dates of the entries
. These notes are vital to your experiment because they
are needed w
hen you write your report and make your display.


Recording your data

in a logical way is very important. Construct detailed charts, tables, and
graphs to help you collect and organize your data.


Analyze Results
: This is the data or information you obtain
ed while conducting your
experiment. Once you are finished with the experiment,
organize your notes
. Then, analyze
them. Ask yourself, what happened, what are the facts you obtained, and what does your data
show?



Conclusion
: Your conclusion explains how
or why the results of your experiment came out as
they did. Did the results support your hypothesis? Would you do anything different or better? If
you did this experiment again, what would you do differently? Sometimes your results will be
different than y
our prediction (hypothesis). This happens in scientific experiments and is a valid
result.


Application
: Experiments are usually done with a practical reason in mind. What practical
purpose could your experiment serve? How could your findings be helpful to

someone else?
Explain how your results might fill a need or help solve a problem.


Create a Catchy Title
. Think of something that will draw attention to your project.


9

The Display Board


The Display Board shows what you know, what you did, and what you h
ave learned by doing
this project.


Size
: It is
required

that the display board be within the following measurements:




Height



Minimum of 86 cm (34 in); Maximum of 274 cm (108 in)


Width


Not to exceed 122 cm (48 in) from side to side


Depth


Not to e
xceed 76 cm (30 in) from front to back


YOU
ARE NOT

ALLOWED TO DISPLAY ANY OF THE FOLLOWING ITEMS ON YOUR
DISPLAY BOARD:



No living or dead organisms, including plants and animals.



No animal parts including hair, teeth, nails, bones, blood, histological dry

mount sections
and/or sealed wet mount tissue slides.



No chemical substances, batteries, or light bulbs.



No liquids, including water.



Any containers of commercial products must be empty and clean.



No flames.



No cultures of mold or bacteria.



No food, gum,
candy, dried beans, or seeds.



No glass of any kind.



No dirt, rocks, gravel, clay, play dough, or sand. (No soils at all.)



No fertilizers, herbicides, or pesticides.


You are encouraged to take photos of your materials and experiment rather than placing the

actual items on your display board.




IMPORTANT!


THINGS TO KNOW IF YOU DECIDE TO DO AN EXPERIMENT WITH ANIMALS (
NOT recommended and probably will not be approved):



Animals may not be deprived of food, water, or shelter at any time.



Animals can
not be ex
posed to harmful conditions.



No animals can be harmed in any way.



Quality care must be given to animals at all times, including provisions for care after the
experiment.



No dissections or surgical procedures may be done.





10

***The Science Department will

not supply display boards. If you wish to purchase one
through the Science Department, you must let your teacher know by November 6.


Display Board Example



















Pictures or illustrations can be added to help explain your experiment.


Transferring your journal work to your display board:



Try to create a display board that is appealing to read,
interesting to look at, and original.
Decide what colors would work best for your project. Take the color of your tri
-
board
into consideration when coming up with a color scheme.



Your information can be either hand written or typed.



Create a catchy title.



All scientific method headings and information must be displayed neatly and clearly and
in a size that is easily read by a viewer.



PROOFREAD

all of your work before you place it permanently on your display board.



Arrange and move your final draft pieces ar
ound until you find the best way to display
them.

Don’t glue them down until you are absolutely sure about where to put them!



Be sure to secure them firmly to your board. Use rubber cement or double
-
sided tape to
post your papers. Avoid using white school
glue because it can cause paper to wrinkle.







Title


Question/









Results

Problem








Procedure

Hypothesis









Conclusion




Materials






Data





Application

11

Science Fair Display Boards




Title



Problem / Purpose





Pictures





Data








Hypothesis

















Results










Procedure



Materials

















Conclusion


















Application

12

Guidelines for Citing References

In general, the author of a scientific or technical document is responsible fo
r providing complete and accurate references so that a
reader may locate the original reference material. Cited references should relate directly to statements, illustrations, data

and other
material included in the document. The complete listing of refere
nces should follow the body of the text and should be numbered
consecutively in the order in which they are mentioned. References located in the text, tables, and legends should be annotat
ed at the
point of use by Arabic numerals contained within parenthes
es


multiple cited references should be separated by a comma, for
example (17, 19, 23). Finally, they should be single spaced.


Here are a few examples taken from the U.S. National Library of Medicine Uniform Resource Locator website at

(
http://www.nlm.ni
h.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html
) Find the one resembling most the source you have to cite and use the
example’s format to construct your reference.


Books:

Individual author(
s)


Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4
th
ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.


Editor(s) as author(s)


Gilstrap LC 3
rd
, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2
nd
ed. New York: McGraw
-
Hill; 2002.


Organization(s) as author


Royal Adelaide Hospital; University of Adelaide, Departme
nt of Clinical Nursing. Compendium of nursing research and
practice development, 1999
-
2000. Adelaide (Australia): Adelaide University; 2001.


Chapter in a book


Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelste
in B, Kinzler KW, editors.
The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw
-
Hill; 2002. p. 93
-
113.


Journals/Magazines:

Standard article


Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid
-
organ transplantation in HIV
-
infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25; 34
7:284
-
7.


No author given


21
st
century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. British Med J. 2002;325:184.


Organization as author


Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired gluco
se
tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40:679
-
86.


Article in a Journal supplement


Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology. 2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6
-
12.


Scientific or technical report


Yen GG (Oklahoma State University
, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stillwater, OK). Health monitoring on
vibration signatures. Final report. Arlington (VA): Air Force Office of Scientific Research (US), Air Force Research
Laboratory; 2002 Feb. Report No.: AFRLSRBLTR020123.
Contract No.: F496209810049.


Other Published Material:

Newspaper article


Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;
Sect. A:2 (col. 4).


Dictionary and similar references


Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary. 29
th
ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2000. Filamin; p. 675.


Computer file


Renal system [computer program]. MS
-
DOS version. Edwardsville, KS: Medi
-
Sim; 1988. 45


Classical material


The Winter’s Tale: act 5 scene

1, lines 13
-
16. The complete works of William Shakespeare. London: Rex, 1973.


Electronic Material:

13

CD
-
RomUI


Anderson SC, Poulsen KB. Anderson’s electronic atlas of hematology [CD
-
ROM]. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins; 2002.


Journal article
on the internet


Jacobsen JW, Mulick JA, Schwartz AA. A history of facilitate communications: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience:
Science working group on facilitated communication. Am Psychol 1995;. 50: 750
-
65. Retrieved January 25, 1996, from the
Wo
rld Wide Web:
http://www.apa.org/journals/jacobson.html


Homepage/Web site


Cancer
-
Pain.org [homepage on the Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000
-
01 [updated
2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from:
http://www.can
cer
-
pain.org
.


Database on the Internet


MeSH Browser [database on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2002
-

[cited 2003 June 10].
Meta
-
analysis; unique ID: D015201; [about 3 p.] Available from:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBro
wser.html
Files updated
weekly 46





































14

Presenting Your Project


Your audience will be your teacher and class. Don’t memorize your presentation or read directly off the display
board to your audience. You should be very
familiar with your project; therefore, you should be able to speak
somewhat naturally as you tell us about it. Your audience will be respectful and attentive and will try to help
you feel at ease. You may feel a little nervous at first. Just remember, ever
yone is in the same boat! Most of the
other presenters are nervous too. We are all here to help support and encourage each other.


Practice your presentation at home so you will be prepared when you get to school.


1.

Introduce yourself. “Hello, my name is __
__________.”


2.

Give the catchy title of your project. “The title of my project is ________.”


3.

Explain the purpose of your project, why you did it, how you got interested in the subject, etc.


4.

Explain what you did and how you did it. Point out charts on your

display that will help the audience
understand.


5.

Elaborate on your conclusion. Explain what you have learned or proven from this project.


6.

Tell the audience what you might do in the future when you study this subject. Would you do anything
differently if
you had to do it all over again?


7.

Practice your presentation with your parents, friends, etc. Be confident


you know more about this
project than anybody! You’re the expert!


8.

Look straight into the eyes of your audience and have a conversation with them.


9.

When you have presented all of your information, ask if there are any questions. You will need to call
on about three audience members.


10.

After answering questions, thank the audience for their attention and professionalism.



***REMEMBER TO HAVE FUN, BE C
URIOUS, AND LEARN A LOT!!!











15

San Jacinto Intermediate




Project # _______________________________

Science Fair






Location _______________________________

Judging Score Sheet

*** Assign a maximum of 10 points in each category ***

Indicator

Criteria

Score




1.


Hypothesis and
Problem/Question

Level of difficulty of problem/question is appropriate for this age.




Hypothesis written as a predictive statement

Clear statement of objectives




2.

Procedure

Project uses a control and changes
at least one variable


Experimental tests are repeated thoroughly

Student demonstrated an understanding of experimental design to collect data




3.

Data and Results

Project has measurable data


Metric units were used for measurement

At least
three different formats for displaying results (chart, table, graph, list, photos,
journal, surveys, pictures, etc.)

Charts, tables, etc. are labeled, clear and understandable




4.

Conclusion

Student draws reasonable conclusions consistent with
collected data




Student is able to explain science principles/concepts used to complete the project




5.

Application

Student is able to describe observations and recognize important occurrences




Student makes and understands real world application

to project




6.

Journal

Journal contains numbered or dated entries to record progress of project




Proper recording of data in laboratory notebook




7.

Bibliography

Minimum of five required references




References are relevant to the project,
correct form and are varied




8.


Oral Presentation

Student provides a clear and coherent explanation of project




Maintains eye contact and voice projection




9.


Project Elements
and Display

Quality and clarity of the display, visually appealing


Correct spelling, neatness and accuracy

Project represents student’s own work




10.


Creativity and
originality

Creative or original problem or question for a student this age





______________________________________________




Total Score =
______________



Judge’s Signature






* Helpful comments can be included on the back of the score sheet.

16

PROJECT CATEGORIES


Animal Sciences
: Animal genetics, ornithology, ichthyology, herpetology, entomology, animal ecology, anatomy,
paleontology, cellular

physiology, animal biorhythms, animal husbandry, cytology, histology, animal physiology,
neurophysiology, invertebrate biology, etc.


Behavioral/Social Sciences
: Psychology, sociology, anthropology, archeology, ethiology, ethnology, linguistics, animal
be
havior (learned

or instinctive), learning, perception, urban problems, gerontology, reading problems, public opinion
surveys, and education testing, etc.


Biochemistry/Microbiology
: Molecular biology, molecular genetics, enzymes, photosynthesis, blood chem
istry, protein
chemistry, food

chemistry, hormones, bacteriology, virology, protozoology, fungal and bacterial genetics, yeast, etc.


Chemistry
: Physical chemistry, organic chemistry (other than biochemistry), inorganic chemistry, materials,

plastics, meta
llurgy, soil chemistry, etc.


Computer Science
: New developments in software or hardware, information systems, computer systems organization,
computer

methodologies, and data (including structures, encryption, coding and information theory), etc.


Earth/Sp
ace Sciences
: Geology, geophysics, physical oceanography, meteorology, atmospheric

physics, seismology,
petroleum,
geography, speleology, mineralogy, topography, optical astronomy, radio astronomy, astrophysics, etc.


Energy & Transportation
: Aerospace, ae
ronautical engineering and aerodynamics, alternative fuels, fossil fuel energy,
green energy

science & technology, vehicle development, renewable energies, etc.


Engineering
: Civil, mechanical, aeronautical, chemical, electrical, photographic, sound, autom
otive, marine, heating and
refrigerating,

transportation, environmental engineering, etc. Power transmission and generation, electronics,
communications, architecture,

bioengineering, lasers, etc.


Environmental Science
: Pollution (air, water, land), pollu
tion sources and their control, waste disposal, impact studies,
environmental

alteration (heat, light, irrigation, erosion, etc.), ecology.


Mathematics
: Calculus, geometry, abstract algebra, number theory, statistics, complex analysis, probability,
topology,
logic, operations

research, and other topics in pure and applied mathematics.


Medicine/Health
: Medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, veterinary medicine, pathology, ophthalmology, nutrition,
sanitation, pediatrics,

dermatology, allergies, speech an
d hearing, optometry, etc.


Plant Science
: Agriculture, agronomy, horticulture, forestry, plant biorhythms, palynology, plant anatomy, plant

taxonomy, plant pathology, plant genetics, hydroponics, algology, mycology, etc.


Physics & Astronomy
:

Optics,
acoustics, particle, nuclear, atomic, plasma, superconductivity, fluid and gas dynamics,
thermodynamics,

semiconductors, magnetism, quantum mechanics, biophysics, astronomy, lasers, etc.












17

Where Do You Start?


Selecting a question for research can

be the most difficult step in the project. Students should begin by looking at their own personal
interests. If they have a love of football, looking at questions involved with handling the ball, the texture of the football
, or physical
properties of the
gear may spark an interest. Students interested in dance might concentrate on how position of the body affects spin,
factors affecting the wear and tear on the toes of shoes; the possibilities are endless! All areas of a student’s life have q
uestions that
can peak the interest of the student and make that first step an exciting one.


Avoid projects that are demonstrations of a scientific principle or event, such as model volcanoes or tornadoes in a bottle.
Steer clear
of books and websites that offer “cookb
ook” experiments. Independent research demands that students determine what procedures and
materials should be used to answer a question. The following is a review of the Scientific Method with some key questions/dir
ections
on how to design and conduct and

experiment to use for a science or engineering fair project.


Problem/Purpose



What idea are you trying to test?



What is the scientific question you are trying to answer?

Hypothesis



Make a prediction regarding the outcome of your experiment and explain
your thinking. For example, “My hypothesis is … because …
.

State the results you are predicting in measurable terms. For example, “If …, than …
.


Materials



List all materials and equipment that were used.



Your list of materials should include all of the i
ngredients of the procedure recipe
.

Procedure



Your procedure should be like a recipe


another person should be able to perform your experiment following your procedure. Test this
with a friend or parent to be sure you have not forgotten anything. This is
an important part of doing science.



Be clear about the variables (elements of the experiment that change to test your hypothesis) versus your controls (elements
of the
experiment that do not change).



Be very specific about how you will measure results to p
rove or disprove your hypothesis. You may want to develop a regular timetable for
measuring results or making observations (i.e. every hour, every day, every week).



Sample size should be as large as possible and/or the experiment should be repeated a large

number of times (with each repetition
considered a trial).

Observations/Data/Results



KEEP A DETAILED JOURNAL

of observations, data and/or results of your scientific process. This information can be data
measurements and written otes about what you are sen
sing (hearing, seeing, or touching) about your experiment. Always utilize that
International System of Units (
metric system
) when measurements are required.



Where appropriate, have both Control and Experimental groups.



When possible, collect enough data fo
r a statistical analysis.



Photograph your project results or phases of the project if appropriate to help your analysis and possibly to demonstrate you
r experiment on
your exhibit board.
Only the student doing the research can appear in photographs
.



Use ch
arts, graphs and tables to summarize your data.

Analysis



Explain your observations, data and/or results. This is a summary of what your data has shown you.



List the main points of what you’ve learned.



Why did the results occur? What did your experiment pro
ve?

Conclusion



Answer your problem/purpose statement.



Was your hypothesis correct? Explain why or why not.



What does it all add up to? What is the value of your project?



What further study do you recommend given the results of your experiment? What would
be the next question to ask?



If you repeated your project, what would you change?









18

Science Fair Experiment Guidelines


All exhibits must be individual projects to be eligible for judging. Teachers, parents, and sponsors should supervise rather
than
assist
in project completion. The identical repetition of a previous year’s project is not permitted.

Experimenting with Vertebrates

There is an increasing concern over the use of vertebrates in student experimentation. Secondary students are greatly limit
ed by the rules of the
International Science and Engineering Fair. Behavioral experiments are preferable over physiological experiments. The guideli
nes below MUST be
followed when working with vertebrates.



No animal may be deprived of food or water at any
time for any reason.



Animals may not be exposed to any conditions that may be considered harmful.



Animals may not be sacrificed for the purpose of experimentation.



Animals must be provided quality care after the experiment is concluded.



No dissection or su
rgical procedure may be used.

Experimenting with Human Subjects

All rules concerning the use of vertebrates must be followed in working with human subjects.
Teachers must approve of all surveys students may
use.

Extremely personal data and controversial topics (sex, diseases, etc.) should be avoided. No individual experimental subject
should be identified.

Working with Bacteria/Fungi

Any experiment involving the culture or growth of microorganisms or fungi (mold) must be carried out under adult supervision.

Cultures must
remain sealed at all times.
No cultures, rotted food, or other contaminated substances may be displayed with the pro
ject. All contaminated
substances should be disposed of in a sanitary method at the conclusion of the experiment.

Working with Hazardous Substances

All chemical substances should be used under adult supervision. Hazardous substances should not be used. Con
trolled substances including
prescription drugs, alcohol, and tobacco should not be used
.

Science Fair Display Guidelines