Systems Applied to Symposium

farmpaintlickInternet and Web Development

Oct 21, 2013 (4 years and 22 days ago)

111 views

SEMANTIC AGENT SYSTEMS


Towards a Reference
Architecture for Semantic Agent
Systems Applied to Symposium
Planning




Usman Ali

Fredericton, NB

1

Outline








2


Background


Agent Scenario


Virtual Organization


Organizational Designs


Semantic Agent Systems


Evaluation/Comparison


Conclusion


Semantic Web Vision

3

Agent Scenario

Consider a Web
-
enabled method
for saving the
doomed crew of
The Perfect Storm.


How could Web agents have helped?

4


James
Hendler
:

Agents and the Semantic Web.

IEEE
Intelligent Systems Journal (March/April
2001).

http://www.cs.rpi.edu/~hendler/AgentWeb.ht
ml

Virtual
Organization



"Virtual Organizations
are a set of individuals
and institutions that need
to co
-
ordinate resources
and services across
institutional boundaries".




5


N.
Criado
, E.
Argente
, V.
Juli
´
an
, V.
Botti
:

Designing Virtual
Organizations.

440
-
449, In:
Demazeau
, Y.;
Pavón
, J.;
Corchado
,
J.M.;
Bajo
, J. (Eds.): 7th International Conference on Practical
Applications of Agents and Multi
-
Agent Systems (PAAMS'09),
Series: Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing, Vol. 55,
2009.

Software Personal Assistants

Software personal assistants (SPA) are an active
research area that one day might change the face
of our human organizations.


Organizational Structures


Star Ring Mixed/
Random

6

Towards Agent
-
Oriented Conceptualization and Implementation

/
Pratik

K.
Biswas

http://www.igi
-
global.com/bookstore/titledetails.aspx?titleid=76

Agent
Centered

Versus
Organization

Centered

Approach

Agent
Centered


States of an agent
and of the relation
between these states
and its overall
behaviour.

Organization

Centered


Concepts of
‘organizations’, ‘groups’,
‘communities’, ‘roles’,
‘functions’, etc. play an
業灯牴慮琠r潬o.

7


Jacques Ferber, Olivier Gutknecht, and Fabien Michel:

From Agents to Organizations: an
Organizational View of Multi
-
Agent Systems
. Agent
-
Oriented Software Engineering
(AOSE) IV, P.
Giorgini
,
Jörg

Müller
, James Odell,
eds
, Melbourne, July 2003, LNCS

2935,
pp. 214
-
230, 2004

Organization Design

Open Agent Architecture (OAA):




Flexible, dynamic communities of distributed software agents.



Human users and software agents, in an OAA, express their
requests in terms of,

“What will be done?” rather than

“How will it be done?”

8

In a distributed software architecture, sharing information
or interaction has to be predefined which makes it a rigid
distributed architecture environment.

http://www.ai.sri.com/oaa/

{Open Agent
Architecture: Technical White Paper}

Semantic Agent Systems



9

Semantic Agent Systems use rules and
Ontologies for creating virtual organizations
as multi
-
agent systems that can support
collaborative teams on the Semantic Web.


They provide the infrastructure for rule
-

and
ontology
-
based collaboration between the
distributed members of such a virtual
organization
.

Multi Agent Frameworks

Academic World Business

World

10

EMERALD








11


Kalliopi

Kravari
, Taylor
Osmun
, Harold
Boley

and Nick
Bassiliades
,

Cross
-
Community Interoperation Between the
EMERALD and Rule Responder Multi
-
Agent Systems.

RULE RESPONDER








12

http://ruleml.org/RuleResponder/

Organizational
Agent



The organizational agent represents the
goals and strategies shared by each
committee chair.



It contains rule sets that describe the
policies and regulations of the RuleML
Symposium.



Delegates incoming queries to the
chair’s PAs.

13

Personal
Agent



A personal agent assists a single chair

of the symposium,(semi
-
autonomously)
acting on his/her behalf.



Each personal agent contains a rule
-
base FOAF
-
like profile.



It contains a FOAF*
-
like
fact

profile plus

FOAF
-
extending
rules

to encode selected
knowledge of its human owner.

14

External
Agent



External agents exchange messages
with the OA. They submit queries and
receive answers.



End users, as external agents, interact
with the OA using a Web (HTTP) interface
to the Symposium Planner.



Support for simultaneous external
agents. Many EAs can communicate with
the OA.

15

Rule Engines

Prova

is mainly used to realize the
organizational agents of Rule Responder


It implements Reaction RuleML for agent
interaction (event
-
condition
-
action rules)


16

OO
jDREW

is used to realize the personal
agents of Rule Responder


It implements
Hornlog

RuleML for agent
reasoning (Horn logic rules)


Supports rules in two formats:

POSL: Positional Slotted presentation syntax

RuleML: XML interchange syntax

COMMUNICATION MIDDLEWARE








Mule Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)





䵵汥⁩猠M獥搠s漠捲敡t攠捯浭畮楣a瑩潮⁥ 搠
灯楮瑳 a琠敡捨e灥p獯湡氠慮搠潲g慮楺a瑩潮t氠慧敮琠
of Rule Responder.



Mule supports various transport protocols

(i.e. http, JMS, soap)



Rule Responder uses http and JMS as transport
protocols.


17

MULE ENTERPRISE SERVICE BUS








18

Reaction RuleML



Reaction RuleML is a branch of the
RuleML family that supports actions and
events.




When two agents want to communicate,
each others’ Reaction RuleML
messages

are sent through the ESB.




The ESB carries RuleML queries
(requests), answers (results), and rule
bases to/from agents.

19








20

Online Use Case Demo

http://www.defeasible.org/ruleml2011ijcai/?q=node/25


http://de.dbpedia.org/redirects/ruleml/ACE2ReactionRuleML/index.jsp

21








22








23

Evaluation of Semantic Agent
Systems



24

RR

EM

Separate rule and ontology languages, or combine them in a
hybrid or homogeneous manner

Distinguish a
performative

(pragmatic) layer from a content
(semantic) layer

Organise agent communication in a hierarchical (client
-
server)
or networked (peer
-
2
-
peer) or reconfigurable (dynamic)
fashion.

Can be built on a multi
-
agent platform such as

JADE

or be
based on an Enterprise Service Bus such as Mule.

Can be used to define autonomous agents or semi
-
autonomous agents.

Can operate on a private intranet, a cross
-
organisational
extranet or the open Internet.



Can realise virtual organisations in which agents solve various
kinds of tasks, including document retrieval, question
answering, and information integration.

Rule Responder uses both Ontologies and Rules.

Rule Responder uses FIPA and Reaction RuleML.

Rule Responder uses hierarchical architecture.

Rule Responder uses Mule ESB.

Emerald uses JADE.

Rule Responder and
Emerald provide
semi autonomous
agents.

Rule Responder

can operate locally as all resources are local
.
Emerald has to access third party resources.

Rule Responder provides

agents (OA, PA, EA, CA) to perform
different tasks
. Emerald provides Knowledge

Customizable

(KC)
-
Agents.

Conclusion


The SymposiumPlanner and
many other applications like
it, can truly provide the basis
for gradual transformation of
our workplace into an
efficient and productive
environment.

25