FRBR, FRAD and RDA:

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FRBR, FRAD and RDA:

From Conceptual Models to Cataloging
Applications

Marjorie E. Bloss

LACONI

February 25, 2011



1

In This Presentation


Why RDA?


The Foundation for RDA (FRBR and
FRAD)


RDA Content


rules and examples


RDA Toolkit


what it looks like and how
it works


What’s next?


Began with Panizzi, Jewett, and Cutter to a
number of cataloging codes through the
1960s


Attempts to develop one set of cataloging
rules for both the US and the UK


Development of Lubetzky’s “Paris
Principles” led to AACR


AACR2: one more attempt for one code,
based on ISBD

Anglo
-
American Cataloging
Traditions

3

Who Is Responsible?

Committee


of

Principals

AACR Fund

Trustees/

Publishers

Joint Steering

Committee

ALA

CC:DA

ACOC

BL

CCC

CILIP

LC

4

AACR2 Characteristics


Created for a card catalog environment


Provides rules for both description and
display


Is limited when describing digital materials


Does not demonstrate how works are
related to one another


GOALS:

RDA

will be …


A new standard for
resource
description and access


Designed for the
digital

world


Optimized for use as an online product


Description and access of all resources


All types of content and media


Resulting records usable in the digital
environment (Internet, Web OPACs, etc.)


7

RDA

will be …


A consistent, flexible, and extensible
framework


Compatible with internationally
established principles, models, and
standards


Primarily for use in libraries, but also
adaptable across many information
communities worldwide


International Meeting of Experts International
Cataloguing Committee (IME ICC)


IFLA Section on Cataloguing and its working
groups on FRBR and FRAD


RDA/MARC/MARBI


ONIX (Publishers)


RDA, Dublin Core, IEEE/LOM, Semantic Web


“Data Modeling Meeting”
-

London 2007



Collaborations with other

Communities

RDA’s Foundation


Functional Requirements for Bibliographic
Records (FRBR)


Functional Requirements for Authority
Data (FRAD)


Functional Requirements for Subject
Authority Data (FRSAD


in progress)

FRBR Terminology

Entities

(categories)


Attributes

(characteristics)


Relationships

(between and among entities)

FRBR Group
1 Entities

Work


Expression


Manifestation


Item

FRBR Group 2 Entities


Those responsible for intellectual or
artistic content, physical production and
dissemination, or custodianship of Group
1 entities


Persons


Families


Corporate bodies


FRBR Group
3 Entities

Subjects

Can
include any Group 1 or Group 2 entity

plus

Concepts

Objects

Events

Place

Group 1 Entities

Work

is realized through

Expression

is embodied in

Manifestation

is exemplified by

Item

Work


A distinct intellectual
or artistic creation


Very abstract!


does
not correspond with
any tangible thing


(At right : Shakespeare
thinks about creating
Romeo and Juliet
)

Expression


The intellectual or
artistic realization of
a work


Specific
sequence of
words in a textual
work,
translations,
notes
in a musical
work,
interpretations, etc.


Still abstract!

Manifestation


The physical
embodiment of an
expression of a work


An expression can be
embodied in multiple
manifestations (e.g.
print, microform,
digital)


Item


A single
exemplar of a
manifestation

Related
or Derivative Works


User Tasks


Associated with bibliographic data (FRBR)


Find

To find entities corresponding to the
user's stated search criteria

Identify

To identify an entity

Select

To select an entity appropriate to the
user's needs

Obtain

To acquire or obtain access to the
entity described

User Tasks


Associated with authority data (FRAD)


Find

Find an entity or set of entities
corresponding to stated criteria

Identify

Identify an entity

Contextualize*

Place a person, corporate body, work, etc.
in context; clarify relationships between
two or more persons, corporate bodies,
works, etc.; and between a person,
corporate body, etc. and the name by
which that person, body, etc. is known

Justify*

Document the authority data creator's
reason for choosing name or form of name

*tasks carried out by those who create authority data

A Look at RDA


Compared to AACR2:


IT SURE SOUNDS DIFFERENT!


IT SURE LOOKS DIFFERENT!


Organization of RDA


Three concepts:



Resource Description


Access Point Control


Relationships


Outline of RDA chapters

Outline of RDA chapters

Outline of RDA chapters

Outline of RDA chapters

RDA’s Foundation


Structure of RDA itself relies heavily on
FRBR and FRAD


Terminology used has its basis in these
two conceptual models


“Entities”, “Attributes”, “Relationships”


Also user tasks “Find”, “Identify”, “Select”,
“Obtain”, “Conceptualize”, “Justify”

RDA’s Structure
--

Attributes


General guidelines (chapter 1)


Attributes


Of FRBR Group 1 entities (chapters 2
-
7)



Of FRBR Group 2 entities (chapters 8
-
11)
which also includes access point control



Of FRBR Group 3 entities (chapters 12
-
16)


which are “place holder” chapters for now

RDA’s Structure
--

Relationships


Relationship of FRBR Group 1entities
to
Group 2 entities (who wrote it, created it,
illustrated it, edited it, acted in it, etc.


chapters 18
-
22)


Relationship of FRBR Group 1 entities
to

Group 3 entities (chapter 23


place
holder chapter for now)


RDA’s Structure
--

Relationships


Recording relationships
between

Group
1 Entities (all those contents notes, title
changes, derivative works


chapters 24
-
28)


Recording relationships
between

Group
2 Entities (the connection between
Shakespeare and Leonard Bernstein


chapters 29
-
32)

RDA Appendices


Many more than were in
AACR2


Some (Abbreviations and Capitalization)
are the same as in
AACR2
)


Some notable differences


Instructions on using ISBD


Mapping from ISBD and MARC to RDA


Titles of nobility (previously in chapter 22)


Relationship designators (who did what?)


Terminology in AACR2 and RDA


AACR2


ISBD dictates
content and display


Chief source of
information


Heading



Author, composer,
etc.


RDA


Instructions only for
content


Preferred source of
information


Authorized access
point


Creator

Terminology in AACR2 and RDA


AACR2


See reference


See also reference




Physical description


RDA


Variant access point


Authorized access
point for related
entity


Carrier description

Terminology in AACR2 and RDA


AACR2


Main entry





Uniform Title


RDA


Preferred title +
authorized access
point for creator if
appropriate


(1) Preferred title (+
other information to
differentiate);


(2) Conventional
collective title


Terminology in AACR2 and RDA


AACR2



GMD


RDA


Media type +


Carrier type +


Content type +


Some Specific Rules


WEMI
Attributes


Notice that RDA begins its instructions
with the Group 1 entities of
manifestations and items


Core elements have been identified for
recording bibliographic attributes


Need to identify what you’re cataloging
and the source of information


“Take what you see…”

Spell it Out!


Terms we previously abbreviated are now
spelled out


Pages


Volumes


Geographic abbreviations


“Third revised edition” (if that’s how it
appears on the preferred source of
information (previously the chief source)


All in the name of internationalization

Compare and Contrast


Description/Attributes


AACR2


Rule of 3


Omit titles of nobility,
address, honor, etc.



Use formatted field
for serials
enumeration and
chronology


RDA


No longer limited to 3


Include titles of
nobility, address,
honor, etc.


Option of using
unformatted note for
serials enumeration
and chronology

Compare and Contrast


Description/Attributes


AACR2


GMD found in two
lists


One for the UK


One for Australia,
Canada, and the U.S
.


Broadly describes
various formats


Found in MARC 245
$h


RDA


GDM now a single
list for all


Has been split into
three discrete
elements


Content (MARC 336)


Media (MARC 337)


Carrier (MARC 338)

Compare and Contrast


Description/Attributes


AACR2


Include “home country”
if not first place of
publication named



Use “s.l.”, “s.n.”




Include multiple
publishers


RDA

Record only the first place
of publication


no
“home country”
provision


Now “Place of
publication not
identified”, “Publisher
not identified”


Only first publisher’s
name is required


Compare and Contrast


Description/Attributes


AACR2


Permitted to shorten
publisher’s name


International
identifiers focus on
ISBN and ISSN


RDA


Spell out publisher’s
name in full


Includes numbers
assigned by
publishers,
distributors, music
publisher numbers in
addition to ISBN and
ISSN

Personal Names


Chapter 9 includes establishing
“authorized form of the name”


Many rules identical to AACR2


Spell out abbreviations like “fl.”
(flourished), approximately, born, died


Include individual’s role and/or
relationship to the work



Family Names


New to RDA


Alignment with archival community


Found in chapter 10


again includes
instructions for authorized forms of
names


Type of family


Dates associated with the family


Places associated with the family


Prominent members of the family


Corporate Bodies


Chapter 11 of RDA


Very similar to AACR2, including
restricting instances for corporate body
as a main entry


Will see more corporate bodies included
in statements of responsibility, however


but this is not the same as the definition
of a creator

Works Accepted as Sacred Scripture

Use as the uniform title for a
sacred scripture (see 21.37)
the title by which it is most
commonly identified in
English
-
language reference
sources dealing with the
religious group(s) to which the
scripture belongs. If no such
source is available, use
general reference sources.




Avesta



Bible



Koran



Talmud



Tripiṭaka


Choose as the preferred title for a
sacred scripture the title by
which it is most commonly
identified in reference sources in
the language preferred by the
agency creating the data that
deal with the religious group or
groups to which the scripture
belongs. If no such source is
available, use general reference
sources.



Avesta



Bible



Holy Piby



Kitāb al
-
aqdas



Qur’an



Talmud



Tripiṭaka


AACR2 25.17A

RDA 6.23.2.5

RDA Relationships


Works to works:


Romeo and Juliet to West Side Story


Serial title changes


Expressions to expressions: one
translation to another; one interpretation
to another


Manifestation: content remains the same,
the carrier or media changes

Examples


Handout


100 field: inclusion of $e to indicate
creator’s role


300: no abbreviations for pages,
illustrations, etc.


300: “cm” is abbreviated because it is
considered as a scientific term


336, 337, 338 fields: take the place of
GMD (245 $h)

Examples


Handout


Example 3
: Since RDA does not concern
itself with display, a library could decide to
capitalize all letters of the title proper


Also note the inclusion of the creators’
titles


something that isn’t done in
AACR2


However the cataloger has the option of
omitting information in the statement of
responsibility

Examples


Handout


Example 5: Relationship of one
expression to another
--

a translation to
its original


Cataloger’s option to use a relationship
designator from RDA Appendix I in the
100 and 700 fields


RDA allows you to create a 7xx field
without mention as an attribute

Examples


Handout


Example 7: No more “rule of three” in
RDA


Up to the cataloger to decide how many
creators are appropriate

Looking at the RDA Toolkit


Now that we’ve looked at some of RDA’s
instructions, let’s see what the RDA Toolkit
looks like