BROWSER FOR LANGUAGE

farmpaintlickInternet and Web Development

Oct 21, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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MEET
ELS
: A CURRICULUM
BROWSER
FOR

LANGUAGE

AND

MATH

Is The
Semantic

Web Of
A
ny

Use
?


EDRENE Conference, The Hague, May 18, 2011

Jacob Molenaar

Conference
Theme

The overall theme of the seminar is
Quality
,
divided into three categories:


Quality in metadata


Quality in usefulness


Quality in relevance


Introduction


Jacob Molenaar


Independent consultant
and

concept
developer

in
educational

technology

and

educational

publishing


Background in
educational

publishing


Trained

in Dutch Language &
Literature



Our

Project:
Els
, An
Associative

Curriculum Browser
for

Language
And

Math


Based

on RDF

Topics /
Themes


Curriculum
Browsing
?


Our

Project
Els
:
using

semantic

web
technologies

for

modeling

curriculae

and

related

information


Improving

the
quality

of
learning

object retrieval


Improving

the
quality

of
knowledge

retrieval


Improving

the
ease

of
adding

metadata

to

information

Curriculum
Browsing

???

Curriculum
Browsing

Browsing

information
as
opposed

to

searching

information

is a way of
acquiring

knowledge

in
stead

of
just

finding

information.

Curriculum
Browsing


A curriculum is more
than

a set of
formal

descriptions

of
learning

goals
and

subjects


A curriculum
contains

an

enormous

amount

of expert
knowledge

(
narrative

information)
and

is
based

on
many

expert
design
decisions


A curriculum
can

be

expressed

in a
formal

curriculum
document
containing


objective

descriptions


A curriculum
can

be

expressed

in a
textbook

containing

information
and

assignments

and

exercises


All

these
expressions

are at the
same

time
complex

and

reductionary
: information is lost in
them

not

gained


Curriculum
Browsing


Is
it

possible

to

make
all

this

‘lost’
narrative

expert
curriculum
knowledge

explicit
and

accessible
? (
for


normal
’ users of the curriculum


teachers
)


What

Semantic

(Web)
technologies

are
available

for

this
?

Our

Project: Els


Els =
E
ducational

L
inked
S
cape


Developing

a prototype of a Curriculum Browser (
whatever

that

may

be
)
for

Language
and

Math


Commissioned

by

the Dutch
Ministery

of
Education
,
D
irectie
Leraren


As part of the
implementation

of the new (2010) National
Achievement

Standards
for

Language
and

Math
(Referentiekader Taal en Rekenen)


Project Partners:


Freudenthal Instituut (Math)


Expertisecentrum Nederlands (Language)


Kennisnet (
Educational

Linkedscape
)


SLO (reviews
and

testing
)


Prototype
created

by

Daidalos

People!


Jeroen Hamers, Kennisnet


Heleen Strating, Expertisecentrum Nederlands


Marian Bruggink, Expertisecentrum Nederlands


Monica Wijers, Freudenthal Instituut


Vincent Jonker, Freudenthal Instituut

Our

Project: Els


Research
and

d
evelopment

project


Based

on
several

hypotheses
and

concepts


Project
result

(the prototype)
will

be

thoroughly

tested

and

reviewed


Main

(hypo)thesis of the project:
an

RDF
based

semantic

web helps users
to

find

information
and

acquire

educational

knowledge

far more
efficient

than

classical

vocabulairy

based

metadata

can
.

Central
Use

Case


A
History

teacher in
secundary

education

who

discovers

that

his pupils are
not

able

to

rephrase

and

summarise

historical

documents


He wants
to

provide

them

with

a tool
for

doing

that


1152 hits in
Wikiwijs

when

searching

for

‘samenvatting’
(synopsis)



An
Economics

teacher in
secundary

education

who

discovers

that

his pupils are
not

able

to

do basic
percentage
calculations


We wants
to

provide

them

with

some

exercises

to

improve

their

math

skills


355 hits in
Wikiwijs

when

searching

for

‘percentage’

Challenges


How
can

you

help a half
-
informed

teacher
to

specify

his
information
need
?


How
can

you

improve

recall

and

precision

when

searching

in a large database?


How
can

you

provide

this

teacher
with

the
additional

knowledge

and

expertise
that

is
necessary

to

use

the
search
results

he
gets

in the classroom?

Project Breakdown

1.
Modelling

curriculum information in RDF

2.
Designing

a ‘
browsing

logic’
for

end
-
users

3.
Creating

a prototype

Information
Entity

B

Information
Entity

A

Association

RDF

Information
Entity

B

Information
Entity

A

Association

RDF

Alexis de
Tocqeville

Democracy

in America

Information
Entity

B

Information
Entity

A

Association

RDF

Alexis de
Tocqeville

Democracy

in America

Is the
writer

of →

← Is
written

by

Information
Entity

B

Information
Entity

A

Association

RDF

Alexis de
Tocqeville

Democracy

in America

Is the
writer

of →

← Is
written

by

19th
Century

Saw

the life of →


Lived

in the

RDF


RDF is
like

an

ontology


RDF is
like

a thesaurus. But RDF supports
semantically

far more
richer

and

more complex
associations

than

the
simple

broader

term


narrower

term
associations

of a
thesaurus


A thesaurus is
like

18/19th
century

thinking (The
Encyclopédistes
!)


An
ontology

is
like

20th
century

thinking (
not

enough

discipline!)


RDF is
like

21st
century

thinking (
seriously

creating

order
in a complex
world
!)

The
Semantic

Domain of Els


Not

just

Curriculum
and

Learning Objects


Or Curriculum A
and

Curriculum B


But
four

interconnected

semantic

domains:


1.
Achievement

Standards

2.
Learning
Trajectories

3.
Body Of Knowledge

4.
Learning Objects


Only

when

you

provide

a teacher
with

all

this

interconnected

information
you

really

enhance

his
knowledge

and

grow

his skills.

Skill

Learning
Object

Concept

Learning
Trajectory

Achievement

Standards

Learning
Trajectories

Body Of Knowledge

Learning
Materials


→ is
acquired

with

h
elps
to

acquire



→ past in

wordt uitgevoerd met ←

→ is
acquired

with

h
elps
to

acquire



→ is
necessary

for

r
equires

knowledge

of ←

‘Strip’

Discount

Exercise

Skill

from

the National
Language
and

Math Curriculum

Context

Tool

Learning Object

Learning
Trajectory

Calculating

Quantative

Relations

Achievement

Standards

Learning
Trajectories

Body Of Knowledge

Learning
Materials

Calculating

Percentages

Learning

Trajectory

Body Of Knowledge

Curriculum

Body Of Knowledge

Body Of

Knowledge

Learning
Trajectories

Learning

Objects

Body Of Knowledge

ELS: Subject
and

Context

Modeling

the
Achievement

Standards


We
modeled

the National
Achievement

Standards For
Language
And

Math (Referentiekader Taal en Rekenen)


We
modeled

the National Learning
Outcomes

for

primary

and

secundary

education

(Kerndoelen)

Formeel kader Taal

Lesmateriaal

Referentieleerlijnen

Vakkennis

Eind
-

of Tussendoel

Taak

Kerndoel

Kenmerken van de taakuitvoering

Tekstkenmerken

Niveauaanduiding

Algemene omschrijving

Vak

Superdomein

Subdomein

Domein

Formeel kader Rekenen

Lesmateriaal

Referentieleerlijnen

Vakkennis

Eind
-

of Tussendoel

Vaardigheid

Kerndoel

Niveauaanduiding

Algemene omschrijving

Vak

Superdomein

Subdomein

Domein

Notatie, Taal en Betekenis

Functioneel gebruiken

Paraat hebben

Weten waarom

Met elkaar in verband brengen

Functioneel gebruiken

Paraat hebben

Weten waarom

Gebruiken

Functioneel gebruiken

Paraat hebben

Weten waarom

Modeling

the Learning
Trajectories


We
modeled

Learning
Trajectories


Using
the model of
SLO’s

Allard
Strijker









We
used

existing

Learning
Trajectories

of the Freudenthal
Instituut
and

the Expertisecentrum Nederlands


Verwante leerlijn

Tussendoel

Titel

Korte omschrijving

SkillEmbodied

(Vaardigheid)

Einddoel

Ratio

Leerlijn

ReferentieNiveau

BeschrijvingOnderdeel

Kerndoel

Didactische aanwijzing

Concept

EducationalLevel

(Groep/klas)

Subject

(Vak)

Schoolse context

Maatschappelijke context

Leerobject

Lesmateriaal

Vakkennis

Formele kaders

Referentieleerlijnen

beoogdeLeerlijnStartniveau

(groep/klas)

Dikke omcirkeling = verplicht

Beschrijving

Beschrijving

Oplossingswijze

Hulpmiddel

Voorbeeld

Op voorbeeld/kernopgave
na verder aan elkaar gelijk
qua mogelijke associaties

Kernopgave

Modeling

The Body Of Knowledge

We
interpreted
, re
-
arranged

and

modeled

the National
Teacher Reference Guides
for

Language
and

Math:


Kennisbasis Taal


Kennisbasis Rekenen

Formele kaders

Hulpmiddel

Concept

Referentiekader:

Domein

Kerndoel

Didactische aanwijzing

Oplossingswijze

Voorbeeld

EducationalLevel

(groep/klas)

Subject

(vak)

Schoolse context

Maatschappelijke context

Voorbeeld

Voorbeeld

Leerobject

Lesmateriaal

Referentieleerlijnen

Eind
-

of Tussendoel

Vakkennis

titel

Titel

Titel

Omschrijving

Omschrijving

Omschrijving

Omschrijving

Dikke omcirkeling = verplicht

Modeling

Learning Objects


We
modeled

Learning Objects


Using (
tiny

parts of) the RDF binding of the LOM


Formele kaders

Leerobject

Lesmateriaal

Referentieleerlijnen

Vakkennis

Didactische aanwijzing

Concept

Oplossingswijze

Hulpmiddel

ReferentieNiveau

BeschrijvingOnderdeel

Kerndoel

Eind
-

of Tussendoel

Vak

Soort leermateriaal

Ontwikkelaar

Beschrijving

Titel

Designing

The Prototype

RDF file
containing

all

the
triples

describing

the Curriculum,
Learning
Trajectories
, Body Of Knowledge
and

Learning Objects

Browsing

Logic

A user
friendly

interface
to

acccess

the
semantic

domain of Els

Triple Store

SPARQL, Java

CSS, HTML

Quality

of Information Retrieval

Two

Aspects of Query
Specification


Can

the
semantic

web approach help
to

specify

a vague
query
based

on incomplete domain expertise?


Can

the
semantic

web approach help
to

enhance

recall

and

precision

of
queries

on large databases (
like

for

example

Wikiwijs
)?

Query
Specification

1


In Els
you

enter a search term (
with

auto
-
complete
based

on
the content of the triple store)


This

term is
matched

with

all

content of the triple store
using

full
-
text

search (the triple store is
loaded

with

text
!)


Using SPARQL
-
queries

all

hits are
then

led back
to

the most
‘dominant’ Learning
Trajectory
/
ies

associated

with

them


These Learning
Trajectories

are
presented

to

the user
with

full
context information


The user
navigates

through

the
semantic

web
following

the
triple
associations


Hypothesis of Els: The concept of the Learning
Trajectory

is the
most
efficient

organizing

principle

of curriculum information

Function

of the
Semantic

Web

Semantic

Web (Concepts
and

Relations)

Information (
Instances
)

Query
Specification

1

The
semantic

web
functions

as a kind of
fishing

net (or
safety

net?):


It
contains

so

much

text

that

you

get
enough

hits
with

the
first query


It offers
contextual

information
to

help the user
place

himself

on the right spot in the web



But
all

depends

on the
quality

of the ‘triple
reasoning


Query
Specification

2


The
semantic

web
provides

the user
with

a lot of
relevantly

associated

terms

to

his
original

‘vague’ search
term


Hypothesis:
This

set of
terms

might

help
to

formulate

more
precise

queries

when

you

want
to

access large
databases
with

for

example

learning

objects

RDF
A
nd

M
etadata

Why

is RDF
such

a
powerful

tool
for

adding

metadata

to

information?



Because

of the
principle

of
implicated

reasoning
. RDF
-
webs

create

knowledge


Because

of the
principle

of
multidimensional

inheritance

of
metadata
.
Once

you

place

an

information object in the
right spot in a
semantic

web
it

inherits

automatically

all

associations

that

are relevant
to

that

spot


RDF
entities

provide

by

their

semantic

richness

good

anchor points
for

adding

user
generated

information
through

social

media

Any

questions
?



jacobmolenaar@xs4all.nl