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COMPUTER LANGUAGES OVERVIEW

Monday, March 18, 2013

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Microsoft Silverlight

is an
application framework

for writing and running
rich
Internet applications
,
with features and purposes similar to those of
Adobe Flash
. The
run
-
time environment

for Silve
rlight is
available as a
plug
-
in

for most
web browsers
. While early versions of Silverlight
focused on
streaming
media
, current versions support
multimedia
,
graphics

and
animation
, and give developers support for
CLI languages

and
development tools
. Silverlight is also one of the two application development
platforms for
Wind
ows Phone 7
.

Silverlight provides a
retained mode

graphics system similar to
Windows Presentation Foundation
, and
integr
ates
multimedia
,
graphics
,
animations

and
interactivity

into a single runtime environment. In
Silverlight applications, user interfaces are declared in
Exten
sible Application Markup Language

(XAML) and programmed using a subset of the
.NET Framework
. XAML can be used for
marking up

the
vector graphics

and
animations
. Silverlight can also be used to create
Windows Sidebar

gadgets

for
Windows Vista
.
[7]

Silverlight supports
H.264

video,
Advanced Audio Coding
,
Windows Media Video

(WMV),
Windows
Media Audio

(WMA) and
MPEG Layer III

(MP3) media content
[8]

across all supported browsers
without requiring
Windows Medi
a Player
, the
Windows Media Player

ActiveX

control or
Windows
Media

browser plug
-
ins. Because
Windows Media Video 9

is an implementation of the
Society of
Motion Picture and Television Engineers

(SMPTE)
VC
-
1

standard, Silverlight also supports VC
-
1
video. According to the
End user license agreement

VC
-
1 and H.264 are only licensed for the
"personal and non
-
commercial use of a consumer".
[9]

Silverlight, since

version 3, supports the
playback of
H.264

video.
[10]

Silverlight makes it possible to dynamically load
Extensible Markup
Language

(XML) content that can be manipulated through a
Document Object
Model

(DOM)
interface, a technique that is consistent with conventional
Ajax

techniques. Silverlight exposes a
Downloader

object which can be used to download content,
like scripts, media assets or other data, as
may be required by the application.
[11]

With version 2, the programming logic can be written in any
.NET

language
, including some derivatives of common
dynamic programming languages

like
IronRuby

and
IronPython
.
[12]

Ajax

(pronounced
/
ˈ
e
ɪ
d
ʒ
æks/
; shorthand for
asynchronous

JavaScript

and
XML
)
[1]

is a group of
interrelated
web development

methods used on the
client
-
side

to crea
te interactive
web applications
.
With Ajax, web applications can retrieve data from the
server

asynchr
onously in the background
without interfering with the display and behavior of the existing page. Data is usually retrieved using
the
XMLHttpRequest

object
. Despite the name, the use of
XML

is not needed, and the requests need
not be
asynchronous
.
[2]

Python

is a
high
-
level
,
structured
,
open
-
source

programming language that can be used for a wide
variety of programming tasks. It is good for simple quick
-
and
-
dirty scripts, as well as complex and
intricate applications.

It is an interpreted programming language that is automatically compil
ed into bytecode before
execution (the bytecode is then normally saved to disk, just as automatically, so that compilation need
COMPUTER LANGUAGES OVERVIEW

Monday, March 18, 2013

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not happen again until and unless the source gets changed). It is also a dynamically typed language that
includes (but does not
require one to use) object oriented features and constructs.

The most unusual aspect of Python is that whitespace is significant; instead of block delimiters (braces
→ "{}" in the C family of languages), indentation is used to indicate where blocks begin a
nd end.

Ruby

is a
dynamic
,
reflective
,

general
-
purpose
object
-
oriented programming language

that combines
syntax inspired by
Perl

with
Smalltalk
-
like features. Ruby originated in
Japan

during the mid
-
1990s
and was first developed and designed by
Yukihiro "Matz" Matsumoto
. It was influenced primarily by
Perl
,
S
malltalk
,
Eiffel
, and
Lisp
.

Drupal

(
pron
unciation:

/
ˈ
d
r

p
ə
l
/
) is a
free and open source

content management system

(CMS) and
Content Management framework

(CMF) written in
PHP

and distributed under the
GNU General Public
License
.
[2]
[3]
[4]

It is used as a
back
-
end

system for at least 1.5% of all
websites

wor
ldwide
[5]
[6]

ranging
from personal
blogs

to corporate, pol
itical, and government sites including
whitehouse.gov

and
data.gov.uk
.
[7]
[8]

It is also used for
knowledge management

and business collaboration.

Joomla!

is a
free

and
open source

content management system

(CMS) for publishing content on the
World Wide Web

and
intranets
. It comprises a
model

view

controller

(MVC)
Web application
framework

that can also be used independently.

Joomla! is written in
PHP
, uses
object
-
oriented programming

(OOP) techniques and
software d
esign
patterns
, stores data in a
MySQL

database, and includes features such as page
caching
,
RSS feeds
,
printable versions of pages, news flashes,
blogs
,
polls
, search, and su
pport for
language
internationalization
.

WordPress

is an
open source

Content Management System

(CMS), often used as a
blog publishing
application
, powered by
PHP

and
MySQL
. It has many features including a plug
-
in architecture and a
template system. WordPress is used by over 13% of the 1,000,000 biggest websites.
[4]