The Design and Fabrication of the Vibration-Induced Energy Harvester on the Heat Pipe Generator

fangscaryAI and Robotics

Nov 13, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

76 views


The
D
esign and
F
abrication of the
V
ibration
-
I
nduced

E
nergy
H
arvester

on the
H
eat
P
ipe
G
enerator


C
.

F
.

S
hen
1
,
J.C. Hsieh
2
,
David. T.W. Lin
1*
,
Cheng
-
Chi Wang
3
,
Yuh
-
Chung Hu
4
, Chi
-
Chang

Wang
5

1
Institute of Mechatronic System Engineering
,
National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C.

2

Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan City, Taiwan 709, R.O.C.

3

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Far East Un
iversity,
Tainan
,
744
,
Taiwan, R.O.C

4

Department of Mechanical and Electro
-
Mechanical Engineering, National Ilan University, I
-
Lan, 260, Taiwan, R.O.C

5

Department of Mechanical
and Computer
-
Aided
Engineering,
Feng Chia Un
iversity,
Taichung
,

407
, Taiwan, R.O.C

E
-
mail:
david@mail.
nutn.edu.tw



A
BSTRACT:

The most important issue is to find the potential energy

inside the heat pipe
.

The focus of this paper is on the investigation of

using a vapor mode piezoelectric film for energy harvesting from a

fluid flow.
Design

of the energy

harvester with an assembly technique

is
described.
The e
xperimental setup
is
used to measure vapor velocity, and voltage output

of the device. The fabricated device is tested under

the different
.

It show
s

that
a

very small continuous
power

and

can
fit

with

the
requirements

of
piezoelectric

materials
MEMS
-
scale sources.
This design

can improve the

previous

concepts of the heat pipe generator
.



1.

INTRODUCTION

The most important issue is to find the potential energy.

The design
of the energy

harvest
er is a new and interesting topic in the g
reen
energy
.

First,
Pryputniewicz

and
Haapala

propose

to

use of

momentum result
ed

in the piezoelectric vibration to produce
the
mechanical energy

which
transfers to electricity
. T
he working fluid
on

the heat
ed section

is vaporized

and generated the

large amounts
of high speed
vapor
.

Therefore,

it will result in the

available energy

for

utilizing in advance.
They

are going to

install the turbine in
the

heat pipe
.
When the turbine

driven by steam
.

It is

the
structure
simple

on a
dynamo model.
T
he heat pipe
is d
esign
to

the
heat
quantity input
about
2
-
3kW
.

The power generation efficiency
i
s

only
about 1%

[
1
]
. Many studies of
Akbarzadeh

et

al
.
have
adapted the
t
urbines

for

the

heat pipe

structure
. Th
e heat pipe is design to

the
heat quantity input
100kW

for about

3kW of power generation

[
2
-
[
4
].

I
ncidentally
,

they
set
the
geotherm
al electric power generator

t
o

get

interest

[
5
]
.
I
n 2008,
He et al
.
the turbine rotor
is going to
install

in t
he heat pipe
, to do p
ower generation
,

a
nd thus the
design patent
application

[
6
].

There is
no

doubt about

the turbine or rotor requires
a large amount of energy to
drive, but

it has too big for

mechanical
loss
and

com
plex structure
.
Therefore,
in this article, I would like to

use
vibration induce electricity
.

The
vibrating element has

to
replace

rotating components
. In
1998
, Amirtharajah and Chandra
-
kasan

has
constructed

a

prototype DSP system power by it

i
s own genera
tor

and low power voltage regulator

[
7
].

In
2000
, a

portable digital
system can be power entirely

from ambient vibrations in
the
environment
.

The
magnet based micro
power

generator transforms
ambient vibration energy into

electrical power

according to

Faraday’s Law of Induction
.

The
Operations
of

frequency
to

about
60Hz

can be
about 2V

of
power generation

[
8
]
.

In 2001, F
irst
,

Jones
et al
. idea underlying the
propos
ed

is used
the piezoelectric material
to produce

electricity

[
9
]
.

Kim's fabrication
of
the piezoelectric
is

bond
ing

to the aluminum substrate layer

[
10
]
.
Sood and Fa
ng
the
micro piezoelectric power generator

construct

on a
MEMS
-
based

[
11
-
[
12
]
.
Kang

the
micro

bubble
-
driven
is
construct
ed

a

piezoelectric cantilever generate electric charge
s
[
13
]
.
Chang et al
.

the
wind
-
driven zinc oxide piezoelectric materials
. The o
perations
of frequency of

80Hz

can be about

7.52V of power generation

[
14
]
.

T
he piezoelectric vibration of
the

principle of operation
is the key to
solving
this heat pipe size than smaller to achieve the purpose of
power generation
.

Now that b
ased on the above discussion and analysis
of
literature shows

from the standpoint of
a heat pipe

generator

gives

authenticity to
piezoelectric material

is well founded.

Particularly is
us
ed

of momentum result
ed

in the piezoelectric vibration to
produced mechanical energy into electricity
.
Owing to

small

of the
product

v
olume
, the

thermal density is get increasingly higher
.

M
aking the generator of the heat pipe volume greatly reduced

on the

grounds that

piezoelectric material
.

The h
eat pipe is a very forward
-
looking technology

to solve
product

cooli
ng p
roblem
.
T
he h
eat pipe
generator

make to

cooling
, causes
driven

of
piezoelectric materials

to
generate electricity
.

The focus of this paper is on the investigation
of

using a
v
apor mode piezoelectric film for energy harvesting from
a

fluid flow.
Design

of the energy

harvester with an assembly
technique

is described.
The e
xperimental setup
is
used to measure
vapor

velocity, and voltage output

of the device is reported. The
fabricated device is tested under

various loading conditions.


Figure
1

The
s
chematic

diagram
of TSR engine
[
1
]


Figure
2

The

s
chematic

diagram
of TSR engine
[
6
]


2.

THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL of
HEAT PIPE
GENERATOR

The heat pipe
generator

is a unique system
which

combines the
concept of vapor
momentum
and piezoelectric effect

to generate the
electricity
.

Making use of the force generated by the flow of vapor
to vibrate the piezoelectric
component
, the mechanical energy

is

harvested from the vibration
of the piezoelectric material
and

convert
s

into
electricity
.

T
he velocity fie
ld and pressure for the liquid phase are described
by the incompressible Navier
-
Stokes equations:













(

̅



)

̅




[























]






(
1
)










(
2
)

w
here



is the fluid density (




),





is the fluid velocity (m/s),



is the viscosity (



) and


denotes
liquid phase. For the vapor
phase, the weakly compressible Navier
-
Stokes equations are solved:












(






)








[























)




















(

)






(






)



(
4
)

The
heat conduction equation is

listed as below and

solved

in the
vapor:




















(






)


















(
5
)

w
here













the specific is

heat capacity
and










is the thermal conductivity.

T
he equations
governing the interface dynamics of a two
-
phase
flow can be described by the Cahn
-
Hilliard equation













̇

(













)









(
6
)

w
here



is the dimensionless phase field variable such






.


The
quantity


is the mixing energy
density

(
N
) and


is a
capillary width that scales with the thickness of the interface (
m
).

The volume fraction of the vapor phase is




,

and the volume
fraction of the liquid is




.

The moment

equation includes surface tension effect as a
volumetric

body force:




̅















[



̅

























(
7
)

w
here

G

i
s the chemical potential (Pa).
T
he continuity is modified to
account for the phase change from liquid to vapor:








̇

[







]

(
8
)

Through the experiment of piezoelectric device test, the
minimum
velocity of the vapor can be obtained to generate the
electricity. We can estimate the velocity of vapor inside the heat
pipe from the relationship between the nozzle size and the boiling
mechanism. The governing equations are listed as below.

Thermodynami
c calculations and forecasts generated by the
syste
m in thermal efficiency of

vapor.

Calculation method

by
Akbarzadeh [1]

Leo and Hsu [2,3] and Leo [4]
.




is
the input heat,
and



is the l
atent heat
.

T
he system is

assumed

stable.


̇


̇


(
9
)


̇









[





]




̇



(
10
)

When
the dry
-
saturated

condition is happen
, t
he temperature of
the
vapor

generated

is




The

energy equation is listed as below
:






















(
11
)











(
12
)

w
here







are

the

inlet and
outlet

enthalpy

of

the nozzle
, and






are the

inlet and
outlet

velocity

of

the nozzle
, and






are

the
inlet and outlet

c
ross
-
sectional area

of nozzle
,



is
length
of

the nozzle
.










(
13
)

w
here



is the enthalpy of vapor impinging jet for the piezoelectric
material bottom
, and



is the
gap

between

the
p
iezoelectric
material

and

the
nozzle
.

The vapor momentum

will

provide

the

piezoelectric vibration.


̇


̇



(
14
)

T
he e
fficiency of

the generator

in the

heat pipe

equation

is:




̇

̇

(
15
)

Combing the
equations

(
9
)
-
(
15
), the efficiency cab be
rewritten
as

below:






(





)
[





]



[








[


[




]

]


(





)
]

(
16
)


3.

E
XPERIMENT

I
n this paper, an experimental study of

t
he piezoelectric vibration

resulted from the vapour
momentum

related to the
heat pipe
is
prepared
to
demonstrate.

Two kinds of piezoelect
ricity materials are
used in th
is

experiment. The parameters of piezoelectric materials
are shown in

Table
1
.

The longitudinal piezoelectric strain of PZT is
higher tha
n the one of PVDF. The Young's
m
odule of PVDF is
small than

the one of

PZT.

The
s
chematic diagram

of the
experimental apparatus

is shown in

Figure
4
.

The experimental procedures are listed as below:

1.

T
he piezoelectric material of PVDF and PZT

are prepared

in
Figure
3
.


2.

To design and fabricate of the piezoelectric vibration induced
electricity platform in

Figure
5

3.

9603D DUAL
-
TRACKING DC POWER SUPPLY

is used to
control the input power of heating
.

4.

The temperature
of the vapor
obtained from T
-
type
thermocouples are delivered to the data logger

YOKOGAWA
MX

100
.

5.

The
frequencies of the piezoelectric material elements
are

recorded

by the oscilloscopes

Keithley 5487
PICOAMMETER/VOLTAGE SOURCE
.


4.

R
ESULTS

AND

DISCUSSION
S

In this section, the
results

of the piezoelectric heat pipe generator

experiment will be illustrated and discussed
.
All experimental
results recorde
d are based on the fixed vapour velocity (v=
4.01 m/s
)
to process
.
The relationship
between the

vapor velocity
and the
heated

flux

is shown

in

Figure
6
.

The relationship of vapour with
current on PVDF result is shown in

Figure
7
.
The transient response
o
f current
is observed for

its large amounts of vapour output driv
ing

the

piezoelectric materials to generate electricity from 150s to 350s.

The
current profile of the PZT under the fixed vapour velocity

is
shown in

Figure
8
.The transient response of current

is observed

within the heating time from
200s to 370s
.

The
electricity generated
from
PZT

is
higher
than

the one generated from
PVDF.

Th
is

stud
y

determine
s

the relationships between the current and
vapour velocity. According to this relationship, the heating
conditions can be determined through the required electricity. T
he
power generation of heat pipe
generator is

unlike the conventional
vapor turbine
.

I
ts

related
components

are relative smaller in size
and lighter in weigh
t. The
se

results of experiment
clearly

show that
heat pipe
can
provide
the suitable
momentum
to
result the
piezoelectric
vibration.


Figure
3

The schematic diagr
am of the p
iezoelectricity elements


Figure
4

The s
chematic diagram of the experimental apparatus



Figure
5

Schemat
ic of the experimental apparatus


Figure
6

The relationship
between
of the

vapor

velocity

and the
heating power


Figure
7

The
current profile of

PVDF

at v=4.01 m/s



Figure
8

The
current profile of
PZT

at v=4.01 m/s
Table
1

Typical constant for piezoelectric materials

[15]


d33

d31

g33

g31

Young’s Modulus

Units






























































PVDF































PZT
-
5A


































5.

CONCLUSION

This study proposes
an

innovation idea

of heat pipe generator

by

using

the
piezoelectric mat
erial for a low power de
v
i
c
e
.

This idea
can reduce the size of

the generator of the heat pipe
.

The
relationship
s

among

the current,
the

vapor velocity
and the heated

flux

are

determined in two kinds of piezoelectric material, PVDF
and PZT.
The
electricity generated from
PZT
is
higher
than

the one
generated from
PVDF.

According to this relationship, the heating
conditions can be determined through the required electricity. I
ts
related
components

are relative smaller in size and lighter in weigh
t.
The
se

results of experiment
clearly

show that heat pipe
can
provide
the s
uitable
momentum
to
result

the piezoelectric vibration.


6.

ACKNOWL
EDGEMENT

The financial support provided to this study by the

National Science
Council of Taiwan through Grant No.

100
-
2628
-
E
-
269
-
016
-
MY2

is
gratefully acknowledged.


7.

REFERENCES

[
1
]

Pryputniewicz
,

R.J
.
"
An investigation of a heat pipe turbine
-
generator system for

production of energy
,
"

Proceedings of
the 17th Intersocity Energy Conversion Engineering
Conference

(IECEC)
,

U.S. Haapala
, 1
982
, pp. 1134
-
1139
.

[
2
]


Nguyen
,

T.
, Johnson

P.
, Akbarzadeh

A.
, Gibson
,

K.
,

and
Mochizuki
,

M.

"
Design, manufacture and testing of a closed
cycle thermosyphon Rankine engine,
"

J
. Heat Recovery
System and CHP,

Vol
.
15, N
o.

4, May 1995
, pp
.

333
-
346
.

[
3
]


Johnson
,
P.
,

and

Akbarzadeh
,

A.

"
Thermosyphon Rankine
engine for solar energy and waste heat

applications,
"

Int. Heat
Pipe Conference, Minsk, USSR, 1990.

[
4
]


Akbarzadeh
,
A.
,

Johnson
,

P.
,

Th
eurer
,
F.
, Nguyen
,
T.
,

and
Mochizuki
,

M.

"
Production of power using solar thermal
sources,
"

Int. Solar Energy Conference, Taejon, Korea, 1997.

[
5
]


Akbarzadeh
,

A.
, Johnson
,

P.
, Nguyen
,

T.
, Mochizuki
,

M.
,
Mashiko
,

M.
, Sauciuc

I.
,

Kusaba
,

S.
,

and
Suzuki
,

H.

"
Formulation and analysis of the heat pipe turbine for
production of power from renewable sources,
"

Applied
Thermal Engineering,
Vol

2
1,

Issue 15
,

Oct
ober 2001
,

pp
.

1551
-
1563
.

[
6
]


He
,

S.W.
, Chou
,

T.C.
, Chang
,

L.S.
,

and
Ku
,

C.C.

"
The heat
pipe generator,
"

US2008/0178589 A1,
Jul

2008
.

[
7
]


Amirtharajah
,

R.
,
and
Chandrakasan
,

A.P.

"
Self
-
powered
signal processing using vibration
-
based power generator,
"

IEEE J. Soli
d
-
State Circuits, Vol.

33,


Issue 5
,

199
8
, pp. 687
-
695.

[
8
]


Li
,

W.J.
, Wen
,

Z.
, Wong
,

P.K.
, Chan
,

G.M.H.
,

and
Leong
,

P.H.W.

"
A micromachined vibration
-
induced power
generator for low power sensors of robotic systems,
"

World
Automation Congress, 8th Int. Symposium on Robotics with
Application, Manui, Hawaii, Vol. 21,
Jun
2000
,

pp
.

1551
-
1563
.

[
9
]


Glynne
-
Jones
,

P.
, Beeye
,

S.P.
,
and
White
,

N.M.

"
Toward
s a

piezoelectric vibration
-
powered microgenerator,
"

IEE Proc.
Sci. Meas. Tech.,

Vol
.
1
48,

Issue

2
,

No. 2
,

2001
,

pp
.

68
-
72
.

[
10
]


Kim
,

S.

"
Low power energy harvesting with
piezoelectric
generators,
"

Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh,
2002.

[
11
]


Sood
,

R.K.

"
Piezoelectric micro power generator (PMPG): A
MEMS
-
based energy scavenger,
"

Graduate Thesis,
Massachusetts Institute of Technol
ogy, 2003.

[
12
]


Fanga
,

H.B.
, Liu
,

J.Q.
, Xu
,

Z.Y.
, Dong
,

L.
, Wang
,

L.
, Chen
,

D.
, Cai
,

B.C.
,
and
Liu
,

Y.

"
Fabrication and

performance of
MEMS
-
based piezoelectric power generator for vibration
energy harvesting,

"

Microelectronics J., Vol.

37,
Issue 11
,
2006, pp
.

1280
-
1284.

[
13
]


Kang
,

J.Y.
, Kim
,

H.J.
, Kim
,

J.S.
,

and
Kim
,

T.S.

"
Optimal
design of piezoelectric cantilever for a micro power generator
with microbubble,
"

The 2nd Annual Int. IEEE
-
EMBS Special
Topic Conference on

Microtechnologies i
n Medicines &
Biology, 2002, pp
.

424
-
427.

[
14
]


Chang
,

W.T.
, Chen
,

Y.C.
, Lin
,

R.C.
, Cheng
,

C.C.
, K
a
o
,

K.S.
,

and
Huang
,

Y.C.

"
Wind
-
power generators based on ZnO
piezoelectric thin films on stainless steel substrates,

"

Current
Applied Physics,
Vol
.

11,

Issue 1,
Supplement, January 2011,
pp
.

333
-
338
.

[
15
]


Ramsay
,

M.J.
,

and
Clark
,

W.W.

"
Piezoelectric energy
harvesting

for bio MEMS applications,
"

in Smart Structure
and Materials 2001
-
Industrial and Commercial Applications
of Smart Structures Technologies. Newport Beach, CA
,
United states: SPIE,
V
ol. 4332
,
2001, pp
.


429
-
438.

[
16
]


Sun
,

Y.
,

and
Beckermann
,

C.

"
Diffuse interface modeling of
two
-
phase flows based on averagin
g: mass and momentum
equations,

"

Physica D,
V
ol. 198,

2004, pp
.

281

308.