Download basic tutorial on microcontroller based robots design

fangscaryAI and Robotics

Nov 13, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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without
prior permission prohibited.

http://www.eklavyainnovision.com




robotics@eklavyainnovision.com








EmbedMe



EmbedMe
’ stands for

feelings of

the

robotics systems having
whishes to acquire some artificial intelligence or some decision
making of its own. Any embedded system having inbuilt decision
making ability and e
xternal interface for only data communication
and interruption events.

For example, a printer having all the
control of its subsystems likes movement of motor, injection of ink
and its direction. Significance of computer communication is only
for the purpo
se of data desired to print. Similarly our motive is to
design, fabricate, program & operate such type of system by its own.





+

















Image Processing/ Computer inter
face Based

ROBOTS or
ROBOTIC SYSTEM

MANUAL

AUTONOMOUS

SEMIMANUAL or MIXED


Control by
Human Itself

Control by
circuits

or
microcontroller

Both type
of control

Wired

Wireless (Remote
controlled)

(Remote
controlled)

Circuit Based

Microcontroller/P
rocessor
Based


The entire document is the property of EKLAVYA INNOVISION. Any commercial use
without
prior permission prohibited.

http://www.eklavyainnovision.com




robotics@eklavyainnovision.com



Following tools are required for the above said purpose:

(respective tools/software may be downloaded from indicated web)


Diptrace:
[
http://www.d
iptrace.com
]


This is PCB layout design software. We’ll design the layout of circuit diagram for the
microcontroller burner kit and take print on the photo paper after sticking the layout to the CCB (copper
coated board) we’ll go for manual e
tching with the help of FeCl
3

solution.


Kei
l micro
-
vision4:

[
http://www.keil.com
]


It is a microcontroller programming software use to develop the code for the algorithms
we have to burn on the microcontroller chip. With the he
lp of this tool we’ll able to generate the
hexadecimal file of respective algorithm, which is actually the machine language in ‘0’ & ‘1’ of the
program. After it our job is to burn this bunch of data to the microcontroller chip.


Flash Magic:
[
http://www.f
lashmagic.com
]


This is another tool employed for our desired work. The hexadecimal file generated by the
Kiel tool is physically burned to the microcontroller chip with the help of this tool. We gives respective
hexadecimal file as an i
nput to this tool and this communicate with microcontroller chip via serial
communication and load the desired program to the chip.


MATLAB:

[
http://www.mathworks.com
]


This is a computing tool and covers the whole engineering, science and
art domains. With this
single tool design any entity of engineering. Here we’ll use this tool for the purpose of real time serial
communication between PC and the microcontroller.

To start with this tool go through the help section
of this and any programm
ing support can mostly resolved with this troubleshooting point self. For more
support on coding one can visit the web
www.mathworks.com

where tutorials are available.



Note:
-

The user guide for each of these tools

are embedded with its setup and any query about the using
this tool can be find by searching help content of these tools itself.











The entire document is the property of EKLAVYA INNOVISION. Any commercial use
without
prior permission prohibited.

http://www.eklavyainnovision.com




robotics@eklavyainnovision.com




COMPONENT DETAILS:



1.

Q2N2222 (General purpose transistor)


Maximum Ratings:

(i)

V
CE

= 40 V(dc)

(ii)

V
CB
=75 V(dc)

(iii)

V
BE
= 6 V(
dc)

(iv)

I
C

= 600 mA(dc)



2.

MJE3055T (Power transistor)


Maximum ratings:

(i)

V
CE
= 60 V(dc)

(ii)


V
CB
= 70 V(dc)

(iii)


V
BE
= 5 V(dc)

(iv)


I
C
= 10 Amp(dc)

(v)

I
B
= 6 Amp(dc)










The entire document is the property of EKLAVYA INNOVISION. Any commercial use
without
prior permission prohibited.

http://www.eklavyainnovision.com




robotics@eklavyainnovision.com



3.

LED (light emitting diode)





Operating voltage normal LED is about 2
-
3 Volts



Operating voltage
IR LED is about 4 Volts



IR LED emits light in the IR region (about 1x10
13

Hz)



Never operate > 4 Volts, it will burn the LED

4.

KA7805 (+ve Voltage regulator
)

It is a 5 Volt regulator giving 5 Volt as a output if the V
cc

in the typical circuit diagram
grea
ter than 5 Volt and under the maximum limit






5.

MAX232 (RS232/TTL
-
CMOS) Convertor:

In general a data having 8 bytes (for 8
-
bit processor as in our case) so the simplest
one is parallel transmission but for long distance parall
el transmission loss of
synchronization occurs which finally appears as loss of data. To overcome this
problem serial communication is widely prefers for this purpose. For serial
communication of data the transmission signal is in RS
-
logic (bit ‘1’ for
-
3V

to
-
25V
and ‘0’ bit for +3V to +25V), but the PC and the microcontroller deals with TTL
-
logic
or CMOS
-
logic (bit ‘0’ for 0V to 1.2V and bit ‘1’ for ‘3.8V to 5V’). For the purpose of
Ratings:

(i)

V
INPUT

< 40 V(dc)

(ii)

I
O
<1.5 Amp


The entire document is the property of EKLAVYA INNOVISION. Any commercial use
without
prior permission prohibited.

http://www.eklavyainnovision.com




robotics@eklavyainnovision.com



interchanging the logic of the data from RS
-
232 to TTL and TTL to RS
-
232
MAX232 IC
chip is employed. Pin diagram and connection as follows;


6.

P89V51RD2FN an NXP microcontroller: A typical microcontroller made by Philips it
having following specifications;

i.


80C51 CPU

ii.

5 V operating voltage


from

0 MHz to 40 MHz

iii.

64 kB

of on
-
chip flash


user

code memory with


ISP and IAP


iv.

Supports 12
-
clock


(default)or 6
-
clock


mode selection via


software or ISP

v.

SPI and enhanced UART

vi.

Four 8
-
bit I/O ports


with
three high
-
current



port

1 pins (16 mA each)

vii.

Three 16
-
bit timers/counters

viii.

Programmable watchdog timer

ix.

Eight interrupt sources with


four priority levels

x.

Second DPTR register

xi.

TTL
-

and CMOS
-
compatible


logic levels





The entire document is the property of EKLAVYA INNOVISION. Any commercial use
without
prior permission prohibited.

http://www.eklavyainnovision.com




robotics@eklavyainnovision.com



Rest information may found from datasheet. The Architect
ure and pin configuration
as follows;



Architecture with different blocks




















The entire document is the property of EKLAVYA INNOVISION. Any commercial use
without
prior permission prohibited.

http://www.eklavyainnovision.com




robotics@eklavyainnovision.com




Pin configuration

A rough connection of the system wit
h serial communication with PC



7.

DB9 Port:



DB9 is a communication port


for RS232 communication , just like


power plug for power transmission to


bulbs, computer etc. following is the


labeled diagram for pins of DB9. We will


use only 3 pins for our application, pin 1,2 &


5. out of which pin 2 for data transmission


from computer to the microcontroller via


MAX232, pin 3 for data reception from


Microcontroller via MAX232 and pin 5 for


Global grounding purpose.


8.

P89V51R
D2 Microcontroller Kit: This is the simplest circuit which can be use for
microcontroller programming and the general uses. Following is diagrammatical
representation of the Communication of PC
-
Microcontroller



The entire document is the property of EKLAVYA INNOVISION. Any commercial use
without
prior permission prohibited.

http://www.eklavyainnovision.com




robotics@eklavyainnovision.com









Circuit layout for our Kit and the compo
nent details are shown in figure