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fangscaryAI and Robotics

Nov 13, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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1

IRELAND


Virtual Communities and ICT Platforms for Zero
-
Tolerance of Road
Fatalities and Injuries
__________________________________________



1.

Theme for the Joint Programming Initiative


Virtual Communities and ICT Platforms for Zero
-
Tolerance of

Road
Fatalities and Injuries.



The current trajectory of road traffic fatalities is such that by 2020 this is expected
to be the third most common cause of death. Now, globally, about 1.2 million
people die each year from traffic crashes and 25 million
suffer permanent disability.
The first ever automobile fatality was in Ireland when Mary Ward, a respected
microscopist, artist, astronomer and naturalist fell from a steam carriage and went
under its heavy iron wheels in Birr, Co. Offaly, on 31 August 18
69 [1].


In the engineering of transport systems there has been some improvement over
time. In Ireland for example, motor vehicle accidents including non
-
traffic
accidents have led to the following annual fatalities from 1998 to 2006 [2]: 448,
414, 40
7, 391, 363, 309, 319, 344, 285. While the trend is decreasing, these
figures remain very high. What holds for Ireland also is true for Europe and
globally. In the past year, some 39,000 people died on Europe’s streets, roads and
highways as a result o
f traffic accidents [3]. While this figure is down on the
previous year, nonetheless the downward trend is not pointing to the European
target of 27,000 by 2010 (that is, 50% of the number of deaths in 2001). This
target will not be realized.


Much ha
s been achieved through use of best practice and good engineering (in road
design and the human
-
machine interface), through use of regulation and its
enforcement (in vehicle health and performance, and linkage with culture and
behaviour


for example, alco
hol consumption), through materials science, and so
on. However as noted, European targets, e.g. fatality statistics in 2010, will
definitely not be reached. In any case, the numbers of fatalities and injuries (we
have not dealt with the latter here) rem
ain at levels that are unacceptably high,
across Europe and globally.


The aim of this JPI is to develop and evaluate new information
-

and data
-
rich
technologies, and deploy them towards the goal of road traffic safety.


While this draft proposal is a
nchored around software, telecoms, sensors, and
interaction, pointers are provided here for various further work areas that can be
added, such as in health, finance and law. In addition there is a need for strong
collaborations with automotive manufacture

and supply, road operators, goods
transportation, public transportation, and other sectors.


2


Major strands of the proposed work are as follows. These strands are based on a
continuum between research, R&D, applied research, operational deployment, and
wide and broad user uptake.


-

The Future Internet, which has become a focus of much European
research and industrial R&D, will be directed in part to address the many
issues arising in this Grand Challenge JPI.


-

In wireless telecoms, peer
-
to
-
peer (P2P) a
nd other systems will be
developed for early warning, and scenario modelling and forecasting
based on environmental and ambient data.


-

In line with current Web 2.0 technologies, pride of place is occupied by
standards and protocols, that are compatible wit
h various complementary
forms of intellectual property.


-

Part and parcel of such Web 2.0 technologies is the mobilizing of
communities in new ways that are analogous to how tens of millions of
Europeans now use Facebook, Twitter, Youtube. The standards
and
protocols referred to above are developed and validated through such (or,
if appropriate, new) virtual community platforms.


-

Sources of information and data to drive this work will come from sensors
(data measurement and capture in all forms, includi
ng visual, sound,
environmental, chemical, thermal, and others) Pride of place in such
sensors will be given to pervasive and ubiquitous information delivery
and interaction platforms,
-

e.g. based on mobile phones and mobile
phone/computer platforms suc
h as the iPhone.


-

Equally this work will be driven by the sensor web that is based on
devices, and where appropriate human, inputs, and also on the
information fusion that precedes knowledge creation and decision
-
making.


-

Some aspects of the sensor we
b technologies and platforms will overlap
significantly with R&D work in e
-
health, and with energy, climate and
environment work.


-

Various groups in society need special attention, for example the aged
with assisted living requirements, or children. Thi
s JPI therefore
leverages European research work on Ambient Assisted Living and
independent living.


-

Established areas of science and technology, such as environmental
engineering, and urban and general spatial planning and design, need to

3

be further dev
eloped in a context of the sensor web and of socio
-
economic impacts.



2.

Proposing GPC member/members


Ireland and



3.

Objectives


The objective of this work is to target the Grand Challenge of an immediate zero
-
tolerance of road traffic accidents t
hrough use of all possible data and information
-
based technologies.


Over and above the top
-
down, regulatory instruments, which have proven
themselves to be of limited effectiveness (see section 1 and [4]), this work will
leverage (i) distributed and n
etworked virtual communities, thereby exploiting the
“wisdom of crowds”, (ii) against the backdrop of mostly but not exclusively
wireless data communications.


In this JPI the sensor web to be built is an outgrowth of the Internet of Things. It
encompas
ses both travelling human and ambient environment. In this sensor web,
dynamic context awareness is key.



4.

Research questions being addressed


Some core research activities include the following.


-

A main strand of the Future Internet is that of loca
tion
-
based services using
GPS and mobile telecoms. This JPI will seek to direct and make use of geo
-
services towards the goal of combating traffic fatalities and injuries.

-

Black box data recorders will be developed and deployed, linked to insurance
comp
anies (analogous to health sensors, e.g. pedometers, linked and relaying
data to the health insurance system). This is one example of the link between
mobile user and the data (plus, potentially, the compute) cloud.

-

Hence this work will spur a new gener
ation of mobile phone services, allowing
P2P systems based on mobile telecoms, and also RFID and other technologies,
to be built and deployed.

-

Such geo
-
services include the leveraging of GPS and motion tracking through
mobile phones.

-

The data and comput
e cloud will service the mobile user. “Virtual data”, either
value
-
added archived data or results of environmental and other models, will be
merged with dynamic and real
-
time data streams.


4

-

Information spaces will need to support (potentially real
-
time) a
ccess and
retrieval of data.


A more general list of future concepts to be addressed includes the following.


-

The Future Internet encompassing all levels of the networking stack, from high
level services to the wireless and/or fixed photonics, or other, h
ardware
communications infrastructure.

-

Sensors and communications (peer
-
to
-
peer, P2P, and otherwise) between driver
and driver, and between driver and environment.

-

While a human driver, human passengers, and other humans, are our central
focus, it is also
important to consider robotic systems (so as to cater for, e.g.,
robotic train or bus systems).

-

Leveraging of vehicle energy and emissions systems as data sources, and also
benefiting from these systems for energy scavenging.

-

Dynamic data capture of am
bient conditions, including secure recording of
driver behaviour.

-

Use(s) of data and information in alert and warning systems; personalized
and/or broadcast information dissemination systems; “black box” recording and
uploads.

-

Telematics linked to contro
l, energy and emissions systems; remote diagnosis
(borrowing from, and mutually reinforcing, areas as diverse as telemedicine and
aircraft maintenance).

-

Data mining and knowledge discovery.

-

Information security layers, data and information trust, privacy

and
confidentiality.

-

Data access and rights management.

-

Personalized, context
-
aware information systems.

-

Information fusion relative to personalized health systems that are in use by the
driver and other vehicle passengers.

-

Information fusion also with

energy and emissions technical systems and
subsystems that are in operation in the vehicle.

-

Through complementary Internet of Things, which is broadly the sensor web
referred to above, more direct and immediate linkages are needed with virtual
communiti
es. (For instance, Twitter
-
type early warning facility, converted for
in
-
car use though speech synthesizer; or automated uploading to virtual
communities in analogous ways to current human uploaded of visual data to
Facebook or Youtube.)

-

Establishing of

protocols and standards through (virtual and physical)
community action.

-

Socio
-
economic issues, including reinforcing, or leveraging, influence by
medical and transport insurance sectors, vehicle vendors, roadside services,
regulatory agencies, legal and
justice authorities, etc.

-

Development of new financial


e.g. insurance


instruments.



5

As serendipitous or general byproducts of this work, one can consider: social inclusion;
digital divide; experimental models of governance (e.g. through virtual
communities, and
P2P) with application to e
-
Government; safety and quality of life for the very young, and
the elderly; mutually reinforcing learning from the handicapped in such areas as human
-
machine interaction, communication modalities, accessibility,
and so on.



5.

Added
-
value, benefits and impact


Industrial and business sectors of direct relevance: transport; finance; health;
security; environment; engineering


electronics, mechanical, bio, civil and
environmental; telecoms; data storage and netw
orks; high performance, grid
and cloud computing; law and justice; displays.


While there is funding under FP7 for the topic of this proposed JPI, it remains at
modest levels (tens rather than hundreds of millions).


As such, this points to
the theme her
e being a very appropriate topic for a JPI. It is an area where
there is a pan
-
European research agenda [5, 6, 7; see also ICT Research
Directors strategic note in 8] but existing European funding is relatively
modest.


This JPI project will allow this pa
n
-
European research agenda to be
implemented even though it is beyond the scale of what can be funded by the
Framework Programme alone.


The gains in terms of quality of life for Europeans are inestimable.


This JPI will be based on a competitive/coopera
tive open innovation model that is
part and parcel of Web 2.0; and it will be, in addition, fully compatible with
many and varied forms of derivable intellectual property. The core open
innovation model ensues from the Grand Challenge that underpins this

work.
This is the basis for how this JPI will overcome legal and practical barriers to
cooperation.



6.

Preliminary suggestions concerning the governance and implementation of JPI


A very wide range of current Member State research projects provide po
tentially relevant
platform technologies and systems for this work. However inherently the work is
distributed, pervasive and ubiquitous.


The proposed work will be in harmony with other national initiatives in energy and
emissions (e.g. supporting scav
enging and reuse), in relation to Ireland’s and other
European nations’ IPCC obligations. The proposed work is strongly in line with the
Digital Society and Smart Economy programmes of the Member States.



6

Core to this initiative is the harnessing of, an
d leveraging, communities and societies to
address, by means of modern data and information
-
based platforms, the continuing
carnage on European and international roads.


A main aim of this Grand Challenge JPI is to unleash the potential


as collective
i
ntelligence


of user communities who will be an integral part of the research. This
work will provide a testbed for new forms of e
-
Government and e
-
democracy, which will
drive forward a new European social agenda that advances into new domains of
applica
tion, over and above the virtual Web 2.0 communities that now occupy a large
part of the life and lifestyle of the majority of Europeans.


Performance metrics, apart from the stated social goal of zero
-
tolerance of death and
injury in traffic, will be,
more immediately and directly, the usual “Web 2.0” usage
metrics relating to use, uptake and deployment of practices, protocols and standards.


Accompanying such a Grand Challenge are many new economic, business and
commercial opportunities. In line wit
h the Web 2.0 economy, central areas of open
innovation, based on diverse forms of intellectual property, lend themselves exceedingly
well to traded, proprietary and business
-
generating forms of intellectual property (patents,
licences, trade secrets, etc.
).


This JPI is most appropriate also to grow significantly the take
-
up of pre
-
competitive
research across Europe (see [8]). It constitutes an experimental testbed on a European
scale, based on the mobilizing of virtual communities that are both horizon
tal (across the
European Union) and vertical (in terms of age, rural/urban, and so on).


WORK PROGRAMME TO BE CONTINUED.





7

References


[1]
I. Fallon and D. O’Neill, “The world’s first automobile fatality”,

Accident Analysis and Prevention, 37, 601
-
6
03, 2005.


[2] Central Statistics Office, Ireland,

“Deaths from principal causes in the years 1998 to 2006”,
www.cso.ie/statistics/principalcausesofdeath.htm


[3] Euronews, 22 June 2009,

“Sicherheit: weniger Verkehrstote in Europa


aber immer noch zu v
iele”,

de.euronews.net/2009/06/22/weniger
-
verkehrstote
-
in
-
europa
-
aber
-
immer
-
noch
-
zu
-
viele


[4] “
Significant improvements in safety, security and comfort of transport. This
includes

contribution towards the objective of reducing fatalities with 50% in the
EU by 2010,

and longer term work towards the 'zero
-
fatalities' scenario.”


Updated Work Programme 2009 and Work Programme 2010, Cooperation


Theme 3, ICT



Information and Communications Technologies

(European
Commission C(2009) 5893 of 29 July 2009)


[5]

Updated Work Programme 2009 and Work Programme 2010 Cooperation


Theme 3, ICT



Information and Communications Technologies

(European
Commission C(2009) 5893 of 29 July 2009).

See p. 65 (
Objective ICT
-
2009.6.1: ICT for Safety and Energy Efficiency in
M
obility

Target) in particular.


[6]
European Technology Platform ERTRAC (European Road Transport Research
Advisory Council).



Its strategic research agenda includes the area of ICT for road safety
.
http://cordis.europa.eu/technology
-
platforms/pdf/ertrac.pdf


[7] eSafety Forum,
http://www.esafetysupport.org/


[8]
COM(2009) 116 final

Communication from the Commission to the European
Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee, and the
Committee of the Regions,

A Strategy for ICT R&D and Innova
tion in Europe: Raising the Game
,
{SEC(2009)
289},
Brussels, 13.3.2009






8

Annex


Current Science Foundation Ireland, SFI, support for work with relevance for this Grand
Challenge JPI includes the following.


CSETs (Centres for Science, Engineering and Te
chnology: Clarity, DERI, CTVR, Lero),
SRCs (Strategic Research Clusters: StratAG, FAME, ITOBO, EEDSP), Parsons,
Mathematics Initiative, various Principal Investigator awards, Research Frontier
Programme awards and others.


Themes of activity funded by S
FI include materials science, control systems, vision,
augmented and virtual reality, urban planning and transport engineering, neuroscience,
robotics, artificial intelligence, and many other fields.


Included as further examples of SFI supported work ar
e anti
-
roll control systems,
materials science for crash helmets, autonomous vehicles, and sleep deprivation effects
on driving.


This JPI would harness these varied areas of work.


Other agencies of relevance in Ireland include:


IDA


Industrial Dev
elopment Agency, Enterprise Ireland, Sustainable Energy Ireland,
Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Safety Agency, Health and Safety
Authority, Health Research Board, National Roads Authority, ComReg


Communications Regulatory, Road Safety Authorit
y, Higher Education Authority, and
others.