PROTECTION AGAINST BIO-TRIBOCORROSION IN INDUSTRY

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Nov 8, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

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PRACTICAL INFORMATION
FOR PARTICIPANTS






























IRSES COURSE













IRSES
-
project 295202



TRAINING SCHOOL FOR
MASTER,
P
h
D
S
TUDENTS
,

IRSES
-
project 247659

AND

ENGINEERS FROM INDUSTRY

February

11
-
1
5
, 20
13


PROTECTION AGAINST
BIO
-
T
RIBO
CORROSION

IN
INDUSTRY



Ai
m and focussed topics addressed

Th
is
course

will

provide a training on the basics of bio
-
tribo
corrosion

(friction, wear
,
lubrication
, coupling of

chemical
,
electrochemical,
mechanical

and biological

effects
),
with a
special
emphasis on bio
-
tribocorrosion in
food industry and
engineering
systems.

Its

inter
-
disciplinary a
pproach will
provide
trainees
an

insight on possible implications of
corrosion,
tribology, and
bio
-
tribo
corrosion

in their own research field

or industrial su
rrounding
.

Impact
and
protective actions against the degradation of materials subjected to
different use
r
s


conditions

will be addressed.


This
course is taught in the context
of the Erasmus programs. Master students can acquire a
certificate equivalent to

3 ECTS
within the “Erasmus
Learning

Agreement”
between

their
university and Ecole Centrale Paris.
15

lecturers from 10 countries
are shearing their
large
background

and research
expertise

in complementary fields with the participants from
academic institu
tions and industries.


Venue

The Training School will be
held
at

Ecole Centrale Paris (ECP)

south

of
Paris
(
http://www.ecp.fr/lang/en/homepage
)
,

and
can be reached from
Orly airport
by direct Orlyval
train

and from Roissy airport by direct

RER to Antony/Châtenay
-
Malabry
.
Lodging is possible

at ECP Campus “Maison des Etudiants de l’Ecole Centrale”.
Participants have to
make
reservation directly by writing to
commercial@centralepariscampus.com
, (ref.
”IRSES
COURSE

),
mentioning the type of
room
,

arrival and departure dates and hours, and
eventually names of persons with whom they want to share
a

room. Keys
are
handed over
during week days between 9h00


17h30
;
outside this time slot, arrangement for key handing
over will be organized by Pierre Ponthiaux.

Sport activities are possible a
t ECP campus and
in the Parc de

Sceaux
(
http://parc.de.sceaux.free.fr/
).





Contact details of organizers

P. Ponthiaux (ECP

-

France)



(
e
-
mail
:

pierre.ponthiaux@ecp.fr
)


J
-
P Celis (KU

L
euven

-

Belgium)


(
e
-
mail
:

Jean
-
P
ierre.Celis@mtm.kuleuven.be
)


WOG Surface Modification

FWO
-
Flanders


PRACTICAL INFORMATION
FOR PARTICIPANTS

IRSES COURSE


P
rogram

The
course consists of
module
s

on
Environmental Aspects

(3 lessons),
Mechanical
Aspects

(4 lessons),
Characterization Aspects

(
3
lessons),
Protective Actions

(
3

lesson
s
), and
Sustainable Growth

(1 lesson
)
.



Time
slot

Monday

Febr. 11

Tuesday

Febr. 12

Wednesday

Febr. 13

Thursday

Febr. 14

Friday

Febr. 15

09h00
-


10h30


Environmental
Aspects

1

Basics of
electrochemistry

(Dr. V.
t Vivier, CNRS
-
Paris)

Mechanical Aspects 1

Basics of contact
mechanics

(
Prof. K.
Elleuch, Univ.
Sfax)

Characterization
Aspects
1

Multi
-
sc
ale
characterization of

surfaces

(Prof. L.
Pavlatou,
NTUA)

Protective Aspects 1

Corrosion
-
wear
resistant metallic
materials

(Dr. Manolis Georgiou,
KU Leuven)

10
h30
-

12h00

Registration
of
participants

Environmental
Aspects
2

Basics of bacterial
corrosion

(Dr. F.
Lopes, ECP)

Mechanical Aspects 2

Basics of tribology

(Prof. K.

Elleuch, Univ.
Sfax)

(Prof. J. P.
Celis, KU
Leuven)

Characterization
Aspects
2

Electroc
hemical
and chemical
characterization of
surfaces

(Prof. H. Cesiulis,
Univ. Vilnius)

Protective Aspects 2

Lubrication and
lubricants

(Prof. J. Padgurskas,
Kaunas ASU)


12h00

-

14h00

Lunch

14h00
-
15h30

Opening
session

Environmental
Aspects
3

Basics of
b
io
-
corrosion

(Prof. V.

Migonney,
Univ. Paris 13)

Mechanical Aspects 3

Basics of synergism
in tribocorrosion

(Dr. V.
Vivier, CNRS
-
Paris)

Characterization
Aspects 3

Oil technology and
applications in food
industry

(Prof. C.

Tzia, NTUA,
Greece
)

Essential
oil
compounds

(Prof. L. Majidi,
Morocco)

Protective Aspects 3

Hard
wear resistant

vapor deposited
coatings


(Prof. M.

Urgen,
ITU,
Turkey
)

Hard pulsed air arc
surface modifications

(
Dr. N.
Tintaru

& Prof. A.
Dikusar,
,

Academy of
Sciences of Moldova
)

15h3
0
-
16h00

Coffee
break

Poster session

Coffee break

Poster session

Coffee break

Round table
discussion on
industrial cases

Poster session

Coffee break

16h00
-

17h30

Poster
presentation
by young
researchers

Sustainable Growth
1

Heavy metals and
health

(Pr
of. C.

Egeles, UTC)

Mechanical Aspects 4


Tribocorrosion
testing protocol

(Dr. J.
Geringer, EMSE
Saint
-
Etienne,
)

Free visit to Paris


Round table discussion
and closing session




PRACTICAL INFORMATION
FOR PARTICIPANTS


REGISTRATION FORM





TRAINING SCHOOL

FOR MASTER, P
h
D STUDENTS,




& ENGINEERS FROM IND
USTRY


PROTECTION AGAINST B
IO
-
TRIBOCORROSION IN IN
DUSTRY

February 11
-
15, 2013, Ecole Centrale Paris, France




FULL NAME:











ORGANISATION & ADDRESS:























MOBILE PHONE
:


_______________
_


E
-
MAIL:

__________________________________



*

Registration fee

TEMADEP or OIL & SUGAR Partners

Master students
-

Ph.D. students




77 €

Post
-
doc researchers

-

Experienced
researcher
and
L
ecturers



112 €

Other participants

Master students
-

Ph.D. students




77 €

Engineers from Industry



150 €

Master students
-

Ph.D. students

and Engineers students
from ECP

Free

Do you need a receipt?



Yes


-




No


**

Accommodation

for
those
interested

Accommodation costs per person and per night

Single room




2
7



Double room





1
9
.5 €

Room shared by
3

person
s




16




Name of participant(s) who will share
your

room


Date

of arrival and departure

Arrival:

dd.mm.year


Departure:
dd.mm.year

Do you
want

a receipt?



Yes


-




No


*


Registration fee includes participation in the traini
ng school, hand over material, 5 breakfast, 9 lunches and
4 coffee
-
brea
ks
).

**


Y
ou will have to pay cash on arrival the cost for
lodging
!!!

Return your

registration form before
January 15
th
, 2013
, to
:

commercial@centralepariscampus.com
with
cc
to

pierre.
ponthiaux@ecp.fr

and

sandra.julien@ecp.fr

Upon receipt of your booking, a confirmat
ion will be sent to you by E
-
mail
.




PRACTICAL INFORMATION
FOR PARTICIPANTS


Erasmus Learning agree
men
t academic year 2012/2013


Name of the student + e
-
mail address:


................................
................................
................................
........

/

................................
................................
................................
.........


Proposed study period (length + semester/term or dates
)
:

................................
................................
................................
........................


Field of study:

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.............................


Academic coordinator

................................
................................
................................
................

Email:

................................
....................


Host institution:
EC
OLE CENTRALE PARIS
-

(FR


CHATENA


02)
-

www.ecp.fr

-


Sending institution:

A
d
dress

:


Details of the proposed study programme (Provisional Version)

Course unit code

Course unit title

Semester

(1


2)

Language

N° of ECTS

credits

(if relevant)

Level

(year of study)



PROTECTION AGAINST

BIO
-
TRIBOCORROSION IN industry

Modules on

:


-

Environmental Aspects


Basics of electrochemistryasics of


Basics of bacterial corrosion


Basics of bio
-
corrosion


-

Mechanical Aspects


Basics of contact mechanicsasics of


Basics of tribology


Basics of synergym in tribocorrosion


Tribocorrosion testing Protocol


-

Characterization Aspects


Multi
-
scale characterization of surfaces


Chemic
al compounds in environments


Electro
-
chemical characterization


-

Protective Actions


Lubricants


Corrosion
-
wear resistant metallic materials


Corrosion
-
wear resistant hard coatings

-

Sustainable Growth


Heavy metals and health



3 ECTS







If necessary, continue on a separate sheet.

Student’s signature

and date




Receving institution / Université d’accu
e
il
Sending institution / Université d’origine

The learning agreement is /



Approved /



Not approved

The learning agreement is /



Approved



Not approved

Academic coordi
nator
’s signature


/

Date : __/__/____

Academic coordi
nator
’s sig
nature


Date : __/__/____

Advise
r for International Relations

signature /



Date : __/__/____

Adviser for International Relations

signature /




Date : __/__/____



PRACTICAL INFORMATION
FOR PARTICIPANTS


T
able

C
ontent

of the Training School





Environmental Aspects 1: Basics of electrochemistry

(Dr. Vincent Vivier, CNRS
-
Paris, France)

1. Electrochemical reactions


1.1 Electrochemical cell



1.1.1 What is an electrochemical cell?



1.1.2 Electrochemical cell for preparative electrolysis



1.1.3 Electrochemical cell for analytical investigation


1.2 Charge transfer



1.2.1 Factors Affecting Electrode Reaction Rate and Current



1.2.2 Some examples of charge transfer reaction


1.3 Mas
s transfer



1.3.1 The Nernst
-
Planck equation



1.3.2 When can we assume that diffusion control the mass transport



1.3.3 Steady
-
state mass transfer reaction



1.3.4 Natural convection


1.4 Double layer



1.4.1 The electrified interface



1.4.2 Is the ele
ctrode a capacitor?



1.4.3 The Gouy
-
Chapman
-
Stern description of the interface


1.5 Electrode kinetics



1.5.1 The Nernst approximation



1.5.2 The Tafel approximation



1.5.3 The Butler
-
Volmer kinetics


1.6 Electrode kinetics towards the time constant o
f the electrochemical cell



1.6.1 Influence of the electrodes size



1.6.2 Limitations in the study of electrochemical kinetics


2. Electrochemistry and corrosion


2.1 What is corrosion?



2.1.1 Anodic
vs

cathodic reactions



2.1.2 Some examples of cathod
ic reaction


2.2 Different types of corrosion



2.2.1 Uniform corrosion



2.2.2 Galvanic corrosion



2.2.3 Pitting corrosion



2.2.4 Crevice corrosion



2.2.5 Erosion corrosion


2.3 How to investigate corrosion



2.3.1 The Faraday’s experiment



2.3.2 Pour
baix’ diagrams



2.3.3 Determination of corrosion from simple experiments



2.3.4 The electrochemistry for the determination of corrosion rate


PRACTICAL INFORMATION
FOR PARTICIPANTS




Environmental Aspects 2:
B
io
-
degradation of materials

(Dr. Filippa Lopes, ECP, France)

1.

Bacteria

1.1

Basics of cellu
lar biology


1.1.1

Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, bacteria

1.1.2

Morphology, structure

1.2

Microbial physiology and metabolism

1.2.1

catabolism and anabolism basics

1.2.2

factors affecting metabolism


2.

Microbial growth on surfaces
-

Biofilms : Properties, impac
ts, …


3.

Micro
-
organisms and corrosion
-

Case studies and related mechanisms


3.1 Aerobic conditions: ferrous, manganese and sulfur oxidizers


3.2 Anaerobic conditions: sulfate
-
reducing bacteria, …


3.3 Biofilm (biofouling) effects on s
urface corrosion


4.

Biofouling and corrosion monitoring


5.

Biocorrosion et biofouling: from control to protection




Environmental Aspects 3: Basics of bio
-
corrosion

( Prof. Véronique Mignonney, Univ. Paris 13, France)

1.

Introduction

1.1
Definiton of the «

bio
corrosion

» process

1.2 Different parameters involved in bio corrosion


2.

Implants and prostheses

2.1 Differents types of implants and prostheses



2.2
Implants and biocorrosion problems


3.

Biological environment

3.1
Dental environment and fluids



3.2
Jo
int environnement


4.

Host response

4.1
Biocorrosion as an host response



4.2
Biocorrosion as a consequence


5.

Solutions to prevent biocorrosion: Surface treatments





PRACTICAL INFORMATION
FOR PARTICIPANTS




Sustainable Growth 1
: M
etal

particle
s and health

(Prof. Christophe Egeles, UTC, France
)

1.

Metallic presence in the body

1.1


Biocorrosion products

1.2


Wear products


1.3


Nanoparticles


2.

Type of exposures

2.1


Body fluids

2.2


Cellular contacts

2.3

Tissular contacts


3

Metal particles effects on health

3.1


Cell toxicity

3.2


Inflammation (acute, chronic)

3.3


Organ toxicity

3.4


Various examples


4

Toxicity testing

4.1


In 2D systems (classical culture)

4.2


In 3D cultures (organotypic or bioengineered tissues)

4.3


In animals





Mechanical Aspects 1
:
Basics of contact mechanics

(
Prof. Khaled Elleuch, Univ. Sfax)

1.

Elastic Contact


Hertz Theory

1.1.

Introduction

1.2.

Hertz suggestions

1.3.

Hertz results

1.3.1.

Sphere on plane case

1.3.2.

Cylinder on plane case


2.

Elastic contact under tangential force

2.1.

Introduction

2.2.

Sliding sphere on plane contact

2.3.

Sliding cylinder on plane contact

2.4.

Sliding plane on plane cont
act






PRACTICAL INFORMATION
FOR PARTICIPANTS




Mechanical Aspects 2: Basics of tribology

(Prof. Khaled Elleuch, Univ. Sfax and Prof. Jean
-
Pierre Celis, KU Leuven)


1.

History of tribology and Definitions

1.1.

Origin and basic laws

1.2.

Friction, wear, and lubrication

1.3.

Multidisciplinary a
spects and approach

1.3.1.

Approach as mechanical engineer

1.3.2.

Approach as tribologist

1.3.3.

Approach as material engineer

1.3.4.

Approach as surface scientist


2.

Degradation mechanisms

2.1.

Abrasion wear

2.2.

Adhesive wear

2.3.

Tribochemical wear

2.4
.

Fatigue wear


3.

Experimental investigation of wear

3.1.

Wear testing is more than ‘wear’ and ‘wear rate’

3.1.1.

Energy
-
based approach

3.1.2.

Displacement accommodation approach

3.1.3.

Wear maps

3.2.

Wear test equipment

3.3.

Selection of relevant industr
ial tests: TAN approach




Mechanical Aspects 3 : Basics of synergism in tribocorrosion

(Dr. Vincent Vivier, CNRS
-
Paris, France)

1. Passive materials and passivity


1.1 Oxide film on a passive metal: a simple description of the interface


1.2 Description of

the passive film (composition, thickness)


1.3 Passive film formation: the Fishmeister model


1.4 High field model


1.5 Steady
-
state: example of stainless steel


1.6 Towards more comprehensive model: virtual oxide layer model


2. Breakdown of the passivit
y


2.1 Rotating
-
ring disk experiment


2.2 Local breakdown of the passive layer


2.3 Friction, lubrication and wear


3. Tribocorrosion


3.1 Different experimental set
-
up


3.2 The pin on disk set
-
up




PRACTICAL INFORMATION
FOR PARTICIPANTS


3.3 Depassivation and repassivation: what can we measu
re?



3.3.1 Open circuit potential



3.3.2 Polarisation curves



3.3.3 Impedance diagrams



3.3.4 Potential steps

3.4 Some direct evidences of synergism effect in tribocorrosion



3.4.1 Effect of sliding distance



3.4.2 Effect of applied force



3.4.3 Coe
fficient of friction


3.5 Modelling the repassivation phenomena



3.5.1 Surface coverage model



3.5.2 Film growth model



3.5.3 Modelling an experimental transient




Mechanical Aspects 4: Tribocorrosion testing protocol

(Dr. J. Geringer, EMSE Saint
-
Etien
ne, Fr)


1. Why is there a need for a new approach to tribocorrosion synergy

1.1

Effect on coefficient of friction

1.2

Galvanic coupling


2. New approach: basic concepts

2.1

Cyclic evolution of surface state

2.2

Controlling the surface state

2.3

Fully / pa
rtially active wear track


3. New test protocol for synergy determination of passivating materials

3.1

New approach to synergy

3.2

New test protocol

3.3

Successive experimental steps

3.4

Analysis and interpretation of results


4. Comparison between old and

new approaches: the benefit




Characterization Aspects 1: Multi
-
scale characterization of surfaces

(
Prof. Lisa Pavlatou
, NTUA, Greece)

1. Surface analysis techniques


1.1 Structure


1.2 Morphology, topography


1.3 Compositional analysis (destructive and n
on
-
destructive methods)


2. Properties (tests and evaluation)


2.1 Roughness


2.2. Thickness (optical, spectroscopic)


PRACTICAL INFORMATION
FOR PARTICIPANTS


2.3 Adhesion


2.4 Surface tension


2.6 Residual stress


2.7 Hardness


2.8 Elastic modulus


3. Structure and properties (e.g. relationshi
p texture with mechanical properties)




Characterization Aspects 2:

Electrochemical and chemical characterization of surfaces

(Prof. H
enrikas Cesiulis, Univ. Vilnius, Lithuania)

1.

Surface characterization by potentiometry and voltammetry

1.1

Introduction into p
otentiometry and voltammetry

1.2

Voltammetric study of Al and Ti oxides formation

1.3

Detection of interactions in the system steel/lubricating film/liquid


2.

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to study reactions at surfaces

2.1

Modeling real electrode proce
sses by equivalent electric circuits

2.2

Equivalent circuit describing corrosion and anodic dissolution of metals

2.3

Case study: corrosion and anodic behavior of W
-
, Mo
-

containing alloys


3.

Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM) to characterize chemical homoge
neity
and inhomogeneity of surfaces

3.1.

Background and variety of the application SECM

3.2.

Application of SECM for characterizing oxidized surfaces

3.3.

Case studies: on the use of SECM


4.

Contact angle measurements in surface characterization

4.1.

Contact angle, wetting an
d adhesion

4.2.

Wettability of solders to characterize metallurgical bonds on surfaces

4.3.

Case study: Wettability of solutions in presence of surfactants




Characterization Aspects 3:


Oil technology
&
applications in food industry

(Prof. C. Tzia NTUA, Greece)


E
ssential oil compounds

(Prof.
Lhou MAJIDI
, Morocco)

1.

Oil Technology and Applications in the food Industry

1.1. Oil Extraction



1.1.1 Mechanical extraction



1.1.2 Solvent Extraction

1.2. Oil Refining



1.2.1 Degumming



1.2.2 Neutralization


PRACTICAL INFORMATION
FOR PARTICIPANTS

1.2.3 Bleaching



1.2.4 Deodorization



1.2.5 Physical Refining

1.3. Frying

1.3.1 Effect on the equipment surfaces



1.3.2 Effect on human health


2.

Essential oil compounds

2.1
Biosynthesis of essential oils compound

2.2 Extraction Methods of essential oils

2.2.1 Convent
ional extraction methods

2.2.2 Modern

extraction methods

2.3 Technical

analysis of essential oils

2.3.1 Analysis

by

conventional methods

2.3.2 Preliminary separation

before analysis

2.
4 Case studies

2.4.1

Isolation and

identification of a new

natural comp
ound in essential oil
of

Asteriscusgraveolens
:

acetate

cis
-
8
-
acetoxychrysanthenyle

2.4.2

Use of essential oils

and their derivatives

in

the fight against

corrosion

of
steel in

acid

medium




Protective Aspects 1:
Corrosion
-
wear resistant metallic materials

(Dr. Manolis Georgiou, KU Leuven, Belgium)

1.

Degradation of metallic material by chemical or mechanical loading

1.1.

Chemically assisted degradation of metallic materials

1.1.1.

Pitting corrosion

1.1.2.

Crevice corrosion

1.1.3.

Intergranular corrosion

1.1.4.

Filiform corrosion

1.1.5.

Atmospheric

and high temperature corrosion

1.1.6.

Liquid metal corrosion

1.2.

Corrosive environmental parameters

1.2.1.

Oxygen and oxidizers

1.2.2.

Temperature

1.2.3.

E
-
pH


Introduction to Pourbaix diagrams

1.2.4.

Corrosive concentration

1.2.5.

Galvanic coupling

1.3.

Mechanically assisted degradation of metallic ma
terials

1.3.1.

Corrosive wear

1.3.2.

Stress corrosion cracking

1.3.3.

Hydrogen embrittlement


2.

Microstructural features and advantages/limitations of metallic materials

2.1.

Aluminum and its alloys

2.2.

Copper and its alloys


PRACTICAL INFORMATION
FOR PARTICIPANTS

2.3.

Iron and its alloys

2.4.

Nickel and its alloys

2.5.

Magnesium and its al
loys

2.6.

Tin and its alloys

2.7.

Titanium and its alloys

2.8.

Zinc and its alloys


3.

Further developments

4.1.

Establishing a structure
-
property relationship

4.2.

Use of corrosion inhibitors

4.3.

Surface treatments




Protective Aspects 2:
Lubrication and lubricants

(Prof. J. Padgu
rskas, Kaunas ASU, Lithuania)


1.

Lubrication

1.1.

Lubrication purposes and essentials

1.2.

Lubrication types and regimes

1.3.

Boundary lubrication

1.4.

Fluid
-
film lubrication

1.5.

Mixed lubrication


2.

Lubricants, its properties and classification

2.1.

Oil categories according to the purpos
e

2.2.

Mineral and synthetic oils

2.3.

Greases

2.4.

Properties of lubricants

2.5.

Additives in lubricants


3.

Biodegradable lubricants

3.1.

Biodegradable oils

3.2.

Tribological properties of biodegradable oils

3.3.

Chemical structure and aging of fats and bio
-
oils

3.4.

Biodegradable greases and the
ir tribological properties


4.

Lubrication in plant products and food processing


5.

Selection of lubricants


6.

Supply of lubricants and lubrication details







PRACTICAL INFORMATION
FOR PARTICIPANTS




Protective Aspects 3:
Hard wear resistant
vapor deposited
coatings

(Prof. Mustafa Urgen, ITU, Turke
y
)



Hard
pulsed
-
air
-
arc
surface modifications

(
Dr. Natali Tintaru

& Prof. A. Dikusar
,

Academy of Sciences, Moldova)

1.

Overview of types of Hard Coatings (HC)

1.1.

Covalent Bonded HC

1.2.

Ionic Bonded HC

1.3.

Metallic Bonded HC


2.

Production of hard coatings by

vapor deposition

2.1.

Thermal Based Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)

2.1.1.

Thermal Evaporation

2.1.2.

Cathodic Arc

2.1.3.

E
-
beam

2.2.

Sputtering Based PVD

2.2.1.

Diode
-
Triode sputtering

2.2.2.

Magnetron Sputtering

2.2.3.

Hi
-
PIMS

2.3.

Ion plating

2.4.

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)


3.

Structure

Property
-
Deposition pa
rameter relations for hard coatings


4.

Tribological properties of HC

4.1.

Importance of tribofilm chemistry on tribological properties

4.2.

Dry wear of HC and wear under lubrication


5.

Methods for improving corrosion protection of HC

5.1.

Multi
-
layer coatings

5.2.

Nano composite coatings

5.3.

Hybrid coatings

5.4.

Amorphous coatings


6.
Hardening by
pulsed
-
air
-
arc

deposition

(PAAD)
.

6.1. Basics and technology

6.1.1 Electrospark method (ESM) on complex shapes in a dielectric medium

6.1.2 Basics of PAAD. The mass transfer mechan
ism

6.1.3 Tool
-
electrodes and current sources for PAAD

6.2. Types of pulsed air arc deposition (PAAD)



6.2.1. Manual alloying and resulting surfaces



6.2.2 PAAD in auto
-
regime and resulting surfaces

7. Case studies of PAAD

7.1 Corrosion resistance of su
rfaces after PAAD

7.2
Wear resistance of surfaces after ESM with formation SnO
2

nanowires


7.3 Wear resistance of cutting tools for sugar beet after PAAD