Discourse on Method - Solon City Schools

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Dec 11, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Chapter 14

Amanda Li

New Directions in Thought and Culture in the
Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Instructions


There are a few of methods to use this power point,


Timeline : gives a timeline of famous thinkers


Terms and People: Terms and People the abridged version


TL;DR/Laconic :
extremely
brief recap of the chapter


All of these options will be presented on the index, feel free
to use more than one method.


Please use the buttons at the bottom of the screen to
navigate. You will
not

be able to navigate the power point by
clicking anywhere on the slide.


Home button brings you to the index


The arrows navigate each section


Press the ESC key on the keyboard to leave presentation mode



Index


Click the button next to each section to be
brought to the section.


Timeline



Terms and People



TL;DR/Laconic


Timeline

1500

1550

1543

Copernicus
publishes
On the
Revolution of Heavenly Spheres,

Hyperlinked words lead to a
definition on the Terms and
People page.

1400
-
1700

A resurgence in
Witch hunts
occurs

Timeline

1550

1600

~1570

Brahe

makes a large body
of astronomical
observations and data

Timeline

1600

1650

1609

Kepler

publishes
The New
Astronomy

~1610

Galileo

makes
observations of the
heavens with telescopes
and works under the
Medici.

~1605
-
1637

Bacon Publishes books like
The
Advancement if
L
earning,
Novum

Organum
,
and
New Atlantis
.

1637

Descartes
publishes
Discourse on
Method

1633

Galileo

is tried for disobeying a
church mandate on advocating
Copernicus’ ideas and is
sentenced to house arrest

~1640

Pascal

theorizes on
religion and science.

Timeline

1650

1700

1687

Isaac Newton
Publishes
Principia
Mathematica

1651

Hobbes
publishes
Leviathan

~1690

Locke

writes his
Treaties on
Government, Letters Concerning
Toleration, and Essay Concerning
Human Understanding

1660

The
Royal Society of London

is
founded

1726

Jonathan Swift
Publishes
Gulliver’s
Travels

1666 & 1668

Cavendish

publishes
Observations
upon Experimental Philosophy
,

Description of a New World, called
the Blazing World
and
Grounds of
Natural Philosophy

1702

Winkelmann
discovers a comet

Terms and People


1
-
Scientific Revolution


The Scientific Revolution was a general term used to describe a complex movement
that involved new and old ideas that changed the way people think, helped establish
new social structures for science, and the basic establishment of modern science.


2
-
”Scientists”


The term scientist wasn’t coined yet, and the people who we would now consider
“scientists” went about their business a lot differently as modern science was only at
its inception at this time.


3
-
Natural Philosophy


Natural Philosophy refers to the study of nature and the universe before the
development of modern science.


4
-
Nicholas Copernicus


Copernicus was an astronomer, famous for writing
On the Revolution of Heavenly
Spheres
, a text that encouraged further criticism on the geocentric model.


5
-
Geocentric v. Heliocentric


The Geocentric model was a model of the universe that held that the Earth was the
center of the universe while the heliocentric model held that the sun was the center.

Terms and People


6
-
Ptolemaic System


The Ptolemaic system was that the standard for planetary motion in the late 15
th

century. It held a geocentric view, and that the celestial bodies moved on spheres
above Earth.


7
-
Epicycles


Epicycles were used to explain retrograde motion in the Ptolemaic system. Planets
moved in circles called epicycles, which in turn moved around a deferent, or another,
larger circle with the Earth at the center.


8
-
Tycho Brahe


Tycho

Brahe was best known for his extremely detailed, extensive, and accurate
observations and astronomical data.


9
-
Johannes Kepler


Kepler used Brahe’s data to support his heliocentric view of the universe. By using
Brahe’s data, he came to the conclusions that planets moved in ellipses, as opposed to
spheres or circles. He created the first model that portrayed the path of the planets.


10
-
Ellipses


Ellipses are similar to ovals in shape. Kepler discovered that Brahe’s astronomical data
suggested that planets had ellipsoid orbits rather than spherical or circular ones.

Terms and People


11
-
Galileo
Galilei

Galileo
Galilei

was an astronomer and mathematician. He refined and used the telescope to view
the heavens. He also used his rhetorical skills to argue for a heliocentric model, and introduced
the importance of an argument’s presentation and evidence. He also argued that the universe
was mathematical.


12
-
Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton was best known for his
Principia
Mathematica
, which theorized that all of the planets
moved due to mutual attraction, aka gravity. This explained the orderly nature of planetary
motion. He also believed in empiricism.


13
-
Mechanism/Divine Clock

The idea of a Divine Clock/ Mechanism was meant to explain the universe as similar to clockwork,
in which God is a “divine clockmaker”. This idea holds that nature is mechanical and that
understanding nature would be with mathematical means.


14
-
Sir Francis Bacon/Induction

Sir Francis Bacon is typically seen as the father of empiricism. His contributions to the Scientific
revolution mostly rest in creating an environment that encouraged scientific work. He felt
thinker should seek out new understanding of nature, as opposed to relying on tradition. He
also felt that knowledge should have practical applications.


15
-
Empericism


Empiricism refers to gathering data and observations from experiments to reach a
conclusion.


Terms and People


16
-
Rene Descartes/Deduction


Rene Descartes favored deduction and mathematical models in studying nature. His book,
Discourse on Method

held that God existed, and that God guaranteed clear ideas, and therefore,
humans could comprehend the world. His methods later lost their appeal to the scientific world.


17
-
”I think therefore I am”


“I think therefore I am” was a famous quote from Rene Descartes. This quote reflects Descartes’
belief that that he cannot doubt his own thinking, and since he thinks, he therefore exists


18
-
Thomas Hobbes


Hobbes was a political philosopher most famous for his
Leviathan
; in this book he stated that
humans are inherently selfish and egotistical and that only by entering into a social contract by
giving up personal to a commonwealth could they gain peace and protection. Through his social
contact idea, he advocates a lack of personal expression and absolute governments.


19
-
John Locke


John Locke was another political philosopher. He believed that governments must be responsible
for the concerns of the governed, and that humans should be free, equal, and enjoy personal rights.
He advocated for limited authority and tolerance. He was also responsible for the idea of tabula
rasa.


20
-
Social Contract


The Social Contract was a Hobbes
-
ian

idea that since people were inherently flawed, they needed
to sacrifice personal rights to an authoritative government that would in turn provide peace and
protection.


Terms and People


21
-
”Tabula Rosa”


Tabula Rasa refers to the Lock
-
iean

idea that everybody was born as a “blank slate”
and that their personality and other traits were determined by their environment.


22
-
Royal Society of London


The Royal Society of London was a university type institution that allowed the
gathering, sharing, and distribution of new ideas among its members. These types of
institutions allowed many people with different ideas and viewpoints to collaborate; it
also encouraged practical application of new ideas.


23
-
Johnathon Swift


Jonathan Swift is most famous for
Gulliver’s Travels
, a satire on scientific societies. He
felt that the promise scientific studies held wouldn’t be realized and that some
scientists were wholly unrealistic with their lofty aims.


24
-
Margaret Cavendish


Margret Cavendish was most famous for being a prominent female figure in 17
th

century science, which was rare, given the misogyny at the time. She criticized the
Royal Society for being impractical. She also encouraged women to participate
int

eh
science.


25
-
Maria Winkelmann


Winkelmann was another prominent female scientist, she worked with her husband
and was recognized for her talents. However, when her husband died, the Berlin
Academy of Sciences denied her the right to continue his work.

Terms and People


26
-
Galileo’s Case


Galileo published his views about how scripture should be interpreted to better suit
new science. The Church at this time was adamant on a literal interpretation of the
Bible, due to the perceived threat of Protestants. After Galileo was given permission
to discuss he Copernican theory, he published a book defending the
Copernician

view.
This enraged Pope Urban VIII, resulting in Galileo’s house arrest.


27
-
Blaise Pascal


Pascal was a mathematician who believed that science and faith were two different
subjects and that a leap of faith was required in matters of religion.


28
-
Physcio
-
Theology


Physico
-
Theology refers to a belief in the reconciliation of science and religion. This
was based in the belief that God created a rational natural world, and that therefore,
God was also rational.


29
-
Witch Hunts


Witch Hunts had a resurgence in popularity due to the diminishing of religion due to
new ways of thought, misogyny, and traditional beliefs.


30
-
Malificium


Malificium

was the term for “bad magic” and witchcraft. People were sentenced to
death and punishment for allegedly performing this type of magic.


Terms and People


31
-
Cunning Folk


Cunning folk were people who consoled villagers
that calamities and natural disasters could be
adverted through magic. Cunning Folk were
often women, who claimed to have powers to
augment their diminished position in society.


32
-
Mysogyny


Many traditional beliefs of women in Europe in
this time promoted misogyny. Women commonly
held a lower social rank than men, despite their
talents and abilities.




TL;DR/Laconic


Many new ideas and discoveries in the
16
th
-
17
th

century from a group of
individuals resulted in the gradual change
from Natural Philosophy to Modern
Science.

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