Environmental Management and Water Resource Protection in the Process of Shale Gas Exploration & Production

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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Environmental Management and Water
Resource Protection in the Process of Shale Gas
Exploration & Production
Sep. 2012
Mr. Du Weidong, Deputy Chief Engineer
CNPC HSE Research Institute
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Contents
Environmental protection laws, regulations, and
polices of China
Environmental Problems and Challenges in
Shale gas exploration&production
Environmental risk & management technology
in Shale gas exploration&production
Water resource protection and management
technology in Shale gas exploration&production
Outlook & Recommendations
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Laws and regulations related to Shale gas exploration&production
Environmental protection laws, regulations, and polices
in China
 Pollution prevention and
Environmental protection

 8 National laws:

Environmental protection

Water pollution prevention

Solid waste pollution prevention

Cleaner production promotion

Environmental impact

Prevention & control of environmental
noise pollution

Water & soil conservation
 Over 30 Regulations:

Management program of environmental
protection for construction project

Regulations on ocean dumping wastes
control

Implementing rules of the water pollution
prevention law

Ordinance of environmental
management for construction project

Record management approach of local
environmental quality standards and
pollutant discharge standards

Interim audit measures to the Clean
Production

Administrative penalties of
environmental protection

Environmental management approach
of new chemicals
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 Water Resources Protection
Many laws and regulations are enacted by Chinese government in the area of water
resources, so as to provide a guarantee for improving the utilization of water and for
rational use of water resources.

Water Law of the People's Republic of China(2002 Revision)

Energy Conservation Law of the People's Republic of China (2007 Revision)

The regulations of pollution prevention in drinking water source protection zones
Environmental protection laws, regulations, and polices
in China
Laws and regulations related to Shale gas exploration&production
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China is making every effort to
complete and implement a
specified multi-layer energy-saving
and environmental-friendly legal
system for the energy industry,
which will be led by Energy Act,
governed by the concepts of
sustainable development,
represented by the Energy
Conservation Law, the Cleaner
production Promotion Law, the
Circular Economy Promotion Law
and the Renewable Energy Law,
supported by administrative laws
and regulations, department rules
and other laws.
Continuous Improvement of China’s Legal System on Energy-Saving
and Environmental Protection

Energy Conservation Law



Cleaner Production Promotion Law



Renewable Energy Law



Department rules



Standards



Administrative laws and regulations



Environmental Protection Laws



Circular Economy Promotion Law of the PRC


Governing principle: concepts of sustainable
development

Energy Act


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Actively promote structural adjustment and vigorously weed out obsolete techniques;

In order to change the energy structure that heavy dependence on coal, low-carbon clean
energy development is encouraged, such as natural gas, shale gas, coalbed gas, renewable
energy, biomass fuel etc.;

Quality is being continuously upgraded and updated; refined oil products should follow IV
standards nationwide;

Set clear requirements for construction projects, energy conservation and emissions reductions;
strictly implement the policies for access.
In Terms of Industrial Policy:

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Shale gas mining should follow the requirements of National
environmental protection polices

 Meet the “Shale gas 12th five-year plan” environmental protection requirements



Adhere to both development and ecological protection, strict implementation of drilling and
completion operating procedures to ensure the casing and cementing quality, achieving safe
operation.

To form shale gas technical standards and specifications in China, which include survey and
evaluation, resource reserves, environmental protection and other areas.
 Meet the policy requirements of Chinese energy saving and emissions
reduction,
and environmental protection planning

The “12th five-year plan of environmental protection”: Strengthen Eco-Environmental Security,
continue to increase efforts on energy conservation, to keep the total amount of major pollutants
(COD, Ammonia, SO2, NOX) continued decline.

The national plan on groundwater pollution control: Strengthen the law enforcement for
groundwater resources protection.
Environmental protection laws, regulations, and polices
in China
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Environmental protection laws, regulations, and
polices of China
Environmental Problems and Challenges in
Shale gas exploration&production
Environmental risk & management technology
in Shale gas exploration&production
Water resource protection and management
technology in Shale gas exploration&production
Outlook & Recommendations
Contents
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 Shale gas resource evaluation in China

2.1 Overview of shale gas development

Paleozoic shale gas in southern
China (12 TCM)

Lower Paleozoic shale gas in
North China (4 TCM)

Cambrian-Ordovician shale gas
in Tarim Basin (5 TCM)
 Based on analogy method, shale
gas resource is estimated around
30 TCF, and mainly in marine
sedimentation.
 Three regions of marine shale gas
resource are about 21 TCM:
The three giant marine shale gas
regions distribution

RIPED,2011
southern China
North China Tarim Basin
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 Ministries of the nation: major projects in shale gas development, the Sino-US joint
evaluation of shale gas resources, national shale gas resource strategic areas search
 PetroChina: Breakthrough in Paleozoic marine shale

4 successful wells: Wei 201, Nanjing 201, 203 Ning, Zhao 104

Shallow well (810m) with 2-3m3/t gas in southeast of Chongqing

Disposing three horizontal wells, with one already completed, 2 wells in Weiyuan, 1 well in
Changning

Sinopec: Breakthrough in Mesozoic continental shale

Yuanba: Yuanba 9 (J3z)

Jiannan: Building 111 (J3z)
 Upper Yangtze region is the pilot test area and breakthrough point of China’s
shale gas
RIPED,2011
2.1 Overview of shale gas development
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RIPED,2011
 Up to now, totally 16 fractured vertical wells have been completed, among
which 11 wells have been tested with 6 wells production above 10 thousand
cubic meters, proving commercial possibility of shale gas in China .

2.1 Overview of shale gas development
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 Spanned development of shale gas
exploration in China is in great demand of
water resource

China shale gas development plan (2011 ~ 2015) :there
will be 19 shale gas exploration regions , shale gas
production will reach to 6.5 billion m3 by the end of
2015, and will be 60-100 billion m3 in 2020. The shale
gas exploration will meet a leap-forward development.
Shale gas hydro-fracturing technology consumes 20
thousand m3 water per well, too great a consumption of
water resource. At the end of the twelfth five-year plan,
the water consumption will reach to 19-24 million
cubic/year.
China shale gas resources distribute in the central and
western mountainous terrains, water shortage is a big
problem in those areas.

Therefore shale gas exploration appears contrary to
water resources, the shale gas exploration faces a great
environmental pressure.
产量柱状图

单位:亿方
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
十一五 十二五 十三五
water consumption
19

24 million
m
3
/year
Key water shortage areas in China
Sichuan
China shale gas development plan
2.2 Environmental Problems and Challenges in Shale gas
exploration & production
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 The existing area of shale gas exploitation &
demonstrations are sensitive to environment,
the protection of the Ecosystem demands
stringent specification.

China shale gas mostly concentrates in the Middle West
mountain areas, such as Changning-Weiyuan, Peiling
locate in environmentally sensitive farm areas with a
dense population, the environmental capacity is limited.
The abundant fracturing flow-back fluid and drilling
waste will pollute surrounding areas without effective
treatment, lead groundwater pollution by strong hydro-
fracture , and geological disasters.
Therefore, shale gas exploration faces tremendous
pressure of environmental protection.

Shale gas exploitation site in Weiyuan
2.2 Environmental Problems and Challenges in Shale gas
exploration & production
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 Shale gas exploration generates amounts
of waste water and drilling waste, it is
difficult for waste treatment and
recycling

Produce about 10000 m3 flowback fluid per well
normally within the measure of 15-30 days. This
fluid with hardness ions, high Chloride contents,
polymers, heavy metals and radioactive elements
carried from the stratum, results harmful effects.
Oil-base drilling fluid is widely used, the resulting
wastes contain oil-bearing drill cuttings exist high
toxicity, so far the resource utilization and harmless
treatment of this waste is then undeveloped, easily
cause a serious environmental pollution.
As a result, Resource utilization and Harmless
treatment for those drilling wastes need to be
addressed in shale gas exploration process.
Work site - Weiyuan
2.2 Environmental Problems and Challenges in Shale gas
exploration & production
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 Shale gas exploration might cause the groundwater pollution and
geological disasters, we need to raise the level of environmental risk
assessment and monitoring management.

A majority of exploration fields distribute in the hilly lands that have complex geological
conditions in China, the exploration may accordingly cause surface subsidence, and create
landslides. Meanwhile, the earthquake induced by exploration can also lead to a slope
instability resulting landslides. China shale gas resource mostly distribute in the southern hilly
mountain with complex geological conditions, the risk factor of geological disaster is higher
than the United States.
Geological disaster and groundwater (deep, shallow) pollution risks of hydro-fracture can not
be effectively evaluated at present. Monitoring, pre-warning and repair technology to the
groundwater and soil pollution are still in wanted, it is still lack of a comprehensive Resources
Environment evaluation and coping strategies to support the sustainable development of
shale exploration.
For this reason, the technical bottleneck of environmental risk monitoring and environmental
management solutions must be solved in the shale gas exploration.
2.2 Environmental Problems and Challenges in Shale gas
exploration & production
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Environmental protection laws, regulations, and
polices of China
Environmental Problems and Challenges in Shale
gas exploration&production
Environmental risk & management technology in
Shale gas exploration&production
Water resource protection and management
technology in Shale gas exploration&production
Outlook & Recommendations
Contents
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Main environmental risks and technical requirements:

Standard-reaching treatment of fracturing flow-back fluid

Beneficial & harmless waste treatment in Oil-base drilling

Recycling of evolved and relief gas

Pollution monitoring, forewarning, preventing, and controlling for groundwater

Risk assessment and monitoring for geological disaster

Soil pollution repair and well site reclamation
Environmental risk & management technology in shale
gas exploration&production
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 Standard-reaching treatment of fracturing flowback fluid
 Reinjection treatment technology of fracturing flowback fluid

Fast elimination of suspended matter, disinfection
 Integrating treatment technology for standard reaching discharge of
fracturing flowback fluid


Fast hardening elimination, efficient elimination for organic compounds,
appropriate desalination
 Develop portable integrated treatment equipments
 Establish a characteristic & composition database for fracturing
flowback fluid
Main environmental management and repair technology:
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 Beneficial & harmless waste treatment in Oil-base drilling
 Source control technology and waste pollution characteristic for drilling and
well completion process

Environmental friendly assessment for drilling and well completion fluid system,
develop environmental friendly treating agent, environmental friendly modification for
drilling and well completion fluid system
 Beneficial technology research for the waste of Oil-base drilling

Recycle oil-bearing drill cuttings and oil-bearing spent mud with jet injection
technology, create the condition to achieve Beneficial & harmless waste treatment.
Main environmental management and repair technology:
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 Beneficial & harmless waste treatment in Oil-base drilling
 Harmless treatment technology research for the solid waste of drilling and well
completion

Use Microbial technology to realize the degradation treatment for oil recovery solid
residues and Synthetic-based waste drilling mud, to achieve harmless treatment of
solid waste in the drilling and well completion process.

 Fast while drilling treatment technology research for drilling wastewater

For drilling wastewater, conduct the high performance coagulating, chemical
oxidation treatment, and through advanced desalination treatment, reach the
discharge requirements.
Main environmental management and repair technology:
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 Pollution monitoring, forewarning, preventing, and controlling for
groundwater
 Environmental risk assessment technology for the groundwater in shale
gas mining

Risk characteristics of groundwater environment in shale gas mining,
construction of Appraisal Index System, develop risk assessment model,
form guidelines for the environmental risk assessment of groundwater in
shale gas exploration.
 Stratified monitoring technology for the groundwater in shale gas
exploration

Correlation between groundwater pollution and monitoring index, layout
scheme of monitoring points, and stratified monitoring technology.
Main environmental management and repair technology:
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 Pollution monitoring, forewarning, preventing, and controlling for
groundwater
 Integrated equipments of groundwater on-line monitoring

Determine the equipment technical parameters, and develop the relevant
monitoring equipments.
 Pollution prevention and forewarning technology for the groundwater in
shale gas exploration

Based on forewarning index and thresholds, construct the forewarning model,
develop the relevant software system, propose measures for the pollution control
and prevention
.

Main environmental management and repair technology:
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 Recycling of evolved and relief gas
 Summarize the air discharged characteristics for evolved and relief gas

Master the process gas emission characteristics, establish models and
methods.
 Recycling techniques and equipments of evolved and relief gas

Form the carbon emission assessment method in shale gas mining process
based on EIO-LCA model, establish Environmental Economic Analysis models
and methods to recycling of evolved and relief gas, develop the relevant
recycling techniques and equipments
.
 Monitoring technology for the evolved and relief gas

Construct integration of three dimensions’ monitoring system, coordinated
develop corresponding monitoring technologies and equipments.
Main environmental management and repair technology:
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 Risk assessment and monitoring for geological disaster

Induced earthquake and landslide risk assessment technology

Induced geological hazard chain risk assessment technology in shale gas exploration

Response (coping strategies)to induced geological hazard in shale gas exploration
 Soil pollution repair and well site reclamation

Analysis methods for status of soil pollution and pollution characteristics

Ecological effect and remediation threshold of typical soil pollutants

Remediation technology for contaminated soils

Restoration technology for temporary land-use
Main environmental management and repair technology:
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Environmental protection laws, regulations, and
polices of China
Environmental Problems and Challenges in
Shale gas exploration&production
Environmental risk & management technology
in Shale gas exploration&production
Water resource protection and management
technology in Shale gas exploration&production
Outlook & Recommendations
Contents
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 Waste water treatment and recycling technology

Treatment of fracturing flowback fluid, and recycling technology for fracturing
water distribution

Use the methods of de-hardening treatment, eliminating some organic
compounds, disinfection, and deoxidizing treatment, to fracturing flowback
fluid, in order to fulfill the requirements of fracturing water distribution, and form
unitized treatment equipments.

Recycle technology for discharged water in gas well
Water resource protection and management technology in
shale gas exploration&production
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 Waste water treatment and recycling technology

Moderate desalting treatment to discharged water during gas generation process,
use the treated water for well site production and greening water.

Recycle technology for drilling waste water.

Effectively coagulate the drilling wastewater, implement chemical oxidation
treatment, for reaching the water reuse standard, moreover, reaching the
discharge requirements through advanced desalting treatment.
Water resource protection and management technology in
shale gas exploration&production
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 Comprehensive utilization technology for water resource
 Water distribution technology for deep saline water recycle

Adopt deep saline water to distribute during fracturing process, reduce the
consumption of available surface and shallow groundwater.

 Management technology for water resource

Assessment technology for water resource and water environment carrying
capacity

Rational use of surface water, the protection and management of groundwater

Policy and management system of sustainable development in shale gas
exploration
Water resource protection and management technology in
shale gas exploration&production
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Environmental protection laws, regulations, and
polices of China
Environmental Problems and Challenges in Shale
gas exploration&production
Environmental risk & management technology
in Shale gas exploration&production
Water resource protection and management
technology in Shale gas exploration&production
Outlook & Recommendations
Contents
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 Strengthen environmental management

Actively implement CNPC's Security Development Plan, Environmental Protection
Plan, Energy and Water Conservation Plan, and Green Development Action Plan,
in order to promote the safety, cleaning and conservation development.
 Strengthen R&D
Promote Environmental protection science research which belongs to Key
Program for Shale gas Science and Technology Development of China.

Focused on the pressing concerns: Treatment of fracturing flowback fluid during shale gas
exploration, harmless treatment for drilling solid waste, environmental risk monitoring for
groundwater, it demands to launch mechanism research, such as formation characteristic of
pollutants, environmental pollution patterns; develop serial technologies and equipments for
fracturing flowback fluid and drilling waste treatment, recycle the evolved & relief gas; establish
risk monitoring and pre-warning system integrated with groundwater pollution, geological
disaster; form green technical specifications for shale gas exploration; cultivate a professional
engineering service crew to support the environmental management and water resource
protection.
Outlook & Recommendations
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 Strengthen R&D
 Develop cleaner production technology

Energy efficiency hydro-fracturing technology

Foam fracturing technology

Efficient recycling technology for Fracturing fluids and Drill-in fluids

System optimization technology
 Develop efficiency pollution controlling technology

Promote the efficiency of unique technology for flowback fracturing fluids and Drilling fluids

Proceed the Structure optimization and process integration to bring the intensified, mini,
and movable treatment equipments

 Develop environmental risk monitoring technology

Pollution monitoring technology for underground water

Risk assessment and pre-warning for geological disasters
Outlook & Recommendations
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 Strengthen engineering demonstration

Promote supporting technology research, development and utilization, and achieve the
core technology of shale gas exploration and development in Chinese characteristics
(green, environmental protection)

To structure environmental friendly surface engineering system adapted to the Chinese
shale gas characteristics

Take the Sichuan Changning-Weiyuan as the shale gas exploration demonstration area,
to move the environmental management and water resources protection system of
shale gas exploration forward, promote greening sustainable development.

 Strengthen international communication and cooperation


Actively carry out international exchanges and cooperation, learn successful experience
from North America, consider advanced technology applications.

Develop a wide range of international communication in the field of environmental
protection technology of shale gas exploration.
Outlook & Recommendations
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