Routers and TCP/IP Networking - Information Technology Services

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Oct 26, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Routers and TCP/IP Networking

March
8

(Day);
March
5

(Night)




Routers:

o

A
router

is a multiport connectivity device that directs nodes on a network.
Basically, when a router receives an incoming packet, it reads the packet’s
network address and subnet mask

and determines to which network the packet
should be delivered.

o

A router’s strength lies in its intelligence. Not only can routers keep track of the
locations of certain nodes on the network, but they can also determine the
shortest path between two node
s.

o

They can do the following:



Connect dissimilar networks.



Interpret Layer 3 addressing and other information (such as quality of
service indicators).



Determine the best path for data to follow from point A to point B.



Reroute traffic if a primary path is
down but another path is available.


o

Directing Data
:



Static routing

is a technique in which a network administrator programs
a router to use specific paths between node.



Static routing does not take into account for occasional network
congestion, failed
connections, or device moves.



Moving a device of part of the network causes the network
administrator to reprogram the router.



Dynamic routing

automatically calculates the best path between two
nodes and accumulates this information in a routing table.



If congestion of failures affect the network, a router using
dynamic routing can detect the problems and reroute data
through a different path.



When a router is added to a network, the routing table is updated.




The
best path

refers to the most efficient
route from one node on a
network to another. Some routers determine best path by fewest number
of hops. Others use complex mathematical algorithms.



Configuring TCP/IP
:

o

For a PC to access the Internet, it must have the TCP/IP protocol loaded (p. 378).

o

TCP
/IP is so popular that even non
-
Internet accessible Internets are using it (p.
378).

o

In Windows 98/ME, you configure TCP/IP though
Network Neighborhood
.
Windows 200/XP, you configure TCP/IP in
My Network Places
.




TCP/IP Commands
:

o

Ping



a command that ena
bles one machine to check whether it can
communicate with another machine (p. 384).

o

Winipcfg



a tool in Windows 9X/ME that displays the TCP/IP settings and
information (p. 384).

o

Ipconfig



a tool in Windows NT/2000/XP that displays the TCP/IP settings and

information (p. 384).

o

Tracert



a tool that shows the route data takes to reach its destination (p. 385).




Private Network Addresses
:

o

There is a standard reserved block of addresses for use in private networks.
These are networks that will never be conne
cted directly to any other public
network.

o

The private networking standard is shown below:

Network Class

Address

Range

10.0.0.0


10.255.255.255

A

172.16.0.0


172.31.255.255

B

192.168.0.0


192.168.255.255

C

o

Routers on the Internet are designed not
to “route” private network addresses. If
a router encounters a data packet destined for a private network, it simply drops
it. This is the reason why private network addresses are also called “non
-
routable” addresses.

o

In short, the basic purpose of priva
te networks is to allow companies to establish
LANs without the cost or bother of acquiring public IP addresses.






Default Gateway
:

o

A computer that wants to send data to another machine outside its local area
network cannot know all the IP addresses on th
e Internet (p. 382).

o

Instead, all IP addresses know the name of one computer, to which they pass all
the data they need to send outside the LAN (p. 383).

o

This machine is called the default gateway, and it is usually the local router (p.
382).