Design a network addressing system, with subnet and ... - Wikispaces

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Oct 26, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Exercise 3



Design a
network

addressing system, with subnet and host IDs including
appropriate
devices


Network protocols are the rules that define the standards for communication

between network hosts

.Examples of protocols used in computer networking include:


1.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

2.

Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS)

3.

NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI).


TCP/IP is a suite of protocols including Internet

Protocol (IP) which provides

network addressing.



Each computer, network printer or other network host on your organization network
will need a unique IP address


just the same as a letter that is mailed to you through
Australia Post needs a unique addr
ess to be delivered to you. These IP addresses can
be either configured manually at each device or assigned automatically by the
network operating system. In this we will look at the format of IP addresses, and how
networks are segregated from each other b
y using subnet masks. To fully understand
how IP addressing works, firstly you need to be able to translate binary numbers such
as 10001000 to decimal numbers (10001000 =136).



An IP address is 32 bits long and made up of two components, a network portion

and
a host portion. The network address is used to identify the network and is common to
all the devices attached to the network. The host (or node) address is used to identify a
particular device attached to the network. The IP address is generally repre
sented
using the dotted
-
decimal notation, where 32 bits are divided into four octets. Each of
the octets can be represented in a decimal format, separated by decimal points.

When
a computer is configured to use the same IP address each time it powers up, t
his is
known as a
Static IP address
. In contrast, in situations when the computer's IP address
is assigned automatically, it is known as a
Dynamic IP address,
The current version of
the IP protocol is IP

version 4 (IPv4) & IP version 6 (IPv6).


Example of I
pv4
:
-
An Ipv4 address(dotted decimal notation)


10101100
.
00010000
.
11111110
.
00000001


172 16 254 1


One byte = 8 Bits

So, four byte = 8*4=32


Subnet

allows network administrators to subdivide a single class of network
a
ddresses into multiple, smaller networks, allowing allowing the more efficient use of
IP addresses. The basic idea of subnetting is to divide the standard class full

host number field into two parts


the subnet ID and the host ID

on

that subnet.

.


In eac
h of IP address first two bytes (172.16)are network address ,Third is subnet ID
and fourth byte is host ID.







172.16.1.1 172.16.2.1











IP address


Subnet 1

Subnet 2

172.16.1.0/24 172.16.1.0/24

(subnet mask 255.255.255.0)

(subnet mask 255.255.255.0)



To internet




NOTE:
-
Subnet mask
-

Determine which bits in the host address are the subnet ID
requires using 3
2 bit value.










----------------------------------------------------------------------------



THE END


---------
---------------------------------------------------------------------




Computer 172.16.1.2


Computer 172.16.1.2





Computer 172.16.1.3


Computer 172.16.1.4


hub

router


hub

Computer 172.16.2.4

Computer 172.16.2.3

Computer 172.16.2.2