mechanical engineering - Mapua Alumni Association - Alberta Chapter

exhaustedcrumMechanics

Oct 24, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Member,
Mapua

Alumni Association

Alberta Chapter

RAY ALVARADO, P.E.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Presentation Breakdown


INTRODUCTION



MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING



Acronyms


CAE


Computer Aided Engineering


CAD


Computer Aided Design


FEA


Finite Element Analysis


CFD


Computational Fluid
Dynamics


RCFA


Root Cause Failure Analysis


LNG


Liquefied Natural Gas


FCC


Fluid Catalytic Cracking, an oil refinery process


DCU


Delayed Coker Unit, an oil refinery process


S&T


Shell
-
and
-
Tube, type of heat exchanger


P&F


Plate
-
and
-
Frame, type of heat exchanger


NDE


Non
-
Destructive Examination


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING in the oil
-
and
-
gas industry is
exclusively responsible for all large
machinery

and process
equipment
, within a project or industrial facility.


Other industries may have different scopes of responsibility
.


Usually
, plant piping and pipelines are looked after by the Piping
Engineer or Pipeline Engineer


not the Mechanical Engineer
.


Many of these equipment needs collaboration and shared
responsibilities with the Process Engineer and Controls Engineer.



Two broad classifications of machinery in oil
-
and
-
gas:


A) Rotating Equipment (Dynamic)


B) Stationary Equipment (Static)




MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Usual entry
-
level positions:


Mechanical Design Engineer


Mechanical Equipment Engineer


Rotating Equipment Engineer


Stationary Equipment Engineer


Minimum
S
kill
S
ets for a Junior Mechanical Engineer:


U
ndergraduate degree in Mechanical Engineering, Chemical
Engineering, or related sub
-
discipline.


Basic knowledge of Fluid Dynamics, Thermodynamics, Heat
-
Mass Transfer, Structural Mechanics, Strength of Materials, and
Machine Elements Design.


Supplemental knowledge in Materials Science, Turbo
-
Machinery
Dynamics, Chemical Processes, and Welding Technology.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Important Deliverables:


Equipment
Data Sheets
…..all rotating and stationary equipment,
including vendor drawings and diagrams
.


Sizing Calculations
……fluid flow, heat loss, heat transfer,
pressure containment, combustion/stoichiometry, structural
supports, nozzle reinforcement, dynamic loading, FEA/CFD
analysis, emissions control, and materials selection.


Procurement & Delivery Support
……initial requisitioning,
technical evaluation, bids review, and purchase orders. Also
includes written certifications (metallurgy, casting/forging, welding
WPS/PQR, coating, transport/packaging) and shop tests (NDE,
specimen failure, water/air leak
-
strength, performance).


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

ROTATING EQUIPMENT

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Pumps

Centrifugal pump, horizontal, single

stage….most common rotating equipment

Positive
-
displacement

(reciprocating) pump

Centrifugal pump,

vertical,
multi
-
stage

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Pump Jacks, an industry icon

Or “donkey heads”, are special

positive
-
displacement pumps

Cross
-
section of

sucker rod assembly

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Compressors, Reciprocating

Reciprocating compressor,

multi
-
stage, on skid with auxiliaries

Detail of double
-
acting

piston head assembly

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Compressors, Centrifugal

Cutaway of centrifugal

compressor, single
-
stage

Cutaway of centrifugal

compressor, multi
-
stage

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Compressors, Axial and Screw Type

Axial compressor with casing

opened, showing rotating

and stationary blades

Screw (lobe) type


compressor

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Gas Turbines, Compressor
-
Turbine Unit

G
as turbine and auxiliaries

o
n self
-
contained module

Cross
-
section of an industrial

g
as turbine assembly

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Steam Turbines

Cutaway of typical

steam turbine prime

mover, multi
-
stage

Steam turbine operating

principle, with rotating

and stationary blades

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Miscellaneous Rotating Machinery

Diesel engine

prime mover set

Turbo
-
Expander assembly

Centrifugal

Fan assembly

Axial fan

assembly

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

STATIONARY EQUIPMENT

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Pressure Vessels, for temporary storage of liquid or gas

Horizontal pressure

vessels

Vertical

pressure

vessels

Spherical

pressure

vessels

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Process Reactors, FCC (Catalytic, Exothermic)

Cyclone internals

o
f reactor vessel

Catalytic cracker and regenerator

Vessels, part of FCC
p
rocess unit

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Distillation Columns, Packed or
Trayed

(Internals Type)

Packed

S
ection

Trayed

S
ection

Bubble

T
rays

Spider

D
istributor

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Heat Exchangers

Shell
-
and
-
Tube

Exchanger

Plate
-
and
-
Frame

Exchanger

Fin
-
Fan Air Cooler

Direct
-
Contact

(Barometric)

Condenser

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Fired Heaters (Fire Tube, Water Tube, Process Furnaces)

Packaged boiler

(water tube)

Catalytic furnace for Reformer

p
rocess
u
nit

Cutaway of heater

(fire tube)

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Storage Tanks (crude oil, liquid products, liquefied
vapor
)

Cutaway of a typical

floating roof tank

Fixed (cone) roof tanks

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Storage Tanks, LNG refrigerated tank

Cross
-
section of LNG tank,

showing special construction

and low
-
temp insulation

LNG tanker with

cryogenic sphere tanks

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Miscellaneous Stationary Equipment

Absorption

Refrigeration

Unit

Box
-
Type
C
ooling
T
ower

Ejector Assembly, mainly

f
or creating vacuum

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Miscellaneous Stationary Equipment, Flare Stack

Detail of alloy

steel tip with

auxiliary piping

Emergency flaring at upset conditions

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Mechanical Engineering and Beyond:


Advances in Equipment Reliability Prediction
……PC
-
based computer assistance
leads to greater accuracies in Root Cause Failure (RCF) results, statistical data
gathering, parts metallurgy, and virtual machinery testing.


Emphasis on Equipment Efficiency and Environmental Friendliness
…….use of low
-
impact feedstock/fuels, by
-
products reduction, emissions control, waste
recovery, and high
-
speed balancing precision.


More Inter
-
Disciplinary Collaboration
…….gone were the days of stand
-
alone
engineering practice. To perform his/her task
, it’s
unavoidable for the next
-
generation Mechanical Engineer not to interface with the Process Engineer,
Electrical Engineer, Chief Metallurgist, and/or

Civil Engineer.


FEA/CFD Multi
-
Physics to the Mainstream
……with stunning 3D graphics, highly
interactive results, and more powerful simulation capabilities, engineering
calculations can now be performed simultaneously e.g. structural,
fluid flow,
vibration, combustion, heat loss/heat transfer, and non
-
linear transients.


Highly Specialized Sub
-
Disciplines
.......because Mechanical Engineering has
broad coverage, one can choose to become a Pressure Vessel Engineer, Heat
Transfer Engineer, Pump Engineer, Tank Engineer, or Compressor Engineer.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Failure Prediction & Machine Component Analysis

Failure analysis and

deformation of large

m
achinery skid

Failure

a
nalysis of

f
an blade

assembly

Predictive collapse of pressure

vessel subjected to vacuum

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CFD & Multi
-
Physics Analysis

Predictive conditions

(fluid flow + thermal)

o
f gas ejector

Multi
-
physics analysis
(fluid flow + thermal) of
shell
-
and
-
tube exchanger

Forced air impingement

(fluid flow + thermal) on

tube of fin
-
fan cooler