Semantics - Verney Conference Management

erminerebelAI and Robotics

Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Semantic
Information
Relationships

April 25, 2008

Cecil Somerton

Session Summary

The session summary empathizes



organizing,



finding and



managing information



by meaning
-

semantically.



semantic relationships


Learning Objective


A look at semantics


Relationships between semantics and information


A little Information Architecture


Viewpoints and Views


Meaning Exposed


Relationship to other Architectures


Relationship to Business Outcomes


Semantic Relationships

Semantics


What do we mean?


the study of meanings


the study of meaning in communication


the study of meaning in language. See also
formal semantics, pragmatics, syntax.


the relation between the signs and the
objects to which they apply.


Meaning



Etymology:


Middle English
menen,

from Old English
mǣ
nan;

akin
to Old High German
meinen

to have in mind
, Old
Church Slavic
měniti

to mention









to have in the mind as a purpose



to serve or intend to convey, show, or indicate

Business Concepts

Sharing Meaning

Syntax



the way in which linguistic elements (as
words) are
put together

to form constituents
(as phrases or clauses)


Syntax studies the interrelation of the signs,
without regard to meaning.


"Colorless green ideas sleep furiously."


A systematic, orderly arrangement.


Sign
-

Form

Sign
-

Form


a fundamental linguistic unit that designates
an object or relation or has a purely syntactic
function


"something that stands for something
else, to someone in some capacity"


all of the ways in which information can be
communicated

An Aside Information

Information
-

noun


1
:

the communication or reception of knowledge or
intelligence

2
a (
1
)
:

knowledge obtained from investigation, study,
or instruction (
2
)
:

intelligence
,
news

(
3
)
:

facts
,
data


b
:

the attribute inherent in and communicated by one
of two or more alternative sequences or
arrangements of something that produce specific
effects


c (
1
)
:

a signal or character (as in a communication
system or computer) representing data
(
2
)
:

something (as a message, experimental data, or
a picture) which justifies change in a construct (as a
plan or theory) that represents physical or mental
experience or another construct




Pragmatics


the study of language
use

in particular
situations



the relation between the sign system and its
human user.


the study of relations between language and
context.

John Sowa Explains



From: John F. Sowa [
mailto:sowa@bestweb.net
]


> Sent: 30 August 2007 03:55


> To: Barker, Sean (UK)




I'm glad that you found the 3
-
way distinction helpful, but I want to


> emphasize three very important points:


>


> 1. It is possible to have syntax by itself without semantics or


> pragmatics. That would be a purely uninterrupted notation


> with no meaning other than to create strings of symbols.


>


> 2. It is possible to have syntax and semantics without pragmatics.


> That would be a pure description of something, such as a list


> of observed data with no indication of what to do.


>


> 3. For any practical language of any use in engineering, it is


> essential to have all three: syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.

………


> It's impossible to say anything without syntax. It's impossible to


> refer to anything without semantics. And it's impossible to do


> anything pragmatically without being able to make statements


> (syntax) that refer to something (semantics).


>


> John


Semantic

Specifications

Pragmatic

Specifications

Syntactic

Specifications

Semantics, Syntax, Pragmatics

Definitions

Terms

Usage

Semiotics

Charles Sanders Peirce 1839


1914


Semantics
: Relation between signs and the
things they refer to, their denotata.


Syntactics
: Relation of signs to each other in
formal structures.


Pragmatics
: Relation of signs to their impacts
on those who use them.

Semiotics

Charles Morris (1903


1979)

Concerned with the study of the science of
signs, which he called
semiotic
;

Distinguished 3 branches of semiotics:
syntactics (or syntax)
, which studies the
formal relation among different signs;
semantics,

the study of the relation between
the signs and the objects they denote; and
pragmatics,
the study of the relation of signs
to their interpreters, i.e. people
.


Overstating the Obvious

The Belgian surrealist René Magritte (
1898
-
1967
) painted
La Trahison des Images

(
The Treachery of Images
) in
1936
.

About the Meaning Triangle

The Business
Things and
Relationships

Information About The
Business Things and
Relationships

Business Objects

Business Concepts

Business Information


A Shout of Recognition

Understanding is paramount


“What I mean is … “

The philosopher
John Locke

pointed out three
centuries ago that; the achievement of
human knowledge is often hampered by the
use of words without fixed signification.


Timothy Findlay’s fictional Irish essayist
Nicholas Fagan wrote, “the space between
the perceiver and the thing perceived can …
be closed with a shout of recognition”


Summary

Information About The
Business Things and
Relationships

Semantic

Specifications

Pragmatic

Specifications

Syntactic

Specifications

The Business
Things and
Relationships

Business

Viewpoint

Information

Viewpoint

Business Objects

Business Concepts

Business Information


Put Another Way

“Any meaningful exchange of utterances

depends upon the prior existence

of an agreed upon set of

semantic and syntactic rules.”



The recipients of the utterances must use only these rules


to interpret the received utterances,

if it is to mean the same

as that which was meant by the utterer

ISO TR9007:1987 Information processing systems
-


Concepts and terminology for the conceptual schema and the information base

Information Architecture Framework

Viewpoints
&
Views
Information Structures
&
Business
Content
Business Specific
Occurrences
Examples
Program Activity
Architecture
Master Vendor
Record
HR Data Model
Information Architecture
Views
Employee
Passport
CSPIN Data
Dictionary
Canadian Core
Subject
Thesaurus
Records
Management
Metadata
GSRM
Service and
Accountability
Models
SOA Reference
Ontology
View Library
what to build
Viewpoint Library
Information Architecture
(
IA
)
View
p
oints
Policy
Integrated Structures
Composite Structures
Basic Structures
Concept Naming
Viewpoints
Sets of Instruction for how to build
...
Directives
Standards
Specifications
Methodologies
Concept Definition
Data
Metadata
Documents
Ontologies
Models
Information
Management
Information Management
Services
Information Handling
&
Delivery
IM Tools
&
Applications
Enterprise Information
Architecture
Policy
&
Governance
People
&
Capacity
GC IM STRATEGY
IM Vision
Stakeholders
&
Business
Requirements
Stakeholder Group B
Stakeholder Group A
Scope
,
Context
,
Requirements
Stakeholder Group C
Stakeholder Group D
GOVERNANCE
Information Architecture Framework

Viewpoints
&
Views
Information Structures
&
Business
Content
Business Specific
Occurrences
Examples
Program Activity
Architecture
Master Vendor
Record
HR Data Model
Information Architecture
Views
Employee
Passport
CSPIN Data
Dictionary
Canadian Core
Subject
Thesaurus
Records
Management
Metadata
GSRM
Service and
Accountability
Models
SOA Reference
Ontology
View Library
what to build
Examples
Structures
Data
Metadata
Documents
Models
Information Architecture
(
IA
)
ViewPoints
Policy
,
Directives
,
Standards
,
Specification
,
Methodology
,
Best practice to
Sets of Instruction for how to build
Vocabulary
VIEWPOINT LIBRARY
Integrated Structures
Composite Structures
Ontology
Basic Structures
·
Business concept definition
·
Naming business concepts
·
Association definition of business concepts
·
Business rules definition
·
rules for specification of business
intent
,
authority
,
goals and objectives
.
·
rules for
pattern

construction
·
rules for
semantic rationalization
·
rules to
integrate

structures
·
rules for ontological commitments
PLUS
PLUS
Information
Management
Information Management
Services
Information Handling
&
Delivery
IM Tools
&
Applications
Enterprise Information
Architecture
Policy
&
Governance
People
&
Capacity
GC IM STRATEGY
IM Vision
Stakeholders
&
Business
Requirements
Stakeholder Group B
Stakeholder Group A
Scope
,
Context
,
Requirements
Stakeholder Group C
Stakeholder Group D
GOVERNANCE
Enterprise Viewpoints and Views

ARCHITECTURE

Conceptual Design

Implement
Asset

Managed to Outcome

Business

Information

Application

Technology

WHAT

Views

WHY

HOW

Viewpoints

Stakeholders Requirements

Stakeholders
&
Business
Requirements
Stakeholder Group B
Stakeholder Group A
Scope
,
Context
,
Requirements
Stakeholder Group C
Stakeholder Group D

identify stakeholders like


Enterprise business owners


Local business owners


Information architects


Application architects



identify requirements for


meeting business outcomes


effectiveness of existing information construction


lowering cost of structural design and integration


aligning information structures within the enterprise


methodologies for specifying, composing and integrating
information structures


aligning information with business, applications and technical
architectures


an enterprise reference set of generic information structures,


identifying skill sets for integrated architectural service delivery,


publishing information architecture knowledge,


Viewpoint Design


We will be looking at design elements and the
nominal services found in these three areas





Information Architect

An information architect is a person who is involved in the
planning, designing and oversight of the construction of
information .



3.
Structural Integration

2.
Structural Composition

1.
Structural Specification

Viewpoints


Viewpoints
-

Instructions, patterns, rules for construction


Specification


Composition


Integration


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

Business Information


Business Information


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

Business Information


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

Business Information


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

Business Information


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

Business Information


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

Business Information


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

Business Information


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain

Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

Business Information


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

Business Information


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

Business Information


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)


(pra
gmat
ics)

Business Information


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

ules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

Business Information


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rul

Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

Business Information


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

Business Information


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

Business Information


Concept















Concept Domain
CONTEXT







Concept Definition Representation
SIGN





Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

es for building signs
(
s
y
n
t
a
x
)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

Business Information


Enumerated List (structured lists and
encoding schemes)

Metadata (information about information
or data, declarative or descriptive)

Data (semantic definition or rationalization
to integrate structures)


Models (ontology, reference, logical,
physical)

Document Standards (specification of
semi
-
structured information)

Warehouses Common Warehouse Model

Ontology Semantic Rationalization

Model Driven Engineering

Examples
Structures
Data
Metadata
Documents
Models
Information Architecture
(
IA
)
ViewPoints
Policy
,
Directives
,
Standards
,
Specification
,
Methodology
,
Best practice to
Sets of Instruction for how to build
Vocabulary
VIEWPOINT LIBRARY
Integrated Structures
Composite Structures
Ontology
Basic Structures
·
Business concept definition
·
Naming business concepts
·
Association definition of business concepts
·
Business rules definition
·
rules for specification of business
intent
,
authority
,
goals and objectives
.
·
rules for
pattern

construction
·
rules for
semantic rationalization
·
rules to
integrate

structures
·
rules for ontological commitments
PLUS
PLUS
Standards

Examples
Structures
Data
Metadata
Documents
Models
Information Architecture
(
IA
)
ViewPoints
Policy
,
Directives
,
Standards
,
Specification
,
Methodology
,
Best practice to
Sets of Instruction for how to build
Vocabulary
VIEWPOINT LIBRARY
Integrated Structures
Composite Structures
Ontology
Basic Structures
·
Business concept definition
·
Naming business concepts
·
Association definition of business concepts
·
Business rules definition
·
rules for specification of business
intent
,
authority
,
goals and objectives
.
·
rules for
pattern

construction
·
rules for
semantic rationalization
·
rules to
integrate

structures
·
rules for ontological commitments
PLUS
PLUS


Specification



Composition



Integration





ISO/IEC 704:2000,

Terminology

-



Principles and methods





ISO/IEC 1087

-

1:2000,

Terminology





Theory and application







ISO/IEC 704:2000,

Terminology

-


Prin

ciples

and methods





ISO/IEC 1087

-

1:2000,

Terminology




Theory

and application







ISO/IEC 704:2000,

Terminology

-


Principles and

methods





ISO/IEC 1087

-

1:2000,

Terminology




Theory and

application







ISO 5964

-

1985 Guidelines for the establishment

and development of multilingual thesauri





ISO/IEC DIS 19501

-

1,

Information technology

-



Unified Modeling Language (UML)

-


Part 1:

S

pecification NISO





ISO/IEC 19502

-

1: Information technology





Meta Object Facility (MOF): Specification





ISO/IEC 19503

-

1: Information technology





XML Metadata Interchange (XMI)





ISO/IEC 24707,

Information technology





Common Logic (CL)




A framework for a fa

mily

of logicbased languages

1)





ISO 5964

-

1985 Guidelines for the establishment

and development of multilingual thesauri





ISO/IEC

DIS 19501

-

1,

Information technology

-



Unified Modeling Language (UML)

-


Part 1:

Specification NISO





ISO/IEC 19502

-

1: Information technology


-

Meta

Object Facility (MOF): Specification





ISO/IEC 19503

-

1: Information technology





XML Metadata Interchange (XMI)





ISO/IEC 24707,

Information technology





Common Logic (CL)




A framework for a family

of logic based languages

1)




ISO/IEC 19763

-

1:2007 Information technology

--



Metamodel framework for interoperability





Common Warehouse Metamodel (CWM)

Specification: OMG, 20

00, ad/01

-

02

-

01





ISO/IEC 11179 (all parts)1,

Information technology

-


Metadata Registries (MDR)2



ISO/IEC TR 20943

-

1:2003, Information technology




Procedures for achieving metadata registry content consistency




Part 1: Data

elements



ISO/IEC TR 20943

-

3:20

04, Information technology




Procedures for achieving metadata registry content consistency




Part 3: Value

domains



ISO/IEC 20944, Information Technology

-

Metadata Registry Interoperability and Bindings (MDRIB)



Management



Structural Specification


Contextualizes business
concepts and their relationships
in consistent, complete and
repeatable expressions.


Generally deals with the
standardization, rules and
methodology for optimizing
concept specifications.


Optimization as determined by
the extent of the union of the set
of semantic, syntactic and
pragmatics used to produce the
concept specification.

Examples
Structures
Data
Metadata
Documents
Models
Information Architecture
(
IA
)
ViewPoints
Policy
,
Directives
,
Standards
,
Specification
,
Methodology
,
Best practice to
Sets of Instruction for how to build
Vocabulary
VIEWPOINT LIBRARY
Integrated Structures
Composite Structures
Ontology
Basic Structures
·
Business concept definition
·
Naming business concepts
·
Association definition of business concepts
·
Business rules definition
·
rules for specification of business
intent
,
authority
,
goals and objectives
.
·
rules for
pattern

construction
·
rules for
semantic rationalization
·
rules to
integrate

structures
·
rules for ontological commitments
PLUS
PLUS
Structural Specification

Concept

Concept Domain
CONTEXT

Concept Definition Representation
SIGN

Concept Definition

Rules for choice of concepts

Rules for definitions (semantics)

Rules for building signs (syntax)

Rules to scope domain (pragmatics)

Business Information


Business Concepts

Structural Specification

Concept Domain
CONTEXT

Concept Definition Representation
SIGN

Concept Definition

Yojo

Minnou

George

Puff

Butch

Siamese

Sphynx

Himalayan

Devon Rex

Manx

Concept

Concept

Concept Domain

Concept Definition Representation

Concept Definition

Concept Definition Representation Value

Concept Definition Representation Value Constraint

Structural
Composition


Information composition
generally extends the
pragmatics of basic
information specification to
include business intent,
authority, goals and objectives.


Addresses the construction
and standardization of
optimized information patterns,
products used by a business
that extends the value
proposition associated with
information specification.


Information products are
represented by such structures
as models, or business
documents/patterns
(information instruments such
as cheques, invoices, reports,
statistics, etc).


Examples
Structures
Data
Metadata
Documents
Models
Information Architecture
(
IA
)
ViewPoints
Policy
,
Directives
,
Standards
,
Specification
,
Methodology
,
Best practice to
Sets of Instruction for how to build
Vocabulary
VIEWPOINT LIBRARY
Integrated Structures
Composite Structures
Ontology
Basic Structures
·
Business concept definition
·
Naming business concepts
·
Association definition of business concepts
·
Business rules definition
·
rules for specification of business
intent
,
authority
,
goals and objectives
.
·
rules for
pattern

construction
·
rules for
semantic rationalization
·
rules to
integrate

structures
·
rules for ontological commitments
PLUS
PLUS
Structural Composition

refers to

Source
Association

Source

Term Usage

Concept

Term

1
.

1.

1
.

1.

1
.

1.

1
.

2.

refers

to

Association

Cross
-
reference

Reference

Specialization

refers

to

inverse

to

from

from

from

to

to

to

is

used

to

communicate

a

is specialized
to sub

is specialized
from super

pays the
role of a

includes

(can have)

Business Definitions Pattern (BDP)

Structural Composition

refers to

Source
Association

Source

Term Usage

Concept

Term

1
.

1.

1
.

1.

1
.

1.

1
.

2.

refers

to

Association

Cross
-
reference

Reference

Specialization

refers

to

inverse

to

from

from

from

to

to

to

is

used

to

communicate

a

is specialized
to sub

is specialized
from super

pays the
role of a

includes

(can have)

Business Definitions Pattern (BDP)

Authority

/Provenance

Abstraction/
Granularity

Mapping Concept
Equivalency

Models/
Ontologies

Business Intelligence


Business intelligence is the use of an
organization's disparate data to provide
meaningful information and analysis to
employees, customers, suppliers, and
partners for more effective decision making.

Structural Integration


Includes mechanisms for
semantic rationalization and
alignment of information
structures.


Leverages and integrates
existing information structures
(concept mapping across
models and terminology,
concept system integration)


Develops ontological
commitments within and across
communities to facilitate
information interchange.
(
ontological comparisons,
sufficient equivalency
determinations etc.)

Examples
Structures
Data
Metadata
Documents
Models
Information Architecture
(
IA
)
ViewPoints
Policy
,
Directives
,
Standards
,
Specification
,
Methodology
,
Best practice to
Sets of Instruction for how to build
Vocabulary
VIEWPOINT LIBRARY
Integrated Structures
Composite Structures
Ontology
Basic Structures
·
Business concept definition
·
Naming business concepts
·
Association definition of business concepts
·
Business rules definition
·
rules for specification of business
intent
,
authority
,
goals and objectives
.
·
rules for
pattern

construction
·
rules for
semantic rationalization
·
rules to
integrate

structures
·
rules for ontological commitments
PLUS
PLUS
Ontology (1): What it is


An ontology is an
explicit
specification of a
conceptualization (Gruber 1994)



An ontology is a
formal
specification of a
shared
conceptualization (Borst 1997)

Ontological commitment:


Stakeholders using conceptual models should have
a
shared understanding
of the
modeling constructs
to create a common understanding of the Universe
of Discourse at hand.

Semantic Relationships


Between the pointer and the object


Between the pointer and the sign


Between the whole and its parts


Between the general and the specialized


Between this and that


Between explicit and inferred.

This and That

Here to There

The Semantic Continuum

More to Come ?

Questions?

Open discussion of how information architecture these
enables;


GUI development


Path finding and Navigation


Namespaces Meaning Exposed


Managing the specifications.


Business integration RDF and OWL


Semantic rationalization SOA


Model Driven Engineering


Shifts in Thinking


Contact Information

Cecil E. Somerton

Information Analyst | Analyste de l'information IM
Strategies | Stratégies de la gestion de l'information

Chief Information Officer Branch | Direction du
dirigeant principal de l'information Treasury Board
of Canada, Secretariat | Secrétariat du Conseil du
Trésor du Canada

Ottawa, Canada K1A 0R5

613 946
-
5053 |
Cecil.Somerton@tbs
-
sct.gc.ca

facsimile/télécopieur 613 946
-
9342