The ICT Community

enginestagNetworking and Communications

Oct 26, 2013 (4 years and 2 months ago)

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The
ICT

Community

Presenter:

Ousman Faal

Prepared By Ousman Faal

1

What Is Internet?


Internet,

computer
-
based

global information system. Or the global
interconnection of networks. Each network may link tens,
hundreds, or even thousands of computers, enabling them to
share information and processing power. The Internet has made it
possible for people all over the world to communicate with one
another effectively and inexpensively. Unlike traditional
broadcasting media, such as radio and television, the Internet
does not have a centralized distribution system. Instead, an
individual who has Internet access can communicate directly with
anyone else on the Internet, post information for general
consumption, retrieve information, use distant applications and
services, or buy and sell products online.

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Uses Of The Internet


Communication


Education


Science and technology


Research


Friends & Dating


Advertisement


Business


Sports


News


E
-
commerce


Fun & Gaming



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Computer Network


A computer network is defined as having two or
more devices (such as, printers, or servers) that
are linked together for the purpose of sharing
information, resources , or both.


A computer network allows users to communicate
with other users on the same network by
transmitting data on the cables used to connect
them.


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JollofTutors

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Types of Computer Network


LAN

(Local area network)


WAN

(Wide area network)


MAN

(
Metropolican

Area Network)


PAN

(Personal Area Network)


VPN

(Virtual Private Network)

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Local Area Network (LAN)


Is a computer network that
connects computers and
devices in a limited
geographical area such as,
home, computer labs, office
buildings, closely positioned
group of buildings, or an
airport.


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Categories Of Network


Peer to peer network


Client/server network

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WORKGROUP

DOMAIN

Wide Area Network (WAN)


Is a computer network that
covers a broad area (i.e. any
network whose
communication links across
regional, or national
boundaries.


A WAN, as the name implies,
is designed to work over a
larger area than a LAN.


Allows companies to make
use of common resources in
order to operate.


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The World Wide Web



World Wide Web

(WWW),

computer
-
based network of information
resources that combines text and multimedia. The information on
the World Wide Web can be accessed and searched through the
Internet, a global computer network. The World Wide Web is often
referred to simply as “
T
he Web
?µ?

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Internet connection Methods


Dial
-
Up


Broadband


DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)



Wi
-
fi

(Wireless Fidelity)


Bluetooth


Infrared


Cell Phones


3G

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(ISP)Internet Service Providers


These are companies that provides internet access to individuals
and companies.


E.g.
Gamtel


Unique Solution


Netpage


Quantumnet


Qcell

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Web browsers


A
Browser
a program that enables a computer to locate, download,
and display documents containing text, sound, video, graphics,
animation, and photographs located on computer networks. The act of
viewing and moving about between documents on computer networks
is called
browsing
. Users browse through documents on open, public
-
access networks called
internets
, or on closed networks called
intranets
.



Internet Explorer


Mozilla Firefox


Google Chrome


Opera


Safari



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Network Names and Addresses



To

be

connected

to

the Internet, a computer must be assigned a
unique number, known as its IP (Internet Protocol) address. Each
packet sent over the Internet contains the IP address of the
computer to which it is being sent. Intermediate routers use the
address to determine how to forward the packet. Users almost
never need to enter or view IP addresses directly. Instead, to make
it easier for users, each computer is also assigned a domain name;
protocol software automatically translates domain names into IP
addresses.
See also
Domain Name System.


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Uniform Resource Locator (URL)


URL (Uniform Resource Locator), an address that points to a
particular document or other resource on the Internet, used most
frequently on the World Wide Web (WWW). A computer user can
visit an Internet document by typing its URL into a Web browser or
similar application used to access the Internet. E.g.
http://www.google.com



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Protocols


A protocol is a formal description of a set of rules and conventions
that govern how devices in the internet or network communicates.

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IP (Internet Protocol)


IP Address
, the identifying number that enables
any computer on the Internet to find another
computer on the network. It consists of four sets
of numbers separated by periods

for example,
123.456.78.90.
The IP address, also called the
Internet address, is translated into a word
-
based
address

for example,
yahoo.com

by the domain
name system server.


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HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)


The first part of the URL, the part before the colon, represents the
scheme, or protocol, used to retrieve the document. In this case,
http://

indicates that the document is a Web page viewable by a
Web browser.

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FTP (File Transfer Protocol)


File Transfer Protocol on the Internet and other networks, a method
of transferring files from one computer to another. The protocol is a
set of rules that ensures a file is transmitted properly to the
receiving computer. Any file you download from the internet you
have used the FTP protocol.


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SMTP(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)


Internet mail transfer protocol:
the main protocol used to send
electronic mail on the Internet, consisting of rules for how
programs
sending the
mail should interact with programs receiving
mail.

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POP3(Post Office Protocol 3)


The protocol used for receiving email messages from the internet.

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Domain Name System (DNS)


Domain Name System (DNS), a method of translating
Internet addresses so that computers connected in the
Internet can find each other. A
DNS

server translates a
numerical address assigned to a computer (such as
207.46.228.91) into a sequence of words, and vice versa.
A DNS name, written in lowercase letters with words
separated by periods, takes the form of
username@computer.domainname

(for example:
jolloftutors@gmail.com
).


Username

is the name or account number used to log in.


Hostname

(
gmail

in the example above) is the name of the
computer or company; it may consist of several parts.


Domain Name

indicates the type of organization.





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Common Domain Names


.
com

(commercial Profit making organization)


.org

(non
-
profit organisation)


.
edu

(educational)


.
gov

(government)


.
net

(networking organization)


.
co.uk

(U.K
. commercial
organization)


.
nl

(Netherland)


.
fr

(France)


.
gm

(Gambia)


.
sn

(Senegal) etc.


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Website



A Web Site is a place in the web that contains web pages of
information located on a server connected to the internet.
Companies used websites to advertise theirs businesses.

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Hypertext


Hypertext, a collection of
documents that contain cross
-
references called
hyperlinks
,

which allow the user to jump
easily from one document to
another. Hypertext is used
extensively on the internet.


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Search Engines


Search Engine,

website

that helps users find information stored in the
Internet. A user enters search terms or queries, typically by typing a
keyword or phrase, and the search engine retrieves a list of World Wide
Web (WWW) sites, personal computer files, or documents, either by
scanning the content stored on the computers or computer networks
being searched or by index of their stored data.


Search

engines

are

most often used to find pages, files, news, images,
and other data on the Web. Some of the most popular Web search
engines include:


Google



Yahoo


Ask


Bing


Wikipedia


Microsoft Network (MSN)


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E
-
Commerce


Electronic Commerce

or

e
-
commerce, is

the

exchange of goods and
services or buying and selling by means of the Internet or other
computer networks.


E.g.
Ebay

& Amazon

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HyperText Markup Language (HTML)


Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), the standard text
-
formatting
language for documents on the Web. HTML documents are text
files that contain two parts: content that is meant to be rendered
on a computer screen by a web browser; and
markup

or
tags,

encoded information that directs the text format on the screen
and is generally hidden from the user.

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Intranet


A private network which connects computers within an
organization. Only authorized computers at the organization can
connect to the intranet, and the organization restricts
communication between the intranet and the global Internet. To
provide Internet service, the organization connects its intranet to
the Internet The restrictions allow computers inside the
organization to exchange information but keep the information
confidential and protected from outsiders.

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Extranet


An extension of an
organization's intranet:
an extension of the
intranet of a company or organization, giving authorized outsiders
controlled access to the
intranet.


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Social Networks


These are commercial websites that users register for interacting
and meeting new people either for friendship or dating.


Common Social Networks:


Facebook


Twitter


Badoo


hi5

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Fire Wall


Firewall is a combination of a software and hardware blocks
unauthorized access to an organization's local area network (LAN).
A firewall can reside on the administrative computer (the server)
that acts as the LAN's gateway to the Internet or it can be a
dedicated computer placed between the LAN and the Internet, so
that the network is never in direct contact with the Internet. The
firewall also keeps track of every file entering or leaving the local
area network in order to detect the sources of viruses and other
problems that might enter the network.

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Electronic Mail

(E
-
mail)


A system that allows text
-
based messages to
be exchanged electronically, e.g. between
computers or cell phones.



E
-
Mail abbreviation of the term electronic
mail, method of transmitting data, text files,
digital photos, or audio and video files from
one computer to another over an intranet or
the Internet. E
-
mail enables computer users
to send messages and data quickly through a
local area network or beyond through the
Internet.

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Parts Of An E
-
mail Address

ousmanfaal2006@gmail.com

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Username

Organisation

Domain Name

Emailing Objects


Inbox
-

Where received emails are stored.


Sent

Items
-

Where sent emails are stored.


Draft
-

Where emails that are not yet send are stored.


Deleted

Items/Trash
-

Where deleted emails are stored.


Junkmail
/Spam
-
unwanted

mail
:
unsolicited mail, especially
advertising.

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Emailing Fields


To:

used to enter the email address of the recipient.


Cc:

Carbon Copy
-

used to send an email message to multiple
email addresses and all the recipients will see the email addresses
of the other recipients of that message.


Bcc:
Blind Carbon Copy
-

used to send an email message to
multiple email addresses and all the recipients will not see the
email addresses of the other recipients of that message.


Subject
: A description of the message


Attachment
-

Used to attach a file or document to an email
message.


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