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Nov 12, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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THE NEXT GENERATION OF
LIBRARY AUTOMATION:

NEW PRODUCTS, CONCEPTS, ARCHITECTURES, &
DATA MODELS

Marshall Breeding

Director for Innovative Technology and Research

Vanderbilt University Library

Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides

http://www.librarytechnology.org/

http://twitter.com/mbreeding


29 Aug 2011

Northwestern University Library

Abstract


Marshall Breeding will describe the next generation
systems library management systems, including general
characteristics, architecture, and features.

He will
illustrate the role of the new library services platform
facilitating the interoperability
of a variety of vendor
products, open source
systems and how they can
integrate
with university
systems, such as human
resources, financials, identity management,
c
ourse
m
anagement as well as
other external systems (e.g.
HathiTrust
).

Breeding will describe the difference
between the
cloud
and on
-
premise
installations and
their relative advantages and disadvantages.

Library Technology Guides


Library

Journal Automation
Marketplace


Published annually

in April 1 issue


Based on data

provided by each vendor


Focused primarily on North America


Context

of global library automation

market


Annual Industry report published in
Library Journal:


2011: New Frontier: battle intensifies to win hearts, minds
and tech dollars


2010: New Models, Core Systems


2009: Investing in the Future


2008
: Opportunity out of turmoil


2007: An industry redefined


2006: Reshuffling the deck


2005: Gradual evolution


2004: Migration down, innovation up


2003: The competition heats up


2002: Capturing the migrating customer

LJ Automation
Marketplace

The New Frontier…



new phase of competition following a period of
research and development that aimed to provide
alternatives to libraries, both in back
-
end
automation
and end user discovery. A variety of
new solutions have emerged, often representing
quite different conceptual models. In a continued
trend, librarians seek solutions that immediately
improve the experiences of their users, especially
via discovery
products.

Key Context: Academic Libraries in
Transition


Shift from Print

> Electronic


E
-
journal transition largely complete


E
-
books now in play


Increasing emphasis on subscribed content, especially
articles and databases


Academic libraries seeing long
-
term declines in print
circulation


Need

better tools for managing electronic resources


Need

better tools for access to complex multi
-
format
collections


Strong emphasis on digitizing local collections


Demands for enterprise integration and interoperability

Key Context:

Library Users in Transition


New generations of library users:


Millennial generation


Self sufficient


reluctant to seek assistance,


Not necessarily skilled at information seeking and
management


Perceive themselves as competent

to use information tools
without help


Web savvy

/ Digital natives


Pervasive

Web 2.0 concepts


Inherently collaborative work styles

Key Context: Technologies in transition


XML

/ Web services / Service
-
oriented Architecture


Beyond

Web 2.0


Integration

of social computing into core infrastructure


Local computing shifting to cloud platforms


Application Service Provider offerings

standard


New expectations for multi
-
tenant software
-
as
-
a
-
service


Move infrastructure management out of the local premises


Full spectrum of devices


full
-
scale / net book / tablet / mobile


Mobile

the current focus, but is only one example of device
and interface cycles

Key Text:

Changed expectations in
metadata management


Moving

away from individual record
-
by
-
record creation


Life

cycle of metadata


Metadata follows the supply chain, improved and enhanced

along the way as needed


Manage metadata in bulk when possible


E
-
book collections


Highly shared metadata


E
-
journal knowledge bases, e.g.


Great interest in moving toward semantic web and open
linked data


Very little progress


AACR2 > RDA. Will Library of Congress abandon MARC?

Phase

of realignment


Strong

need to realign library automation with
current library realities


Legacy library systems reinforce workflows no
longer in step with library priorities.


Need systems that allow libraries to allocate
personnel in proper proportion to collection


Separate automation platforms for print and
electronic have not proven successful

Status Quo Sustainable?


ILS for management of (mostly) print


Duplicative financial systems between library and campus


Electronic Resource Management (non
-
integrated with ILS)


Open
URL Link Resolver w/ knowledge base for access to
full
-
text electronic articles


Digital Collections Management platforms (CONTENTdm,
DigiTool, etc.)


Institutional Repositories (
DSpace
, Fedora, etc.)


Discovery
-
layer services for broader access to library
collections


No effective integration services / interoperability among
disconnected systems, non
-
aligned metadata schemes


Dynamics

of the Library Automation
Scene


Evolutionary

ILS



Revolutionary ILS



Open source and Proprietary alternatives

http://www.uoguelph.ca/theportico/science/people/

Evolutionary

path


Gradual

enhancement

of long
-
standing ILS platforms


Wrap legacy code in APIs and Web services


SirsiDynix


Unicorn (+Horizon functionality) > Symphony


Innovative


INNOVAQ > INNOPAC > Millennium > Encore/Sierra


Civica


Urica

>
Spydus

(
Urica

Integrated Systems, Amalgamated Wireless Australia, McDonnell
Douglas Information Systems, Sanderson)


Traditional Proprietary Commercial ILS


Millennium / Sierra, Symphony,

Polaris, Aleph, Voyager


BOOK
-
IT,
DDELibra
, Libra.se


LIBERO, Amlib, Spydus


Traditional Open

Source ILS


Evergreen, Koha


Clean slate automation framework (SOA, enterprise
-
ready)


Ex Libris Alma, Kuali OLE, Sierra (?)


Cloud
-
based automation system


OCLC Web
-
scale Management Service


Serials Solutions Web
-
Scale Management Solution

Competing Models of Library
Automation

Rethinking
library

automation


Fundamental assumption: Print + Digital
+ Electronic


Traditional
print
-
dominant ILS
model not adequate for
modern
academic library realities


Libraries currently moving toward surrounding core ILS with
additional modules to handle electronic content


New discovery layer
services replacing
or supplementing ILS
OPACS


Working toward a new model of library automation


Monolithic legacy architectures replaced by fabric of SOA applications


Comprehensive Resource Management

“It's Time to Break the Mold of the Original ILS” Computers in Libraries Nov/Dec 2007

Open

Systems


Achieving

openness has risen as the key driver
behind library technology strategies


Open source


Open API’s


Demand for Interoperability


Libraries need to do more with their data


Ability to improve customer experience

Benefits of APIs

to Libraries


Extensibility


Interoperability


Allows

the LMS to connect with other automation
components


Create a matrix of interconnected systems rather
than isolated silos with redundant data and
functionality


LMS maturity means similar levels of functionality


LMS products increasingly differentiated by extent
and quality of APIs and interoperability support

Legacy
LMS Model

Circulation

BIB

Staff Interfaces:

Holding


/ Items

Circ

Transact

User

Vendor

Policies

$$$

Funds

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

Online

Catalog

Public Interfaces
:

Interfaces

Business

Logic

Data

Stores

`

Legacy
ILS Model / API

Circulation

BIB

Staff Interfaces:

Holding


/ Items

Circ

Transact

User

Vendor

Policies

$$$

Funds

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

Online

Catalog

Public Interfaces
:

Interfaces

Business

Logic

Data

Stores


Application Programming Interfaces


Legacy
ILS Model / protocol

Circulation

BIB

Staff Interfaces:

Holding


/ Items

Circ

Transact

User

Vendor

Policies

$$$

Funds

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

Online

Catalog

Public Interfaces
:


Application Programming Interfaces


Protocols:
SIP2 NCIP

Z39.50

OAI
-
PMH

Self
-
Check

Interlibrary

Loan

System

Legacy
ILS Model / External API

Circulation

BIB

Staff Interfaces:

Holding


/ Items

Circ

Transact

User

Vendor

Policies

$$$

Funds

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

Online

Catalog

Public Interfaces
:


Application Programming Interfaces / Web Services


Protocols:
SIP2 NCIP

Z39.50

OAI
-
PMH

External

Systems &

Services

Flexible

Interoperability

Legacy
ILS Model / Extended
Discovery

`

API Layer

LMS

Consolidated index

Search


Engine


Discovery Service


Search:

Digital
Collections

ProQuest

EBSCOhost



JSTOR

Other
Resources

Consolidated index

Search


Engine


Discovery Service


Search:

Digital
Coll

ProQuest

EBSCO



JSTOR

Other
Resources

New Library Management Model

`

API Layer

Library Management
System

Learning

Management

Enterprise
Resource

Planning

Stock

Management

Self
-
Check /

Automated
Return

Authentication

Service

Smart Cad /

Payment
systems

LMS

as Middleware


LMS provides

strategic core of automation


Less involved with end
-
user contact


Discovery for Web
-
based collection discovery and user
services


Self
-
service stations for loans and returns


Smart
-
card and payment systems

Academic Library

Issues


Greater concern with

electronic resources


Management: Need for consolidated approach that
balances print,

digital,
and electronic workflows


Access: discovery interfaces that maximize the value
of investments in electronic content

LMS / Electronic Resource Management

Circulation

BIB

Staff Interfaces:

Holding


/ Items

Circ

Transact

User

Vendor

Policies

$$$

Funds

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials

Online

Catalog

Public Interfaces
:


Application Programming Interfaces


`

License

Management

License

Terms

E
-
resource

Procurement

Vendors

E
-
Journal

Titles

Protocols:
CORE

LMS / Electronic Resource Management

Circulation

BIB

Staff Interfaces:

Holding


/ Items

Circ

Transact

User

Vendor

Policies

$$$

Funds

Cataloging

Acquisitions

Serials +

e
-
resources

Online

Catalog

Public Interfaces
:


Application Programming Interfaces


License

manager

License

Terms

Print +

Electronic

Public Library Issues


Enhance the experience

of library patrons


Management and access to physical resources


Self
-
service through the Web portal:


View current loans, perform holds, renewals, pay fines
and fees


Self
-
service

in the physical library


RFID
-
based self
-
issue and returns


Helps the library deploy service personnel for highest

impact

Library Services Platform


Possible

new term for the successor to the ILS


ILS now viewed as print
-
centric


Next Generation systems must serve as platforms to
connect external systems as well as to deliver
internal functionality


Delivered Functionality + library created extensions
+ interoperability

Cloud Computing


Major trend in Information

Technology


Few organizations have core competence in large
-
scale
computer infrastructure management


Essentially outsourcing of server housing and
management


Usually based on a consumption
-
based business model


Most new automation

products delivered through some
flavor of cloud computing


Many flavors to suit business needs: public, private,
hybrid

Library Automation in the Cloud


Almost all library automation vendors offer some
form of cloud
-
based services


Server management moves from library to Vendor


Subscription
-
based business model


Comprehensive annual subscription payment


Offsets local server purchase and maintenance


Offsets some local technology support

Application Service Provider


Vendor hosting of traditional ILS


Technically

Application Service Provider though

marketed as

SaaS


Continued reliance on Graphical Clients deployed on each staff
workstation that need to be updated and synched


Vendor maintains individual

instances for each library / site

Software as a Service


Multi

Tennant SaaS is the modern approach


One copy of the code base serves multiple

sites


Software functionality delivered entirely through
Web interfaces


No workstation clients


Upgrades and fixes deployed universally


Usually in small increments

Data as a service


SaaS

provides opportunity for highly shared data
models


WorldCat: one globally shared copy that serves all
libraries


Primo Central: central index of articles maintained by
Ex Libris shared by all libraries implementing Primo /
Primo Central


KnowledgeWorks: Shared knowledgebase of e
-
journal
holdings shared among all customers of Serials Solutions


General opportunity to move away from library
-
by
-
library metadata management to globally shared
workflows

Infrastructure as a Service


Access to hardware provisioned from remote
providers


Examples:


Amazon Elastic Compute (EC2)


Cloud and Simple Storage Service (S3)


Many library automation vendors use IaaS to
deploy their offerings


New

Generation Library
Management Options

OCLC

Web
-
scale Management
Services


Full

complement of automation functionality delivered
through enhanced WorldCat platform


Cataloging: (initially Connexion)


Discovery: WorldCat Local


Resource Sharing: OCLC ILL


Circulation: new functionality based on holding and item
record extensions


Acquisitions: Globally shared vendor file


License management for content subscriptions


APIs to extend functionality and support interoperability

In Challenge to ILS Industry, OCLC Extends WorldCat Local To Launch New Library
System

Marshall Breeding, Library Journal
4/23/2009

http://www.libraryjournal.com/article/CA6653619.html

OCLC WMS technology stack


Java 6


Apache 2


Tomcat 6


MySQL 5.1


Suse

Linux


jBPM

4


WebSphere

MQ 6


Mule 2


Kuali OLE


Mellon funded

project to create new enterprise
level automation platform for research libraries


1
-
year planning project led by Duke University


Manage resources of

all formats


More than an ILS / Less than an ILS


Community Source / Open Source

OLE Project: Phase I


Planning and Design Phase


Develop Vision + Blueprint


Work

with consultants with expertise in SOA and
BPM


Instill community

ownership of OLE


Recruit

partners for Phase II

Kuali OLE Project:

Phase II


2
-
year build project led by Indiana University


$2.38 million from Mellon

matched by capital and
in
-
kind contributions by development partners


Community source reference implementation


Create software based on OLE blueprint from
current project


Early software

in 18
-
24 months


High level of investment and

commitment to
implementation

Kuali

OLE technology stack


Kuali Rice, middleware: forms
routing, messaging, integrations,
identity, queues, alerts, audit.


Kuali Financial Subsystem (subset)


Java SDK


Spring Framework


Struts


Apache OJB


Oracle DB


Ex Libris Alma


New automation framework based on concept of
Unified Resource Management


Workflows

to accommodate digital, electronic and print
resources


Delivered through Software as a Service


Community Zone: shared data stores maintained on
behalf of all Alma sites


Extended version of SFX knowledge base


Shared bibliographic repository


Library Zone: data pertaining to individual
implementations

Alma technology stack


Java (J2EE)


Oracle: search within Alma uses Oracle Text as
indexer/search


JBOSS application


JBMP workflow engine (business process
management)

Deployment Schedules


Alma: General release planed

for early 2012


Kuali OLE: Version 1 release July 2012


Implementations to

be underway at partner sites


(not necessarily ready for full ILS replacement)


OCLC Web
-
scale Management Services


Libraries in production in

circ

and acquisitions since July
2010


General release July 2011

Serials Solutions Web
-
scale
Management Solution


New automation platform announced at ALA Annual


Extends

automation models in existing products oriented
to electronic subscriptions to print and digital materials


Software as a service


Goal to allow the library to unplug their ILS


Print component based on shared bibliographic
database


Initially targets mid
-
sized academic libraries


Initial availability planned for end of 2012

Decoupled

Discovery?


Decoupled

interfaces emerged from broken online
catalogs


Poor interfaces,

inadequate scope


Inefficient

integration between automation and
discovery platforms


New wave of more tightly integrated suites:


Ex Libris Alma > Primo


OCLC Web
-
scale

Management Services > WorldCat Local


Serials Solutions Web
-
Scale Management Solution >
Summon


Still possible to decouple, but more effort, worse

results

Delivering library services to mobile

devices


Increased expectation

for access to services

through mobile


Library services:


Mobile web


Apps


Transmit library

notices through SMS


Carefully select

functionality appropriate

for mobile


Tablet computing


Tablet computers have been around for a while, but
the introduction of Apple’s
iPad

increases popularity


High
-
quality

device for

content consumption


Access

to library

services and

content

http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2010/0524/A
-
rundown
-
of
-
the
-
best
-
iPad
-
astronomy
-
apps

Questions

and discussion

Thanks!