Safe Design, Manufacture, Import and Supply of Plant

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Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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SAFE WORK AUSTRALIA
MEMBERS’ MEETING 6












S
afe Design, Manufacture
, Import
and Supply
of Plant






Draft

Code of Practice











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MEMBERS’ MEETING 6




PAGE
2

OF
48



Table of Contents


FOREWORD

................................
................................
................................
.............

4

SCOPE AND AP
PLICATION

................................
................................
....................

4

1

INTRODUCTION

................................
................................
................................

5

1.1

The meaning of key terms

................................
................................
..........

5

1.2

Who has health and safety duties in relation to plant?
................................

6

1.3

What is required to manage health and safety risks associated with plant?

6

2

HOW TO MANAGE PLANT
RISKS

................................
................................
...

9

2.1

Identifying hazards

................................
................................
.....................

9

2.2

Assessing the risks

................................
................................
..................

10

2.3

Controlling the risks

................................
................................
.................

10

2.4

Reviewing risk control measures

................................
..............................

11

2.5

Information sources

................................
................................
.................

11

3

SAFE DESIGN OF PLANT

................................
................................
..............

13

3.1

What is safe design?

................................
................................
................

13

3.2

The role of

designers

................................
................................
...............

13

3.3

Integrating safe design and risk management

................................
..........

14

3.4

Pre
-
design and concept development phase

................................
...........

14

3.5

Design phase

................................
................................
...........................

16

3.6

Testing

and examination of plant

................................
.............................

17

3.7

Providing infor
mation

................................
................................
...............

17

3.8

Registering plant design

................................
................................
...........

19

4

DESIGN CONSIDERATION
S

................................
................................
..........

21

4.1

Physical characteristics of users

................................
..............................

21

4.2

Design to facilitate safe use

................................
................................
.....

21

4.3

Reasonably foreseeable misuse

................................
..............................

22

4.4

Minimising human error

................................
................................
............

22

4.5

Environmental conditions

................................
................................
.........

22

4.6

Erecti
on and installation

................................
................................
...........

22

4.7

Maintenance

................................
................................
............................

23

4.8

Guarding

................................
................................
................................
..

23

4.9

Op
erator control devices

................................
................................
..........

25

4.10

Emergency stops

................................
................................
.....................

26

4.11

Failure of the control circuit

................................
................................
......

27

4.12

Warning devices

................................
................................
......................

27

5

MANUFACTURE OF PLANT

................................
................................
...........

28

5.1

The role of manufacturers

................................
................................
........

28

5.2

Plant construction

................................
................................
....................

28

5.3

Testing

and examination of plant

................................
.............................

29

5.4

Information ab
out the safe use of plant

................................
....................

30

5.5

Registration of plant design

................................
................................
......

30

5.6

Item registration

................................
................................
.......................

30

6

IMPORT AND SUPPLY OF

PLANT

................................
................................
.

31

6.1

Examination and testing of plant

................................
..............................

31

6.2

Information about the safe

use of plant

................................
....................

31

6.3

Compatibility of plant

................................
................................
................

31

6.4

Imported plant

................................
................................
..........................

32








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6.5

Design registration

................................
................................
...................

32

6.6

Hire of plant

................................
................................
.............................

32

6.7

Second
-
hand plant

................................
................................
...................

33

7

SPECIFIC RISK CONTRO
LS

................................
................................
..........

35

7.1

Confined spaces

................................
................................
......................

35

7.2

Manual tasks

................................
................................
............................

35

7.3

Noise

................................
................................
................................
.......

36

7.4

Energy sources

................................
................................
........................

36

7.5

Static electricity

................................
................................
........................

37

7.6

Lightning

................................
................................
................................
..

37

7.7

Fire and explosion

................................
................................
....................

37

7.8

Plant capable of entangling an operator

................................
...................

37

7.9

Vibration

................................
................................
................................
..

38

7.10

Exposure to radiation

................................
................................
...............

38

7.11

Risk of being trapped

................................
................................
...............

39

7.12

Hazardous chemicals

................................
................................
...............

39

7.13

Combined plant

................................
................................
........................

40

7.14

Stability

................................
................................
................................
....

40

7.15

Mechanical or structural failure during operation

................................
......

40

7.16

Software

................................
................................
................................
..

41

7.17

Lighting

................................
................................
................................
....

41

APPENDIX A


EXAMPLES OF TECHNICA
L STANDARDS

................................
.

42

APPENDIX B


REGISTRABLE PLANT

................................
................................
.

46

APPENDIX C


DESIGN SOURCES OF HU
MAN ERROR

................................
.....

48










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FOREWORD

This Code of Practice
on the safe design
, manufacture
, import and supply
of plant
is an
approv
ed code of practice under s
ection 274 of the
Work Health and Safety Act

(the WHS
Act).

An approved code of practice is a practical guide to achieving the standards of health, safety
and welfare required under the WHS Act

and the Work Health and Safety Regulations (the
WHS Regulation
s).

A code of practice applies to anyone who has a duty of care in the circumstances described
in the code. In most cases, following an approved code of practice would achieve
compliance with the health and safety duties in the WHS Act, in relation to the
subject matter
of the code. Like regulations, codes of practice deal with particular issues and do not cover
all hazards or risks which may arise. The health and safety duties require duty holders to
consider all risks associated with work, not only those
for which regulations and codes of
practice exist.

Codes of practice are admissible in court proceedings under the WHS Act and Regulations.
Courts may regard a code of practice as evidence of what is known about a hazard, risk or
control and may rely on t
he code in determining what is reasonably practicable in the
circumstances to which the code relates.

Compliance with the WHS Act and Regulations may be achieved by following another
method, such as a technical or an industry standard, if it provides an eq
uivalent or higher
standard of work health and safety than the code.

An inspector may refer to an approved code of practice when issuing an improvement or
prohibition notice.

This Code of Practice has been developed by Safe Work Australia as a model code
of
practice under the Council of Australian Governments’
Inter
-
Governmental Agreement for
Regulatory and Operational Reform in Occupational Health and Safety

for adoption by the
Commonwealth, state and territory governments.

A draft of this Code of Practic
e was released for public consultation on

2 April 2012

and was
endorsed by the
Select Council for
Workplace Relation
s on [
to be completed
].


SCOPE

AND APPLICATION

Th
is Code
provides practical guidance for persons
conducting a business or undertaking
who de
sign (including redesign or modification of a design)
, manufactur
e, import or supply
plant

that is used, or could reasonably be expected to be used, at a workplace

on how to
meet the requirements under the WHS Act and Regulations
.


The
Code of Practice: M
anaging Risks of Plant on the Workplace

provides
guidance on how
to
manage
health and safety
risks
of plant once it is in the workplace, from installation,
commissioning and use through to decommissioning and dismantling.


How to use this code of practice

In providing guidance, the word ‘should’ is used in this Code to indicate a recommended
course of action, while ‘may’ is used to indicate an optional course of action.

This Code also includes various references to provisions of the WHS Act and Regulations

which set out the legal requirements. These references are not exhaustive. The words
‘must’, ‘requires’ or ‘mandatory’ indicate that a legal requirement exists and must be
complied with.







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1

INTRODUCTION

Plant is a

major cause of workplace death and injury i
n Australian workplaces. There are
significant risks associated with using plant and severe injuries can result
,
including:



limbs

amputated by unguarded moving parts of machines



being

crushed by mobile plant



sustaining

fractures from falls while accessing,

operating or maintaining plant



electr
ic shock from plant that is not adequately protected or isolated



burns

or scalds due to contact with hot surfaces, or exposure to flames or hot fluids.

Other risks include hearing loss due to noisy plant and musculoske
letal disorders caused by
manually handling or operating plant that is poorly designed.

Designers, manufacturers,
importers and suppliers have
an important role in ensuring
, so far as
is
reasonably
practicable, that

the plant
they design, manufacture, impo
rt or supply
is safe before it is
introduced and used in the workplace.

1.1

The meaning of key terms

Plant

includes any machinery, equipment, appliance, container, implement and tool,
and
includes any component or anything fitted or connected to any of th
ose things.

Plant
includes items
as diverse as lifts, cranes, computers, machinery, conveyors, forklifts,
vehicles,

power tools and amusement
devices.

Pl
ant that relies exclusively on manual power for its operation

and is designed to be primarily
supported

by hand,
for example a screw driver,

is
not covered by the WHS Regulations
.

The
general duty of care under the WHS Act applies to this type of plant.

Certain kinds of plant, such as forklifts, cranes and some pressure equipment, require a
licence from th
e WHS regulator to operate and some high
-
risk plant must also be registered
with the WHS regulator.

Competent person

means
a person who has acquired through training, qualification or
experience the knowledge and skills to carry out the task.

A competent p
erson has a more specific meaning in the following circumstances:



For design verification, the person must have the skills, qualifications, competence
and
experience to design the plant

or

verify the design
.



For inspection of
plant for registration purpose
s
the person must have
:

o

educational or vocational qualifications in an engineering discipline relevant to
the
plant being inspected, or


o

k
nowledge of the technical standards relevant to the plant being inspected.



For inspection of mobile cranes, tower cran
es and amusement devices the person
must
:

o

have
the skills, qualifications, competence and experience to inspect the
plant, and

be

registered under a law that provides for the registration of professional
engineers

(in jurisdictions where such a law exists
),

or

o

be

determined by the WHS regulator to be a competent person.


Fail safe

means a state or condition where, if any component or function of the plant fails, a
system exists to prevent any increase in the risks. For example, if the primary hoist br
ake

f
ails on a crane lifting a person in a workbox, the secondary hoist brake will prevent
uncontrolled dropping of the workbox. However, once the secondary br
ake

is engaged, a







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lower level of safety has been reached. The situation must be made safe and the faul
t
rectified so that the fail safe capability is re
-
established.

The reliability or safety integrity of the fail safe system should be commensurate with the
determined level of risk (for example, Category 1 to Category 4 applied in
AS 4024: Safety of
Machi
nery
).

1.2

Who has
health and safety
duties in relation to plant?

A
person conducting a business or undertaking

has the primary duty
under the WHS Act
to ensure,
so
far as
is
reasonably practicable, that workers and other persons are not
exposed to health
and safety risks arising from the business or undertaking.
This duty
includes ensuring, so far as is reasonably practicable:



the provision and maintenance of safe plant, and



the safe use, handling, storage and transport of plant.

Persons who conduct a busi
ness or undertaking involving the management or control
of fixtures, fittings or plant
at a workplace
must

ensure, so far as is reasonably
practicable, that the fixtures, fittings and plant are without risks to the health and safety of
any person.

Designer
s, manufacturers, suppliers, importers and installers

of plant must
also
ensure,
so far as is reasonably practicable, that the plant

they design, manufacture, import, supply or
install

is without risks to health and safety.

Th
e

WHS Regulations include mor
e specific duties for designers, manufacturers, importers
and suppliers of plant in relation to the risks of
confined spaces,
noise and musculoskeletal
disorders.

As there are generally a number of people involved with plant during its lifecycle

(
i.e. from

its
design through to its use and eventual disposal
)
, a person can have more than one duty and
more than one person can have the same duty
at the same time
.

In some circumstances, a manufacturer, importer

or supplier of plant will also have the
duties o
f a designer.

Officers
,

for example, company directors, have a duty to exercise due diligence to ensure
that the business or undertaking complies with the WHS Act and Regulations. This includes
taking reasonable steps to ensure that the business or undert
aking has and uses
appropriate resources and processes to eliminate or minimise risks that arise from plant
used in the workplace.

Workers

have a duty to take reasonable care for their own health and safety and
must
not
adversely affect the health and safe
ty of other persons.
Workers must comply with any
reasonable instruction and cooperate with any reasonable policy or procedure relating to
health and safety at the workplace.

1.3

What is
required to manage
health and safety risks
associated with
plant?

R
.
34
-
38
:
In order to manage risk under the WHS Regulations, a duty holder must:



identify reasonably foreseeable hazards that could give rise to the risk



eliminate the risk so far as is reasonably practicable



if it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate t
he risk, minimise the risk so far as is
reasonably practicable by implementing control measures in accordance with the
hierarchy of control



maintain the implemented control measure so that it remains effective








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review, and if necessary revise, risk control
measures so as to maintain, so far as is

reasonably practicable, a work environment that is without risks to health and safety.

This Code provides guidance on how to manage the risks
associated with plant
by following
a systematic process that
involves:



i
dentifying hazards



if necessary
, assessing the risks associated with these hazards,



implementing and maintaining risk control measures



reviewing risk control measures.

Designers, manufacturers, importers and suppliers
of plant
should use this process as
a
way
of ma
king plant as safe as possible

before it is used in the workplace
.


General

guidance on the risk management process is available in the
Code of Practice: How
to Manage Work Health and Safety Risks.

Providing and obtaining information

Designers,

manufacturers, importers and suppliers all have obligations to provide
information about the plant to enable other duty holders to fulfil the responsibilities they have
in managing the risks associated with it. This information must be given to each perso
n to
whom the plant (or its design) is provided. Information must be passed on from the designer
through to the manufacturer and supplier to the end user. This information includes:



the purpose for which plant was designed or manufactured



the results of
any calculations, analysis, testing or examination, and



any conditions necessary for the safe use of the plant.

Consult
ing workers


A person conducting a business or undertaking must
consult, so far as is reasonably
practicable, with workers who carry ou
t work for
the business or undertaking
who are (or are
likely to be) directly affected by a work health and safety matter.

If the workers are represented by a health and safety representative, the consultation must
involve that representative.

Consultatio
n with workers and their health and safety representatives is required at each
step of the risk management process. If you are designing or modifying plant for use in your
own workplace, you must consult your workers so far as is reasonably practicable, as

the
plant and the way it is used may affect their health and safety.

Your workers

may have
practical suggestions or potential solutions

that can be included at the design stage
.

Consulting, cooperating and coordinating activities with other duty holders

A person conducting a business or undertaking must consult
, cooperate and co
ordinate
activities with all other persons who have a work health or safety duty in relation to the same
matter, so far as is reasonably practicable.

Often,
many different
busines
ses or undertakings are involved in the design, manufacture,
import and supply of an item of plant and their d
ecisions may
p
ositively or negatively affect
the safety of the product. In these situations
, each duty holder will have health and safety
responsi
bilit
ies

related to the safety of the plant
.

Where it is reasonably practicable to do so, the duty holders involved must consult each
other on the risks associated with the plant

and
work
together in a cooperative and
coordinated way
to control the risks
.









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Further guidance on consultation is available in the
Code of Practice:
Work Health and
S
afety

Consultation, Cooperation and Coordination.








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2

HOW TO MANAGE PLANT RISKS

2.1

Identifying
hazard
s


Identifying hazards involves finding all of the things and situation
s that could potentially cause
harm to people. Hazards associated with plant generally arise from:



The plant itself
: For example, hazards associated with a forklift would include hazards
relating to its mobility, it’s electrical, hydraulic and mechanical
power sources, its moving
parts, its load
-
carrying capacity and operator protection.



How and where the plant is used
: The forklift, for example, may have hazards arising from
the kind of loads it is used to lift, the size of the area in which it is used a
nd the slope or
evenness of the ground.

Things to consider when looking for hazards

Possible kinds of hazard



Could the plant cause injury due entanglement, crushing, trapping, cutting, stabbing,
puncturing, shearing, abrasion, tearing or stretching?



Could

the plant create hazardous conditions due to pressurised content, electricity, noise,
radiation, friction, vibration, fire, explosion, temperature, moisture, vapour, gases, dust,
ice, hot or cold parts?



Could the plant cause injury or ill health due to po
or ergonomic design?


Suitability



How suitable would the plant be for its intended purpose? What could happen if it was
used for a purpose other than the intended purpose?



How suitable are the materials used to make the plant?



How suitable are any accessor
ies to the plant? In what condition are they?



How stable is the plant? Might it roll over?



If the plant is intended to lift and move people, equipment or materials, how capable is it of
doing this? Will there be an effective back
-
up system to support the l
oad?


Access



What sort of access will be required during installation, operation, maintenance and in an
emergency?



Will workers be able to have safe access without injury from the plant itself or the risk of
slips, trips and falls (walkway, gantry, elevate
d work platform, fixed ladders)?


Location



How would the plant affect the safety of the area where it will be located

(e.g.

its impact on
design and layout of the workplace)
?



How would the location affect the

safety of the plant (e.g.

environmental conditi
ons, terrain
and work area)
?



Are there likely to be other people or other plant in the vicinity? What effect would this
have?


Systems of work



What systems of work would be associated with the plant? Could they create any
hazards?



W
ould the plant’s safety
depend on the competency of its operators?



What kind of training, information, instruction and supervision is needed for workers and
other persons who may need to operate or be near the plant?








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Abnormal situations



What abnormal situations, misuse or fluctu
ation in operating conditions can you foresee?



What effects would failure of the plant have? Would it result in loss of

contents, loss of
load, unintended ejection of work

pieces, explosion, fragmentation, collapse of parts?



Would it be possible for the pl
ant to move or be operated inadvertently?


2.2

Assessing the risks

A risk assessment involves considering what could happen if someone is exposed to a hazard
and the likelihood of it happening
.


A risk assessment can be undertaken with varying degrees of det
ail, depending on the complexity
of the plant and the type of information available, and may involve specific risk analysis tools and
techniques.

A risk assessment is unnecessary if you already know the risk and how to control it.


To assess the risk assoc
iated with
plant
hazards you have identified,
you should consider the
following
:



how often and for how long people would be exposed to each of the

potentially hazardous
situations you have identified (this affects

likelihood as the longer and the more freq
uent
the exposure to a potential

hazard, the more likely it is to cause harm)



how many people would be exposed to the potential hazard at the same

time (this affects
the consequence)



both technical and human factors, including
a person’s

ability to change
behaviour to
compensate for design changes.

2.3

Controlling
the risk
s


The ways of controlling risks are ranked from the highest level of protection and reliability to the
lowest. This ranking is known as the
hierarchy of risk control.
The WHS Regulations req
uire duty
holders to work through this hierarchy to choose the control that most effectively eliminates, or
where that is not reasonably practicable, minimises the risk in the circumstances. Specific controls
are required under the WHS Regulations for cert
ain types of plant, such as:



powered mobile plant



plant that lifts or suspends loads



industrial robots



lasers



pressure equipment



scaffolds.


Elimination


The most effective control measure is to remove the hazard or hazardous work
practice associat
ed with the plant.
Many hazards can be addressed

at

the
design, manufacture,
supply and installation stages.

For example, designing machinery to produce low noise levels is
more effective than
having to
provid
e

workers with personal hearing protection. Thi
s also avoids
costly modifications to plant after it is purchased.


If elimination is not reasonably practicable, you must minimise the risk by:



Substitution


substitute the plant (or hazardous parts of it) with plant that is safer
.
For
example,
a manufa
cturer may be able to substitute a component with one that has higher
heat tolerance
.








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Isolation


separate the hazardous plant from people, either by distance or physical
barrier. For example

plant could be specified for use in an isolated or controlled
e
nvironment
.




Engineering controls


include modifications to tools or equipment, for example
an
importer could install

guards to prevent contact with moving parts of machinery or
retrofit

a
roll over protective structure on a tractor.


If risk remains, it

must be minimised by implementing
administrative controls
, so far as is
reasonably practicable, for example
using

a lock
-
out

system
of work
to ensure that plant
can be
physically
isolated from its power source while maintenance or cleaning work is being d
one
.
Providing training and supervision, using warning signs or arranging work to minimise the time
spent near noisy machinery are all examples of administrative controls.


Any remaining risk must be minimised with suitable
personal protective equipment (
PPE)
, such as
providing workers with breathing protection, hard hats, gloves, aprons and protective eyewear.


Administrative control measures and PPE rely on human behaviour and supervision, and used on
their own, tend to be least effective in minimising
risks.


Combinations of control m
easure
s

In many cases, a combination of control measures will provide the best solution. For example,
protecting workers from flying debris when using a concrete cutting saw may involve guarding the
blade (engineering), iso
lating the work area by using barriers (isolation) and signs
(administrative), and providing PPE such as a face shield.

2.4

R
eview
ing risk

control measures

The control measures that are implemented must be reviewed, and if necessary, revised to make
sure they

work as planned and that no new hazards have been introduced by the control
measures.


A person conducting a business or undertaking must review and as necessary revise control
measures:



when the control measure is not effective in controlling the risk



be
fore a change at the workplace that is likely to give rise to a new or different health and
safety risk that the control measure may not effectively control



if a new hazard or risk is identified



if the results of consultation indicate that a review is nece
ssary



if a health and safety representative requests a review.

Designers,
manufacture
rs, importers and suppliers of plant may use q
uality assurance processes
to check that the p
lant
effectively minimises health and safety risks. Obtain feedback from users
of the p
lant

to determine whether any improvements can be made to make it safer.

2.5

Information sources

There are a range of sour
ces that may assist in managing risks
associated with the plant and the
systems of work used in connection with the plant.


Resea
rching information



WHS legislation, codes of practice and
technical s
tandards covering design, manufacture,
testing and use of plant



I
njury, faults, incident and accident reports, and plant failure data kept by

manufacturers
and users of the same or simila
r types of plant








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S
tatistics, hazard alerts or other reports from relevant statutory authorities,

unions and
employer associations, specialists, professional bodies

representing designers,
manufacturers, or engineers



I
nformation and documentation supplied b
y designers or manufacturers on

safety and
health issues, such as test reports on previous designs or similar

plant



R
elevant reports or articles from occupational health and safety journals, technical
references or data bases.


Inspection and testing



Inspe
ct plant that has failed and been returned by users



Develop prototypes, and inspect and test their design and manufacture



Conduct ‘walk
-
through’ surveys of the workplace where the plant will be

used before
beginning the design process and while the plant i
s being

installed or erected (the latter to
look for hazards which may be introduced

during installation)
.


Consultation

Where possible, talk to other designers,
manufacturers, installers and users
.

People actually
working with the same or similar plant ar
e often well aware of what can go wrong and why, and
how the work environment can change.

It also enables any issues to be discussed, for example
the
practicalit
y

of
substituting
materials in the manufacturing process.








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3

SAFE DESIGN
OF PLANT

3.1

What is
safe de
sign
?

Safe design means t
he integration of
control measures
early in the design proc
ess to eliminate or,
if this is not reasonable practicable, minimise

risks
to health and safety
throughout the life of the
p
lant

being designed.


The safe design of
any typ
e of plant
will always be part of a wider set of design objectives,

including practicability, aesthetics, cost and functionality. These sometimes competing

objectives
need to be balanced in a manner that does not compromise the
health and
safety of

those
p
otentially affected by the p
lant

over its life.

Safe design begins at

the concept development phase when choices are made

about
design,
materials used and methods of manufacture
.

Safer plant will be created when hazard
s and risks
that could impact on

down
stream users over the lifecycle are eliminated or
minimised

during
design and
before
manufacture. In these early phases there is greater scope to design
-
out
hazards
or

incorporate risk control measures that are compatible with the original design concept
a
nd functional requirements of the product.

3.2

The role of designers

A
designer
is a person conducting a business or undertaking whose profession, trade or business
involves them in:



preparing sketches, plans or drawings for plant
that is to be used or could r
easonably be
expected to be used at a workplace
, including variations to a plan or changes to
the
plant



making
decisions

for incorporation into a design that may affect the health or safety of
persons who manufacture, use or carry out other activities in r
elation to the plant.

Designers include

design professionals such as engineers, industrial designers

and

designers of
plant systems such as software and
electrical systems
.


A person will also have the duties of a designer if they alter the design during m
anufacture, or
alter existing plant, so that new measures for controlling risk are required. For example, if the
maximum working radius of a mobile crane is increased by fitting a longer boom, a new load chart
needs to be prepared to control the increased
risk of the crane overturning. The person designing
the boom extension should contact the original designer to ensure the new boom extension does
not compromise the existing design criteria or safety factors.

C
onsider the lifecycle

S
afe
design

applies to e
very stage in the lifecycle, from

conception through to disposal.

The WHS Act requires the designer
to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the plant is
designed to be without risks to the health and safety of persons who:



u
se the
plant
for a
purpose for which it was designed



store the plant at a workplace



c
arry out any reasonably foreseeable activity at a workplace in relation
the manufacture,
assembly, use, storage, decommissioning, dismantling or disposal
of the
plant, or



a
re at or in the vi
cinity of a workplace and are exposed to the
plant
or whose health and
safety may be affected by an activity related to the
plant
.

This means thinking about potential hazards and design solutions as the plant is manufactured,
transported,
installed
,
commis
sioned, operated
,
maintained, repaired,

de
-
commissioned,
dismantled

and
disposed of or recycled








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Knowledge and capability

In
addition to core design capabilities, the following skills and knowledge should be demonstrated
or acquired by a designer
:



knowledge

of work health and safety legislation, codes of practice and other regulatory
requirements



understanding th
e
intended use of the plant throughout its
lifecycle



knowledge of hazard identification, risk assessment and control methods



knowledge of technical
design standards, and



the ability to source and apply relevant data on human dimensions, capacities and
behaviours.

Many design projects are too large and complex to be fully understood by one person. Various
persons with specific skills and expertise may
need to be included in the design team or consulted
during the design process to fill any knowledge gaps, for example ergonomists, engineers and
occupational hygienists.

3.3

Integrating safe design and risk management

The design brief should include a require
ment to apply a risk management process in the design.

The safe design of plant is
usually
an iterative process. After the initial control measures are
incorporated into the design, the design is reviewed to determine
whether there are
re
maining

risks and

whether redesign can eliminate or minimise these risks

(see Figure 1)
.

3.4

Pre
-
design and concept development phase

This stage of the process involves:



Establish
ing

the design context in terms of the purpose of the
plant, its functions and
limitations




Ident
ify
ing

the roles and responsibilities

of various parties in relation to the project, and
establish
ing

collaborative relationships with clients
, manufacturers and users of the plant



Conducting research and consultation to assist in identifying hazards, asse
ssing and
controlling risks

(see section 2.5)



Conducting hazard identification










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Figure
1
: A systematic approach to
integrating design and risk management



Establish the

design
context

Conduct research and
consultation

Pre
-
design phase

Obtain i
nformatio
n

including
:


Purpose of the plant, its
functions and limitations


Data from similar types of
plant, test reports


WHS legislation, codes of
practice, technical standards
.

Identify hazards associated with the plant

Develop prototype or initial design

Conceptual and schematic
design phase

Hazard identification (technical
and human factors)
:


Hazardous conditions


High consequence hazards


Systems of work


Plant access and location


Abnormal situations
.

Determine how hazards will be eliminated
or
minimised
through either:

(a) implementing solutions from recognised

technical

Standards; or

(b) conducting a risk
management

process.

Design development phase

(a) Implement solutions from

recognised Standards.

Identify hazards that can be
adequately ad
dressed by applying
solutions/guidance from existing
standards if appropriate

(b) Conduct a risk
assessment process

for hazards which have no suitable
solutions in recognised Standards or
there is poor safety experience with
this type of hazard.

Final de
sign

Have risks been eliminated or
minimised so far as is
reasonably practicable?

Redesign to
reduce risks
within the
designers control.

Test, trial or evaluate the design

Determine information needs
for safety during the lifecycle

Design
risk
controls

Yes
S
S

NO








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P
lant functions and limitations

Identify the functions of the plant and its limitations, for e
xample:



the specifications (what is produced, materials to be used)



expected place of use

(environment, supporting surface)



planned service life



intended functions and operating modes



expected malfunctions and faults



the people interacting with the plant



t
he products related to the plant



the correct use of the plant, as well as reasonably foreseeable misuse
.


Plant limitations

Examples

Use limits

Intended use, production rates, cycle times, working
load limits

Space limits

Range of movement, access for m
aintenance

Time limits

Wear and tear of materials, use of fluids

Environmental limits

Temperature, humidity, noise, location

Interface limits

Other plant, energy sources

H
azard identification

Hazard identification should take place as early as possible

in the concept development and

design stages.
It
involves
identify
ing

the various activities that the plant would be subjected to
throughout its life and the reasonably foreseeable hazards associated with each activity.

Hazards may include but are not
lim
ited to the following……..

…..in all phases of the plant lifecycle



M散e慮i捡c (捲畳uing, 捵tting,
tr慰灩ng, 獨s慲楮朩



El散瑲i捡c



T桥rm慬



N潩獥



Vi扲慴i潮



R慤i慴楯n



H慺慲摯畳⁣桥浩捡ls



Sli灰i湧, tri灰i湧 慮搠f慬li湧



M慮畡l 桡湤li湧



C潮fi湥d 獰s捥c



E湶ir潮me
湴慬 捯c摩ti潮s



H慺慲摳ar敳elting from a
捯浢c湡ti潮 of t桥 慢潶e



m慮uf慣t畲u



獴潲oge



灡捫in朠慮搠tr慮獰srtati潮



畮l潡摩湧 慮搠d湰慣king



慳獥m扬y



i湳瑡nl慴楯n



捯浭i獳s潮ing



畳u



捬敡湩湧



慤j畳um敮t



i湳n散瑩en



灬慮湥搠慮搠畮灬慮湥搠
m慩湴敮慮捥



r数慩r



摥捯浭i
獳s潮ing



摩獭慮tli湧



摩獰s獡s



r散e捬i湧.

3.5

Design phase

The
design phase may

involve
:



developing

a prototype or initial design



t
est
ing
, trial
ling

or evaluat
ing

the prototype

or design








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re
design
ing

to control any re
maining

risks

so far as is
reasonably practi
cable



f
inalis
ing

the design and prepare risk control plans for the lifecycle of the product.

Some hazards may be adequately
addressed by applying e
xisting solutions in published technical
standards
. Alternatively, a risk management process should be used t
o
develop and
select the
most effective control measure.

Technical standards

Plant should be designed
by a competent person (for example, a qualified engineer)
in
accordance with acceptable engineering principles and relevant technical standards. Engineeri
ng
principles include, for example, mathematical or scientific procedures outlined in

an engineering
reference or standard
.

A list of
some
relevant published technical standards is
included

at
Appendix
A.

The list is not
exhaustive and
designers
may consi
der
using
other
technical
standards when designing plant.

3.6

Testing

and examination of plant

Designers
must

carry out, or arrange the carrying out of, any calculations, analysis, testing or
examination that may be necessary to
ensure, so far is reasonably pr
acticable, that the
plant

is
designed to be without risks to health and safety.


Analysis, testing or examination can be carried out when developing a prototype and during the
manufacturing
stage
. D
esigners should require that consideration should be given

to:



simulation of the normal range of operational capabilities



testing of design features incorporated to ensure ‘fail
-
safe’ operation



measurement of imposed stresses on critical components to ensure maximum design
stresses are not exceeded



testing of cr
itical safety features such as overspeed and over
-
pressure devices under both
normal and adverse operational conditions



development of overload testing procedures to ensure plant safety during foreseeable
misuse conditions.

Records of tests and examinati
ons should be maintained and
provided
to the

manufacturer of the
plant.

3.7

Providing information

Designers must

give adequate information to each person who is provided with the design in
order to give effect to it concerning:



t
he purpose for which the
pla
nt

was designed



t
he results of any calculations, testing, analysis or examination



a
ny conditions necessary to ensure that the
plant
is without risks when used for a purpose
for which it was designed or when carrying out any activity related to the
plant
.

T
he designer must also, so far as is reasonably practicable, provide this information to any person
who carries out activities in relation to the
plant
.

For example, if plant is to be
located

a
specific

distance from other plant,
written
instructions must
b
e provided
for

the manufacturer,
supplier,
installer, owner and end user.

If the manufacturer advises the designer that there are safety issues with the design, the designer
must revise the information to take account of these concerns, or tell the manufa
cturer in writing
the reasons why such revision is not necessary.








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Information provided to the manufacturer (or supplier if you are also manufacturing the p
lant
)
should include

details of
any

risks you have not been able to eliminate.

Information should be

provided
in a manner that can
be
clearly understood by persons who may
use the plant

and may be a combination of

written text or visual information such as signs,
symbols or diagrams. Where visual information is provided, it should conform to the relevant

standard.

Type of information to provide

Under the WHS Regulations, d
esigners must provide specific information to the manufacturer

t
o

enable the plant to be manufactured in accordance with the design specifications
.

I
f relevant
,
information must be provi
ded on
:



the installation, co
mmissioning, use, handling, storage
, decommissioning

and disman
tling
of the plant



h
azards a
ssociated with use of the plant



t
esting or inspections requ
ired for the plant or structure



systems of work
and

competency of operators

re
quired

for the safe use



e
mergency procedures if there is a malfunction.

Examples of i
nformation
that may be needed
include:

Manufacture of plant

For example:



any specific conditions relatin
g to the method of manufacture



instruction to the manufacturer fo
r fitting or refitting plant parts and their location on the
larger components of the plant or their housings where:

o

the direction of movement should be
known in order to avoid a risk

o

associated errors which could be made in installation

o

instruction wher
e hot or cold parts or material may create a hazard.


In the case of registrable plant design, the information provided by the designer to the
manufacturer should include the plant design registration number in order to provide evidence
that
the
plant des
ign has been registered in accordance with the WHS Regulations
.


Transport, handling and storage of plant

For example:



dimensions and weight



indications for handling, for example, application points for lifting equipment



conditions for storage.


Instal
lation and c
ommissioning

For example
:



exposure of dangerous parts p
rior to the fixing of guarding



lifting procedures



stability during installation



the proposed method for
installation and commissioning, including tests that should be
carried out



the use

of
special tools, jigs and appliances necessary to minimise any risk of injury during
ins
tallation



the interaction of plant
with other plant



environmental factors affecting
installation

and commissioning
.










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Using, inspecting and testing plant

For example:




the comprehensive range of uses for which the plant is intende
d, including prohibited
usages



requirem
ents for maintenance and repair, such as na
ture and frequency of maintenance,
disposal of hazardous by
-
product and consumables



e
mergency situations
, for

example,
ty
pes of fire fighting equipment



exposure t
o hazardous substances



effects of environmental con
ditions on the use of the plant



the results or documentation of tests and examinations carri
ed out on the plant and design



de
-
commissioning, dismantling

and disposal of plant



any known residual risks, that is, those that cannot be eliminated or sufficiently reduced by
design and against which gua
rding is not totally effective



the control measures, for example, personal protective equipment, that should b
e used to
further reduce t
he risks associated with plant



guidance, if required, on administrative controls



requirements for special tools needed to use or maintain plant.


Details of c
ritical
components
1

should
be documented so that
the
specification
s
,
a
pplicable
standards to which they comply and source of evidence that demonstrates compliance (i.e. test
repo
rt, third party certificates
) is readily available. In maintenance and repair, critical components
should only be replaced by equivalents
.

3.8

Registeri
ng plant design

Schedule
5

of the WHS Regulations requires c
ertain plant designs and
items

of plant
to

be
registered

(registrable plant). Schedule
5

is reproduced in
Appendix B.


Plant d
esign registration

involv
es registering a design

from which any numb
er of individual items

can be manufactured to that

same desig
n.

How to register a plant design

In order to register a plant design, the design must be verified by a design verifier

who must
provide a statement that the
design has been produced in accordan
ce with
published
technical
standards
or
engineering principles.

Any drawings or other documents provided with the application must be capable of being kept in
an electronic form.


Design verification

The design verification statement is prepared by a des
ign verifier stating that the design
has been

checked for design integrity and that the design has been produced in accordance with
the
referenced

technical standards and engineering principles. It must be in writing and signed by the
design verifier
. The
statement must include the

name and address detail
s of the verifier and
business or employment details
.

Design verifier

R. 253:
A design verifier must document the verification process carried out by that person and
the results of that process.





1

‘critical components’. These are components or sub
-
assemblies


the failure of which will leave the plant in a
condition that exposes operators or others to an unacceptable risk level.








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A design c
an only be verified by a person who is eligible to be a design verifier under the WHS
Regulations.
The types of people who would be competent to verify the design of plant
may

include someone who:



has educational or vocational qualifications in an engineer
ing discipline relevant to the
design to be verified



has knowledge of the technical standards relevant to the design to be verified



has the skills necessary to independently verify that the design was produced in
accordance with the published technical sta
ndards and engineering principles used in the
design



is certified by a body that is accredited or approved by the Joint Accreditation System

Australia and New Zealand or an equivalent overseas body

to undertake conformity
assessments of the design against
the relevant technical standards
.


For example, this could include someone who is registered on the National Professional
Engineers Register administered by the Institution of Engineers Australia and is determined by
that Institution to be competent to des
ign the structure, verify the design or inspect the plant or
structure (as the case requires)
,

or is a member of the Institution of Engineers Australia with the
status of Chartered Professional Engineer.

The design verifier must not have been involved in
the
plant
design process
.

The design verifier
cannot have been engaged by the
same organisation that produced the design

unless the

organisation
has
a quality system
in place

that has been certified
by a body accredited or
approved by the Joint Accreditati
on system of Australia and New Zealand

(JASANZ).



Once the design is registered

When a

plant design is registered, the
WHS
regulator will issue a plant design registration
document

that

will contain the registration number for the plant design and the dat
e of effect on
which the registration takes place. This document must be kept and made available for any
inspection required under the
WHS
Act.


If it is lost, stolen or destroyed, then you will need to apply to the
WHS
regulator
that registered
the plant

for a replacement document

as soon as possible outlining the reasons for needing a
replacement.


The
WHS
regulator may impose any conditions it considers appropriate on the registration of the
plant design, including conditions in relation to record keepi
ng or provision of information to the
WHS regulator
.


Th
e registration number must be given to the

manufacturer, importer or supplier
of plant
. These
duty holders must ensure that the
design registration
number is p
rovided
to the person with
management or

control of the plant

at a workplace
.

Changes to design registration

If
the design of
a registered plant is altered so as to require any new risk control measures
, the
altered design must be registered.









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4

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

4.1

Physical characteristics of u
sers

Plant should be designed to accommodate the range of physical characteristics in the user
population. You
should take into account information
abo
ut the range of human dimensions and
capabilities, for example height
,

reach

and weight
, to provide an op
timum match between plant
and users.

D
esigners should take into consideration the smaller stature of some cultural groups.

A designer should apply ergonomic design principles so that when the plant is being used
properly, the operator’s discomfort, fat
igue and psychological stress are
minimised
as much as
practicable.

Further

information on the consideration of the human body and the design of plant is available in
AS 4024.1701

Human body measurements


Basic human body measurements for technological
de
sign.

4.2

Design to facilitate safe use

A designer should address the following issues:



the required skill levels to

operate or maintain the plant



the complexity of functions an oper
ator can be expected to perform



the need for and the location of items such a
s aids, guides, indicators, guards, mounted
instruction, signs, symbols and name plates, which may be useful to facilitate correct
acti
ons and prevent operator errors



ensuring plant design
is fail safe

at least to the level of reliability/safety integrity
level as
determined by the plant risk ass
essment



layout of the work stations, for example, the position of the worker

in relation to plant
controls



instrumentation required at each work station or cabin, and the
layout of this
instrumentation



the specific
devices, tools or controls the operator and support people will nee
d to perform
their jobs safely



the options available to enable quick recovery or to maintain the safety and integrity of the
system in the event of operator error or plant failure and the m
eans available to access the
operator in the eve
nt that assistance is required



environmental conditions that will tend to impair operator performance, for example, long
periods where the operator engages in physical or repetitive activity or inactivity in
a hot or
cold environment



separation of persons, including the operator, from entrapment as a result of plant
operation i.e. being caught between the plant and other objects in operation.

You should also take into account predictable human behaviour and
never presume those who
use or maintain plant have a full or continuous appreciation of essential
safety
features. Where
the
re is a likelihood of
operator error
, higher order control measures should be incorporated into
the design.

For example
:

A driver u
sed a tractor to haul a hydraulically operated tilt
-
up trailer loaded with grain. The
gear lever of the tractor was positioned close to the control lever which operated the tip
-
up
mechanism of the trailer. While underway, the driver’s arm moved the control

lever slightly
so the trailer tray began to lift. The trailer rose and eventually overturned.








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4.3

R
easonabl
y
foreseeable misuse

Sometimes plant may be used
for applications other than those for which it was designed and
originally intended, for example where
an excavator is used to lift and transport concrete pipes
.
When designing plant the risk of reasonably foreseeable misuse should be assessed
and
appropriate control measures incorporated in the design.


4.4

Minimising human error

Human or worker
error

is not
always the result of carelessness or negligence. The desire for extra
speed,
increased production and
making tasks easier are some of the
main

reasons why guards
are bypassed or removed.
Workers may also use unsafe practices to overcome poor plant design

o
r
become bored and distracted with repetitious work, which may cause loss of concentration.
In
designing plant, d
esigners should be aware of the

f
actors
contributing

to human error
,

includ
ing
:



forgetfulness



workers’ diligence to ‘get the job done’ or to

‘find a better way’



capacity to understand information



ergonomics



psychological or cultural environment



habit



fatigue



level of training.


Further information on human error is included in
Appendix
C
.

4.5

Environmental conditions

A designer should consi
der the hazards created by the range of physical, environmental and
operational conditions to which plant will be exposed during its life. For example, where

moving
parts may be exposed to dust which could cause the plant to malfunction, a designer should
incorporate effective dust covers into the design. The same is true for extreme heat or cold. A
designer should ensure that these hazards are minimised or guarded against. This may require
the designer to provide instructions to erectors and installers of
plant about the precise positioning
of the installation.


If an operator is physically uncomfortable in operating the plant this may lead to such problems as
inattention, carelessness or fatigue which may in turn result in injury or death. For example a
po
orly designed workstation or cabin where layout design is not based on ergonomic principles
can lead to the problems outlined above.

4.6

Erection and installation

A designer should recognise that hazards associated with the erection and installation of plant
are
identified and eliminated or minimised. For example, poor access to fasteners such as clips and
bolt holes may mean that an erector or installer needs to stretch or bend at an unnatural angle.
This might result in musculoskeletal injury to the erector
or installer.


Designers should also design plant so it can be erected or installed safely, for example, so that it
will have adequate stability and special supports if these are required, especially if a partly
completed structure may be unstable, or be d
esigned into sub
-
assemblies so that each is more
manoeuvrable than if it were a complete assembly.








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4.7

Maintenance










A designer

s responsibility extends to ensuring that maintenance on plant can be undertaken
safely.
Any reasonably foreseeable hazards

with future plant maintenance and repair
should be
identified and designed out so far as is reasonably practicable
.


Where a worker is required to maintain operating plant, a designer should ensure:



locations for undertaking adjustment, lubrication and m
aintenance are consciously
designed to be outside danger zones. This may be achieved, for example, by placing
clearly labelled lubrication

points away from moving parts



where locations for undertaking maintenance cannot be placed outside danger zones, the
design should incorporate interlocks to ensure the plant cannot be activated while work is
carried out in these zones



safe access, for example walkways and guardrails need to be provided to enable safe
maintenance and inspection of plant such as cooling t
owers or storage silos



all relevant information is passed on to the manufacturer for inclusion in the
manufacturer’
s instructions for maintenance



parts
of the plant where workers
move
or

stand
are
designed to prevent injuries arising
from slips, trips and
falls
, and




the

design
eliminates or minimises the risk of
inadvertently touching or coming into contact
with hot or moving parts.

4.8

Guarding

A guard is a physical or other barrier
that

can perform several functions, including:



preventing contact with movin
g parts or controlling access to dangerous areas of plant



screening harmful emissions such as radiation



minimising noise through the application of sound
-
absorbing materials



preventing ejected parts or off
-
cuts from striking people.

Guards may include (se
e Figure
2
):



Permanently fixed or interlocked physical barriers



Self
-
adjusting guards



Presence
-
sensing systems

If the need to operate plant during maintenance or cleaning cannot be eliminated, the
designer must ensure that the design provides for operator controls that:



P敲eit t桥 潰敲eti潮 of pl慮t 摵ring m慩湴敮慮捥 潲o捬敡湩ng,



C慮湯t 扥 o灥rat敤 批

a湹 潴桥o 灥r獯s t桡n t桥 灥r獯s 捡rryi湧 潵t
m慩湴敮慮捥



Will 慬l潷 潰敲慴i潮 of th攠灬慮t i渠獵捨 a w慹 t桡t 慮y ris欠wit栠h慩湴敮慮捥c
慮搠捬d慮i湧 i猠敬imi湡te搠潲 mi湩mi獥s, 獯 far 慳 r敡獯s慢ly 灲慣ti捡cl攮









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Figure
2
: Examples of guards on a press brake.



















Guard design


The mechanisms and controls forming part of a ma
chine guard sh
ould be of a fail
-
safe design.
Guards
must

not in themselves create hazards. For example, the guarding should not weaken the
If guarding is used, the designer must e
nsure that:



t桥 g畡r摩湧 will 灲敶敮t 慣捥獳st漠t桥 摡nger 灯i湴nor 摡nger ar敡 of t桥 灬慮t



if 慣捥獳 to t桥 ar敡 of 灬慮t req畩ri湧 g畡r摩n朠楳g湯t 湥捥c獡特 摵rin朠潰敲慴i潮,
m慩湴敮慮捥 潲 捬敡湩湧, t桥 g畡r摩湧 i猠a 灥rma湥湴汹 fi敤 扡rri敲e



if 慣捥s
s to t桥 ar敡猠req畩ring g畡r摩ng i猠湥捥c獡特 摵ring 潰er慴楯測
m慩湴敮慮捥 潲 捬敡湩湧, t桥 g畡r摩湧 i猠慮 i湴敲l潣o敤 灨y獩捡c 扡rri敲,



if it is 湯t r敡獯s慢ly 灲慣pi捡cl攠eo 畳u 愠灥rm慮敮tly fi敤 扡rri敲eor 慮 i湴敲l潣k敤
灨y獩捡c 扡rri敲e t桥 g畡r摩
湧 is 愠灨a獩捡c 扡rrier t桡t 捡c 扥 慬ter敤 or rem潶敤
畳u湧 a t潯l, or



if it is 湯t r敡獯s慢ly 灲慣pi捡cl攠eo 畳u 愠灥rm慮敮tly fi敤 扡rri敲e 慮 int敲汯捫敤
灨y獩捡c 扡rri敲e潲 a 灨y獩捡c 扡rri敲 fi敤 i渠灯獩ti潮, t桥 g畡r摩n朠楮捬畤敳⁡e
灲敳敮捥
-
獥s獩
湧 獡fe杵慲摩湧 獹獴敭.

G畡r摩ng m畳t:



扥 of 獯si搠捯湳tr畣ti潮 a湤 獥捵r敬y m潵nt敤 獯s慳⁴o r敳est im灡捴 潲 獨s捫



mak攠批
-
灡獳sn朠潲 摩獡sli湧 of t桥 g畡r搠慳 摩ffi捵ct 慳 r敡獯s慢ly 灲慣ti捡cle



湯t cr敡te 愠risk in it獥sf (f潲 數慭灬攠楴em畳t 湯t o扳b
r畣t 潰er慴ar vi獩扩lity, w敡k敮
t桥 灬慮t, 捡c獥⁤s獣smf潲o to 潰敲et潲o 潲 i湴r潤畣u 湥w 桡z慲摳a獵捨 a猠灩湣n
灯i湴猬 r潵g栠潲 獨srp 敤g敳)



捯ctr潬 慮y risk from 灯t敮ti慬 扲bk敮 潲 敪散t敤 灡rts 慮搠d潲k灩散es



慬low for 獥rvi捩湧, m慩湴敮慮捥⁡湤cr数慩
r to 扥 畮摥rtak敮 wit栠h敬慴楶攠敡獥Ⱐ慮d



if g畡r摩ng is rem潶敤 th攠灬慮t 捡cn潴 扥 r敳瑡rt敤 畮l敳猠t桥 g畡r摩湧 is
r数l慣a搮











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structure of the plant, cause discomfort to the people using the plant or introduce new hazards
such as pinch points, rough edges o
r sharp corners.

W
here some form of physical barrier is provided to prevent access to dangerous parts, the size
and position of the barrier should take into account the range in height and build of people using
the plant.

The design of the guard should be

for a specific function, with design consideration being given,
where appropriate, to:



the placement



remo
val or ejection of work pieces



lubrication



inspection



adjustment




repair of machine parts.


Guarding should be designed for safe operation of the plan
t as well as to minimise interference to
the plant.

The selection of a guard should take into consideration the environment in which it is to be used.
Some examples of poor guard selection relative to the environment are: electrical charging of
guards on h
igh frequency welders; heating of guards in hot processes; and wire mesh guards on
machines emitting splashes.

Physical barrier guarding should be constructed of material that is strong enough to resist normal
wear and shock that may arise from failure of
the parts or processes being guarded; and to
withstand long use with a minimum of maintenance. If a guard is likely to be exposed to corrosion,
corrosion
-
resistant materials or surface coatings should be used.

When an enclosure is used to prevent access to

mechanical, chemical and electrical hazards,
there may be an opportunity to control other risks. For example, risk associated with exposure to
dust may be controlled by substituting a sheet metal guard for a mesh one provided the
accumulation of dust with
in the guard does not constitute an additional hazard.

Where there is a risk of jamming or blockage of moving parts, the designer should ensure that
specific work procedures, devices and tools that will enable the plant to be cleared in a way that
reduces
the risk are documented.

If applicable, the designer should ensure that safe systems of work associated with the use and
maintenance of the guarding and the maintenance of the components being guarded, are
specified in the information provided to the manuf
acturer.

4.9

Operator c
ontrol devices


Badly designed
operator
controls can lead to unintentional unsafe operation.

For example, a
control for setting the speed for a cutting device such as a saw or guillotine should not be a simpl
e
slider or rotary control. It should be graduated in fixed lockable steps.

Control devices should be designed:



to enable the plant to fail to a safe condition

A designer of plant must ensure that the design provides for any operator controls to be:



i摥湴楦i敤 獯⁡s t漠楮摩捡c攠e桥i
r 湡tur攬 f畮捴i潮 a湤 摩r散瑩en of 潰敲eti潮



l潣ot敤 獯 t桥y 捡c 扥 r敡摩ly 慮搠捯湶敮i敮tly 潰敲慴敤



l潣ot敤 潲 g畡r摥d t漠or敶敮t 畮i湴敮ni潮慬 慣ti癡瑩v測n慮d



locked into the “off” position to enable disconnection from power.









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to be within easy access of the operator



to enable extra emergency stops to be located so t
hey can be operated from other parts of
the plant. A risk assessment would assist in their location



so they are clearly visible, identifiable and appropriately marked where necessary, for
example, signed to indicate on/off



so the intended function of the

control is clearly indicated and
the action used to operate
the control
is
aligned with the effect on the plant



for example, moving a control to the
right should move the plant to the right



using symbols as opposed to written instructions, wherever poss
ible,



so they can be easily read and understood, especially in the case of dials and gauges



so the movement of the control is consistent with established convention, for example,
anticlockwise to open, clockwise to close



so the desired effect can only o
ccur by intentional operation of a control, for example,
provision of a starting control



to withstand the rigours of normal use, undue forces and environmental conditions



so they are located outside danger zones



so they are located or guarded to prevent

unintentional activation



so they can be locked in the ‘off’ position to enable disconnection of power



so they are readily accessible for maintenance.


It should only be possible to start plant by deliberately actioning a control provided for that
purpo
se. The same requirement applies when restarting the plant after any stoppage. Each item
of plant should be designed to accommodate a control so the plant or its relevant components can
be brought to a complete stop safely.


Further i
nformation

on controls

and symbols is available in
AS 4024: Safeguarding of machinery


general principles
.

4.10

Emergency stops












Emergency stop devices should not be the only method of controlling risks. They should be
designed as a backup to other control measures.

Th
e emergency stop system should be compatible with the operational characteristics of plant.
Emergency stops do not
remove

the ne
ed

for adequate guarding.

A designer of plant must

ensure that if the plant is to be operated or attended by more than
one person and more than one emergency stop control is fitted, the design must provide
for multiple emergency stop controls to be of the “stop and lock
-
off” type, so that the plant
捡c湯t

扥 r敳tart敤 aft敲 慮 em敲g敮捹 st潰 捯ctr潬 桡猠扥敮 畳ud 畮l敳e t桡t em敲g敮捹
獴潰 捯ctr潬 i猠re獥s.

ff t桥 摥獩g渠nf t桥 灬慮t i湣n畤敳⁥e敲g敮捹 獴潰 捯ctr潬猬 t桥 摥獩g湥r m畳琠敮獵r攠t桡t
t桥 摥獩g渠nr潶i摥猺



f潲 t桥 獴潰 捯ctr潬 t漠扥 灲潭i湥湴, c
l敡rly 慮搠d畲慢uy m慲k敤 慮搠dmme摩慴敬y
accessible to each operator of the plant , for example ‘EMERGENCY STOP


PRESS’



f潲 慮y 桡湤l攬e扡r or 灵獨⁢畴t潮 a獳潣s慴敤 wit栠h桥 獴潰 捯ctr潬 to 扥 捯c潵r敤
r敤, 慮搠



t桡t t桥 獴潰 捯ctr潬 捡c湯t 扥 慤v敲獥e
y 慦a散te搠批 敬散瑲i捡c or 敬散er潮i挠捩r捵ct
m慬f畮cti潮.










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Once engaged, the emergency stop controls should remain that way. It should be possible to
disengage
the emergency stop controls only by a deliberate action. Disengaging the emergency
stop control should not restart the plant. It should only permit the normal starting sequence to be
activated.

In the case of plant or parts of plant designed to work togeth
er, stop controls (including the
emergency stop) should be capable of stopping the plant itself as well as all the equipment
interrelated to its operation, where continued operation of this interrelated equipment may be
dangerous.

4.11

Failure of the control ci
rcuit

A control circuit used to control the plant should be designed in such a way as to prevent a fault in
the control circuit logic, or a failure of or damage to the control circuit leading to the operator or
others being placed at risk. In particular:



the pl
ant must not start unexpectedly



the plant must not be prevented from stopping if such a

command has already been given



no moving part of the plant or workpiece being held by th
e plant must fall or be ejected



automatic or manual stopping of moving par
ts must not be impeded



the protection device/s must remain fully effective.

4.12

Warning devices





Warning devices
include:



Audible alarms



Motion sensors



Lights



Rotary flashing lights



Air horns



Percussion alarms



Radio sensing devices



If it is necessary to include an emergency warning device to minimise risk, the designer of
plant must ensure that the design provides for the device to be positioned on the plant so
that it wi
ll work to best effect.










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5

M
ANUFACTURE OF
PLANT

5.1

The role of manufacturers

S
. 23:

Manufacturers
must

ensure, so far is reasonably practicable, that the
plant

is
manufactured

to be without risks to the health and safety of persons
who assemble or use
the
plant for a
purpose for which it was designe
d or manufactured, or store, decommission, dismantle or dispose

of the
plant
.


The manufacturer must use the design specifications provided
by the designer.
If
the
manufacturer i
dentif
ies

a hazard in the design for which the designer did not provide a
con
trol
measure, the manufacturer must:



not incorporate that hazard into the item of plant
during
manufacture



give the designer written notice of the hazard as soon as practicable



take all reasonable steps to consult with the designer of the plant in relation

to alteration of
the design to rectify the hazard.

Consultation between manufacturer and
designer

will
facilitate the discharge of each other’s
obligations

and

any manufacturing issues to be discussed, e.g. practicalities of materials
substitution in the
manufacturing process.

Where it is not possible for the manufacturer to advise the designer of an identified hazard and
associated risk in relation to the design, the manufacturer
must e
nsure the risk is eliminated
or
minimised

so far as is practicable
.

I
f a manufacturer or any other person modifies the design of plant

without consulting the original
designer
, that person
will
have the
duties o
f a designer. All modifications should be approved by
the original designer or by a competent person, for example,

substitution of metals in a
manufacturing process should be approved by the original designer or a
person with relevant
expertise

before the substitute material is incorporated.

The manufacturer must ensure the plant is supplied with

appropriate informati
on on
safe use
.

5.2

Plant construction

The manufacturer must ensure that the plant is manufactured, inspected and
, if required,

tested
in
accordance with the designer’s specifications.


Connected, fabricated or machined materials are likely to be required in

the construction of plant.
Manufacturing processes require that design specifications are followed, for example, crane
booms of a particular lifting capacity should have the particular grade of steel specified. Further
the grade of steel used in the manuf
acture must be clearly identified in information provided with
the finished product.


The

manufacturer may choose to consider other published technical standards
for

guidance on
the materials used for the plant, the method of construction and testing

to ac
hieve safety of the
plant
.

Guarding

A manufacturer of plant must ensure that guarding used as a control measure is of solid
construction and
securely mounted so as to resist impact or shock. Guarding
must be of a kind
that can
be removed to allow for
main
tenance and cleaning of the plant at any time it is not in
normal operation
.
The manufacturer must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that if the
guarding were to be removed
,

the plant cannot be
re
started until the guarding is replaced.








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The selec
tion of material from which guards can be constructed is determined by four main
considerations, which are:



strength and durability, for example use of non
-
metallic materi
als in corrosive
environments



effects on machine reliability, for example a solid gua
rd may cause the machine to
overheat
while a mesh guard may allow dust into the working environment



visibility, for example there may be operational and safety reasons for needing a clear
view of the danger area



the control of other hazards, for example th
e use of a material that will not permit the
ejection of molten metal.


5.3

Testing

and examination of plant

S
. 23:

Manufacturers

must

carry out, or arrange the carrying out of, any calculations, analysis,
testing or examination that may be necessary to
ensure
, so far is reasonably practicable, that the
plant

is
manufactured to be without risks to health and safety.


Details of the testing and examination carried out should be documented and
must be provided to
the each person to whom the manufacturer provides
the plant
.
Typical testing nominated by the
designer may include but will not be limited to:



electrical testing (e.g. input current, safety contactor current, leakage current, protective
earth continuity, dielectric strength t
est, and insulation resistanc
e
)



safety function testing (e.g. safety circuit operation times, appropriate installation
distances, use of appropriate compone
nts and reliability design
)



temperature rise tests (e.g. for exposed temperature hazards and to confirm components
are used
wit
hin their specification
)



pressure
, stability, mechanical or structural
testing to the levels required by the
design
specification



abnormal condition tests (e.g. foreseeable component failures, unexpected start up,
hazards following interruption, restorati
on of power

sources


electricity, air
-

as decided
by the risk assessment process.


Tests and examinations should include:



all critical components



the suitability of selected components



mechanical devices



pneumatic devices



hydraulic devices



sources

of emissions e.g. lasers



guarding and interlocking arrangements



structural integrity



material types and properties.


There are both visual and non
-
visual techniques for checking the integrity of plant manufacture.
For example
,

checking welded joints r
equires non
-
visual, non
-
destructive testing (NDT)
techniques.

For

all high risk plant where welding is used as a joining technique, NDT techniques such as
ultrasonic and x
-
ray procedures should be used to ensure the welds are defect free and fit for the
in
tended purpose. Consideration should also be given to structural flexure and the avoidance of
tri
-
axial stressing as a measure of reducing the tendency towards fatigue cracking.








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To ensure an accurate assessment of operational stresses is made consideratio
n should be given
to the use of techniques such as strain gauging and/or photo
-
elastic techniques. Stresses should
be measured dynamically under a range of operational conditions.

5.4

Information about the safe use of plant

Manufacturers must give adequate inf
ormation to each person who is provided with the plant
concerning:



t
he purpose for which the
plant

was designed

or manufactured



t
he results of any calculations, testing, analysis or examination



a
ny conditions necessary to ensure that the
plant
is without

risks when used for a purpose
for which it was designed or
manufactured or
when carrying out any activity related to the
plant
.


A manufacturer must take all reasonable steps to obtain the information from the designer of the
plant

and pass it on to the p
erson to whom the manufacturer supplies the plant.
See section 3.7
for the type of information that should be provided.


Instructions should be trialled to ensure the intent of the instructions is achieved and that carrying
out the instructions does not po
se a risk to health and safety.

Information may be p
rovide
d
in the
form of written text or visual information such as signs, symbols or diagrams.

5.5

Registration of plant design

Certain plant requires design registration

as outlined in
Appendix B
.

If the des
igner has registered
the design, the designer must provide the design registration number to the manufacturer. The
manufacturer must ensure that they pass on the design registration number to the person being
supplied with the plant manufactured to the des
ign.


R. 231:

A manufacturer must not supply plant that requires design registration unless the design
of that plant has been registered.


If the designer has not registered the plant design, then the manufacturer must register the plant
design.

If
the ma
nufacturing process h
as involved modifying an already registered plant design in
such a way that
it requires
new
risk control measures
,
the
altered design must be registered
.


5.6

Item r
egistration

Any plant that requires item registration
(see Appendix B)
mu
st be registered with the
WHS
regulator
.
A
manufacturer who
produces a number of the same items of plant

may apply for the
item registration, noting that once it is sold to someone else,
the manufacturer
must notify the
WHS regulator

that
they

no longer ha
ve management of control of that item of plant.


Marking of registered items of plant

In the case of plant that requires
item
registration, the item registration number provided by the
WHS
re
gulator

must be permanently marked on the plant in a location th
at will be readily
accessible.

It will generally be a simple task to mark large items of plant with the item registration
number by
either etching the number in place or by fixing the number in place in a position that
will not lead to damage or removal ov
er time


On

some items
,

such as a tower cra
ne that may comprise many parts and is

often assembled in a
configuration to suit a particular
workplace/task
, it may not be feasible to mark each component.
In such cases, the item registration number should be
marked on those components that are
readily accessible and able to be seen when the crane is fully assembled.







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PAGE
31

OF
48



6

IMPORT

AND SUPPLY OF PLANT

Importers
and suppliers must
ensure, so far is reasonably practicable, that the plant is without
risks to the health a
nd safety of persons who assemble or use the plant for a purpose for which it
was designed or manufactured, or store, decommission, dismantle or dispose of the plant.


Importers and suppliers must, so far as is reasonably practicable, eliminate or mi
nimis
e risks to
health and safety with regard to the plant being supplied, where the manufacturer has not already
done so. This may be necessary where
the importer has
no direct connection to an overseas
designer or manufacturer.

6.1

Examin
ation

and testing of pla
nt

Importers and suppliers must carry out, or arrange the carrying out of, any calculations, analysis,
testing or examination that may be necessary to ensure, so far is reasonably practicable, that the
plant is without risks to health and safety.

Alternat
ively, they must ensure the calculations, analysis, testing or examination has been carried
out.


Importers or suppliers must take all reasonable steps to obtain information from the manufacturer
of the plant and pass this information on to the person to w
hom the plant is supplied. If this is not
available, the importer or supplier must undertake the necessary testing and examination required
under the WHS Act themselves.

6.2

Information about the safe use of plant

Importers and suppliers must give adequate inf
ormation to each person to whom they provide or
supply the plant, concerning:



t
he purpose for which the
plant

was designed

or manufactured



t
he results of any calculations, testing, analysis or examination



a
ny conditions necessary to ensure that the
plant
i
s without risks when used for a purpose
for which it was designed or
manufactured or
when carrying out any activity related to the
plant
.



An importer or supplier must
ensure that health and safety information from the designer or
manufacturer is passed o
n when supplying the plant.
See section 3.7 for the type of information
that should be provided.

The information may be provided in user manuals and manufacturers' instructions.

The information should, wherever possible, be in plain English but it must alw
ays maintain the
accuracy and quality of the t
echnical information
.

6.3

Compatibility of plant

Some plant may be assembled from components from a variety of sources. The assembly of
these by a manufacturer could present a risk to health and safety. A manufactu
rer using
components from a variety of sources should
provide the importer or supplier
an assurance of
compatibility of components
and that
the plant is safe and without risk to health when used
properly. You should in turn pass this information on to the
end user. If this information is not
available then you must undertake the relevant testing to ensure that risks to health and safety
are eliminated.








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6.4

Imported plant

Importers of plant must take all reasonable steps to obtain information from the manufactu
rer
about the purpose for which the plant has been designed and any conditions necessary to ensure
it is without risks to health and safety.


If the health and safety information is not provided to the importer by the original designer or
manufacturer, th
e importer assumes responsibility for supplying the information normally provided
and must undertake the necessary testing to obtain the information

(see Sections 3.6 and 3.7 of
this Code)
.


The importer or supplier must inspect the plant in conjunction wi
th any information provided by the
manufacturer, and undertake any testing specified by the manufacturer. Any risks identified during
inspection and testing must be eliminated or minimised so far as is reasonably practicable. The
person to whom the plant i
s supplied must be advised of any residual risks.

The importer must take all reasonable steps to ensure that the designer and manufacturer are
consulted in relation to any alterations made to the plant to control risk.

6.5

Design registration

R. 232:

An import
er must not supply plant that requires design registration unless the design of
that plant has been registered.


If the item of pl
ant to be imported
requires design registration under Schedule
5

of the
WHS
Regulations
,
the importer must

apply for and rece
ive design registration before supplying the plant
to anyone within Australia (see section 3.8)
.
This will require the importer to conduct any testing
and develop the information required for design registration if it is not available. The
design
registrat
ion number
must be provided
to any person
to whom the plant is supplied.


If the importer or supplier makes modifications to the plant, for example to ensure compliance with
Australian standards, they should take all reasonable steps to advise both the des
igner and
manufacturer of this.

When importing second
-
hand plant
,
the importer must ensure that the plant has been
manufactured in accordance with the original design (based on which the plant design was
registered). If the design is not the same or if the

plant (as imported) has been modified to the
extent that the safety has been compromised, the original plant design registration number must
not be used. The duty holders must engage a competent person to verify the new or modified
design and if necessary
, register the new design.

6.6

Hire of plant

If you

supply

hire
d

or leased
plant

(the ‘hirer’ or ‘lessor’)

to an end user you have the same
obligations as
a supplier of new plant

and ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that
hired
plant is safe and wit
hout risk to he
alth when used properly. A supplier

must ensure the
hired
plant
is accompanied by information about the way the plant must be used to ensure health and safety,
if the information is available.

The hirer of plant should ensure the plant is in
spected between hiring and that any maintenance
and repairs are carried out to minimise risks to health and safety. In the context of hired plant,
‘between’ means every time the plant is hired or leased, but does not include an extension to the
hiring or l
easing period for the same user (that is, hiree or lessee).









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The supplier may consider an extension to the period of contract as being an extended lease
provided that appropriate mechanisms are put in place to ensure adequate inspection and
maintenance is

carried out during the lease.


The supplier is required to ensure that any excessive wear or damage to the plant is identified and
rectified. Proper regard should be given to the designer's or manufacturer's specifications for
inspection and maintenance.


A regular testing program should be implemented.
Testing s
hould consider factors such as the
amount of use of the plant and the operating and environmental conditions during the period.


Where plant is to be transferred between hirees or lessees without b
eing returned to the supplier's
depot, the supplier is required to ensure that the plant is inspected and maintained before
transfer. For example, this may be done "on
-
site" without returning the plant to the depot.


Where the plant is hired or leased for
an extended period of time, the supplier should make
arrangements with the hiree or lessee to have the plant inspected and maintained, giving proper
regard to the designer's or manufacturer's specifications for inspection and maintenance.


With plant that
is hired or leased with an operator, the supplier may fulfil
their

duty by preparing a
comprehensive set of checks, and authorising the operator to carry out these checks between
hiring

and leasing
. If this option is adopted, the supplier should ensure tha
t the operator is
competent to apply the checks and
carry out
, or arrange to
carry out
, the maintenance identified
by the checks.


The supplier
should

ensure that records are kept of inspections and maintenance carried out on
the plant.


If agreement is r
eached that the hiree or lessee undertake the necessary inspections and
maintenance, the supplier should ensure that either during the hire or lease of the plant or at the
conclusion of the hire or lease, all records associated with inspections and mainten
ance of the
plant are obtained from the hiree or lessee.

6.7

Second
-
hand plant

Suppliers must
provide the purchaser with any information relating to the safe use of the plant that
is in
their
possession. This should include information relating to commissionin
g, operation,
maintenance and systems of work. Th
e information may consist of
data sheets, test certificates,
operations and service manuals, reports and a safety manual.

Persons who conduct a business or undertaking involved in the supply of second
-
hand p
lant must
ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that any faults that cause a risk to health and safety
(including excessive wear and damage)
are identified and rectified before supplying the plant.

Persons conducting a business or undertaking not in
volved in the supply of second
-
hand plant but
who decide to sell
or transfer
a piece of plant they have used

must
provide a
written notice

outlining the condition of the plant, any faults identified and, if appropriate, that the plant should
not be used un
til the fault is rectified. This notice must be provided to the person to whom the
plant is supplied.

If second
-
hand plant is to be used for scrap or spare parts, the supplier must inform the person
they are supplying the second
-
hand plant to that the plan
t is being supplied as scrap or spare
parts and that the plant in its current form is not to be used as plant. This must be done in writing
or by marking the item of plant.








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Suppliers
should identify any components of the plant that are unserviceable, or ar
range to have
this done by a competent person. The components of the plant that are unserviceable may
constitute a hazard in the operation of the plant.
If
plant is identified as not fully serviceable, you
should inform the purchaser that the plant should
not be used until the plant is fully serviceable.









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7

SPECIFIC RISK
CONTROL
S

7.1

C
onfined spaces

The design, manufacture or modification of any plant or structure that includes a confined space is
critical. Thoughtful design can eliminate the need to enter a con
fined space or eliminate the risk of
inadvertent entry and will therefore eliminate the associated risks.

R. 64:

Designers, manufacturers and suppliers of plant or structures must eliminate the need to
enter a confined space and eliminate the risk of inad
vertent entry. If this is not reasonably
practicable, then:



the need for any person enter the space must be minimised so far as is reasonably
practicable



the space must be designed with a safe means of entry and exit, and



the risk to the health and safety
of any person who enters the space must be eliminated or
minimised as far as is reasonably practicable.


The following features should be incorporated in the design and manufacturing stages:



use of lining materials that are durable, require minimal clean
ing and do not react with
materials contained in the confined space



design of mechanical parts to provide for safe and easy maintenance, to reduce the need
for persons to enter, and



access points (including those within the confined space, through division
s, partitions or
obstructions) should be large enough to allow people wearing the necessary protective
clothing and equipment to pass through, and to permit the rescue of all people who may
enter the confined space.

Further guidance on

confined spaces
is a
vailable
in the
Code of Practice: Confined Spaces
.

7.2

Manual
tasks

R.
61:

Designers
and manufacturers
must:



design the plant to eliminate the need to carry out a hazardous manual task



where this is not reasonably practicable, minimise the risk of musculoske
letal disorders
arising from hazardous manual tasks



provide adequate information about the features of the plant that eliminate or minimise the
need for any hazardous manual task to be carried out.

The importer or supplier of plant must take all reasonable

steps to obtain the information and
provide it to any person to whom the plant is supplied.

Designers and manufacturers should
consider:



characteristics such as the weight, size, shape, surface characteristics and stability of
plant or its various compo
nent parts. Where these characteristics present a risk to users,
plant should be equipped with items such as hand
-
grips, to enable it to be picked up and
moved

safely and eliminate the risk



vertical and horizontal reach distances of people who ma
y use or m
anually handle plant



requirements for operational controls/levers either
on a console or inside a cabin



conditions in which the plant will be used, serviced, maintained and repaired. For instance,
in some situations it may not be possible to make use of me
chanical lifting devices and so
items of plant or their components should be designed to eliminate risk to the user/worker.









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Methods designers
and manufacturers
may consider to reduce risks
associated with
manual
tasks
include:



modular components designe
d to dismantle so that they can

easily be carried or repaired



attachments
such as

handles to make lifting easier

or wheels to make moving easier



using
lightweight materials





designated lifting points.


Further
guidance

is available in the
Code of Practic
e:

Hazardous
Manual
Tasks
.

7.3

Noise

R. 59:

A designer

and manufacturer

of plant must:




design the plant so that its noise emission is as low as reasonably practicable



p
rovide information on the noise emission values of the plant (for example,
data on sound
p
ower level or sound pressure level)
, the operating conditions of the plant when the noise
emission is measured and the methods used to measure the noise emission.

They must also provide information on any conditions required for safe use.

The importer or

supplier
of plant
must take all reasonable steps to obtain the information and
provide it to any person to whom the plant is supplied.

In eliminating or minimising the risks associated with noise, you should consider:



preventing or reducing the impact be
tween machine parts



replacing metal parts with quieter plastic parts



combining machine guards with acoustic treatment



enclosing particularly noisy machine parts



selecting power transmission which permits the quietest speed regulation; for example,
rotat
ion
-
speed
-
controlled electric motors, and



isolating vibration
-
related noise sources within machines.



good seals for doors for machines



machines with effective cooling flanges which reduce the need for air jet cooling



quieter types of fans or placing muf
flers in the ducts of ventilation systems



quiet electric motors and transmissions



pipelines for low flow speeds (maximum 5m/sec.)



ventilation ducts with fan inlet mufflers and other mufflers to prevent noise transfer in the
duct between noisy and quiet
rooms.

Further guidance
is
available in the
Code of Practice:
Managing Noise and Preventing Hearing
Loss at

Work


7.4

Energy sources

The design should recognise and accommodate the possibility of a dangerous situation occurring
where the energy source to the plant fluctuates or the energy source is discontinued and then
resumed.
In particular:



the plant should de
fault to the ‘off position,’



if there is a risk of injury due to
the plant
restarting when the power resumes, the plant
should
remain in
a de
-
energised state

until the start sequence is commenced,



the plant should not be able to restart automatically afte
r power fluctuations, and



protective devices should remain fully effective before, during and after any change to the
status of the energy source.









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Where electrical equipment has been designed for use within certain voltage limits, only those
specific re
quirements such as electrical standards and statutory requirements that address the
design requirement should apply.


Where plant is powered by an energy source other than electricity, such as hydraulic, pneumatic,
thermal or stored kinetic energy, it sho
uld be designed to allow the plant to be constructed and
equipped so as to avoid all potential hazards associated with these types of energy.

7.5

Static electricity

Static electricity may cause an electric shock to a person. As a consequence the person may fal
l,
or drop an object. Static electricity may also cause unintended
combustion
, for example where
flammable fumes may be emitted. Where the build
-
up of potentially dangerous electrostatic
charges creates a risk to health and safety, plant should be designed

to prevent or limit the
discharge, and/or be fitted with a discharging system.
For example, spark detection and
suppression systems can be incorporated into dust extraction systems to minimise the risk of
explosion or fire.

7.6

Lightning

The design of plant
that is likely to be exposed to lightning while being used should incorporate a
system for conducting any resultant electrical charges to earth.

7.7

Fire and explosion

Certain types of plant have the potential to be a fire or explosion risk. A designer shoul
d eliminate
or reduce risk of fire, overheating or explosion posed by the plant itself or by
gases
, liquids, dusts,
vapours or other substances produced or used by the plant or other plant nearby.

7.8

Plant capable of entangling an operator

Designers should m
ake certain that moving parts of machines are designed in a way that
prevents operator contact that may cause injury. In some instances this may be difficult to achieve
as there may be a need to have rotating elements exposed during normal use.


Radial dr
ills, surface planers and milling machines commonly operate with the rotating tool
unguarded and this presents a real risk of entanglement should the operator or the operators
clothing come into contact with the rotating part. The most likely causes of con
tact are where the
operator applies cutting lubricant to the interface between the tool and the part being machined,
removing swarf from around the part, or where the tool is not brought to a complete stop during
re
-
setting of the workpiece.


Modern metal
-
working machine tools often incorporate protective guards that surround the cutter
and provide lubricant and swarf removal that can eliminate the need for operator intervention and
in doing so, eliminate the risk of entanglement. Where plant is computer co
ntrolled, the need for
operator interaction is further reduced. Older style machines however, should be protected by the
use of, for example, physical barriers or pressure sensitive mats. Lubricant application and swarf
removal can also be achieved by the
retro
-

fitting of additional devices dedicated to these
purposes and which allow the operator to remain outside the danger zone while the plant is
operating.


Woodworking machinery can also expose an operator to a risk of entanglement, especially when
work
p
ie
ces are being fed into machines. Such risks can be eliminated by the use of powered feed
equipment that provides a safe distance between the operator from revolving cutters or blades.







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Plant such as grain augers or tree
-
limb mulchers also requires specia
l attention to prevent
operators becoming entangled in the plant.


Controls for plant capable of entanglement should be able to bring the plant quickly to a complete
stop. Plant capable of causing entanglement must not be able to continue rotating once the

stop
command is given.

7.9

Vibration

Plant should be designed to avoid any risks resulting from vibration. Vibration may be transmitted
to the whole body and particularly to hands and arms, when using plant. There are two
approaches yo
u can use to control vib
ration:



preventing vibration happening in the first place, and



separating the vibration from the person using the plant.


Examples of prevention are

substituting an internal combustion engine fitted to plant with an
electric drive.



Examples of separati
on are:



suspended cabs, used on some commercial vehicles, and



use of vibration isolation, for example, the use of rubber blocks or mounts on an engine to
reduce (isolate) the vibration.

7.10

Exposure to radiation

Plant should be designed so emission of any r
adiation is limited to the extent necessary for
operation of the plant and so there is no risk to health and safety from emissions. The effects of
radiation exposure are cumulative. Where necessary, instructions should be included stating the
need for regu
lar personal monitoring for radiation build
-
up.


Radiation hazards are produced by a variety of sources and may be generated by non
-
ionising or
ionising radiations. Information on non
-
ionising and ionising radiation for particular items of plant
can be fo
und in relevant Australian Standards. Plant should be designed so external radiation
does not interfere with its operation or with people working on or in the vicinity of the plant.


Lasers

Lasers are devices that produce optical radiation with unique prop
erties. They have
varying power
and applications. High power laser devices can present a hazard over considerable distances
from the source. While exposure to some higher powered laser products may cause skin burns,
most laser injuries are to the eyes. For

example, some laser pointers available on the market are
of sufficient power to cause eye injury.


Laser products may consist of a single laser with or without its own power supply or multiple
lasers in a complex system.


R. 223:

Lasers must be designed
and installed to prevent accidental irradiation of any person.
The laser equipment must be protected so that any operator or other person is not exposed to
direct radiation, radiation produced by reflection or diffusion or secondary radiation. Visual
equi
pment used for the observation or adjustment of laser equipment on plant must not create a
risk to health or safety from laser rays.


All laser devices must be sold with appropriate information about their safe use. This generally
takes the form of a label

with both the classification details and the warnings
-
for
-
use that are







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appropriate to that classification. The warning labels appropriate to the class should be
permanently affixed to the housing in a highly visible position.


Designers should consult wi
th manufacturers, suppliers, owners and end users to ensure that the
correct strength of laser is used and the housing of the laser unit is designed according to safe
design principles. The designer should ensure that complete written information on the sa
fe use of
laser products is provided to manufacturers, erectors, installers, suppliers, owners and end users.

Laser devices sold in Australia should be classified in accordance with
AS/NZS 2211.1:1997
Laser safety
-

Equipment classification, requirements a
nd user's guide.


Radio frequency radiation

Radio frequency radiation (RFR)
is electromagnetic energy (wave
) that is transmitted at
frequenc
ies between 3 kHz and 300 GHz. R
adio frequency (RF) generating plant may be used at
workplaces that perform forgin
g, annealing, tempering, brazing or soldering, sealing of plastics,
glue drying, curing particle boards and panels, heating fabrics and paper, or cooking by means of
a microwave oven.


Workers in industrial workplaces that use RF generating plant are at r
isk of exposure to levels of
RF fields where radiation may cause adverse health effects. For example, RF fields greater than
10 MHz interact with human tissue to raise the temperature and cause heat stress related illness
such as impaired concentration, nu
mbness, and eye damage. Usually those workers operating
the plant are the most likely to be exposed. However, workers who do not operate RF generating
plant but are situated within its vicinity and people coming into the workplace can also be at risk
from
the generated radiation.


Pregnant women and people with metallic implants or cardiac pacemakers may be at

particular
risk from RFR.


Ultraviolet radiation

Excessive exposu
re to ultraviolet (UV
)
radiation
can cause not only sunburn but also lasting skin
damage, premature skin aging and an increased ris
k of developing skin cancer. UV

exposur
e also
increases the risk of UV

induced damage to the lens and cornea of the eye.


UVR exposure can also result from artificial sources for example, from germicidal la
mps and
quartz
-
halogen lights. Designers need to identify ultraviolet risks associated with the plant they
are designing.

For example

a

designer
of mobile plant
should safeguard the driver from exposure to ultra
violet radiation by incorporating an effect
ive canopy into the design in order to eliminate or
minimise the risk.

7.11

Risk of being trapped

Where there is a risk of
a person
becoming trapped or enclosed within the plant,
measures should
be included to bring the plant to a
n immediate
stop
or
prevent the

plant being activated while a
person is in that position
, for example presence sensing systems used together with control
systems that de
-
energise the plant
.

For mobile plant, the risk of the operator being trapped if the
plant overturns can be minimised
with rollover protective structures.


7.12

Hazardous

chemicals


Plant should be designed and manufactured to eliminate or
minimise the release of any
substances which are hazardous. This extends to controlling hazardous waste.








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7.13

Combined plant

Where you have arr
anged plant to work in combination with other plant or parts of other plant, it
must be designed so that the stop controls, including the emergency stop control, can not only
stop the plant itself but all other plant related to the operation if the continu
ed operation of the
plant can present a risk to the operator or others.

Designers
must

provide information about combined plant to the manufacturer and ensure that
the instructions for operating the plant provide guidance
for

e
nd users
.

7.14

Stability

Unstable
plant is a hazard. It can topple, parts can fall off or it can unexpectedly
move and result
in workers or
others in the workplace suffer
ing crushing or impact

injuries.


Designers should ensure that plant is designed to be stable and without risk of overtu
rning, falling
or unexpected movement during erection or installation and under all operating conditions. It may
be necessary for you to consult with other stakeholders such as manufacturers, erectors/installers
and end users.


Detailed erection, modificat
ion and dismantling procedures should be provided by the designer in
writing to prevent unstable plant at the workplace.
Stability testing requirements for the pant can
be developed and specified at the design stage and verified after manufacture.

7.15

Mechanic
al or structural failure during operation

The various parts of plant and their linkages must be able to withstand the stresses to which they
are subjected during intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse.

The durability of materials
used to construct
the plant must be adequate for the nature of the specified working environment.
In particular, when nominating the type of materials to be used, you must consider the possible
effects of fatigue, ageing, corrosion and abrasion.


The design specification m
ust indicate the type and frequency of inspection and maintenance
required to keep the plant in a safe condition. The design specification must, where appropriate,
also indicate the parts subjected to wear and the criteria for determining replacement.


Wh
ere a risk of rupture or disintegration of component parts remains despite the measures taken,
the parts concerned must be mounted, positioned and/or guarded in such a way that in case of
rupture their fragments will not put the operator or others at risk.


Both rigid and flexible hoses/pipes carrying fluids such as gases or solids or a mixture of these,
particularly those under high pressure, must be able to withstand the foreseen internal and
external stresses and must be firmly attached and/or protected
against those stresses.
Precautions must be taken to make sure that there is no risk posed by rupture.


Where material to be processed is automatically fed to moving parts of the plant, your design
must include means to avoid risks to the operator and oth
ers which may arise from the material
being ejected or being blocked in the moving parts of the plant. These means may include:



a
llowing the moving parts to attain normal working condition before material comes into
contact with the moving parts, and



c
oor
dinating the feed movement of the material and the moving parts of the plant at all
times including on start
-
up and shut
-
down regardless of whether the operation is
intentional or unintentional.








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7.16

Software

Designers considering the use of interactive softwar
e to be used by the operator to command or
control the operation of the plant should make sure that the software is as intuitive as possible
and not require complex manipulation that could be affected by repetition or fatigue.

7.17

Lighting

Lighting should be
provided to enable
safe use and operation of plant. Poor lighting can lead to
poor visibility, operator fatigue, wrong decisions and accidents. For example if an operator is
unable to clearly see a hopper capacity indicator, he or she may not empty it at t
he right time thus
creating a dangerous situation.


Emergency lighting should operate on its own power supply and not be subject to cuts in power.
Lighting may be internally or externally installed.

If external lighting needs to be provided in the workplac
e to ensure the safety of workers at or
near the plant, the designer should ensure that written information is provided to the
erector/installer and end user.


Technical standards cover lighting requirements for plant use, operation and maintenance,
includ
ing:



the direction and intensity of lighting,



the contrast between background and local illumination,



the colour of the light source, and



reflection, glare and shadows.

Technical standards also describe some specific situations where lighting design f
or use in
industrial settings must meet electrical safety standards. Standards also detail design
requirements to prevent lighting interactions causing a stroboscopic effect, particularly the
following examples:



fluorescent lighting on moving plant which
makes moving parts of machinery look as if
they are stopped, or



rotating beacons in mobile plant in the internal environment.








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APPENDIX
A



EXAMPLES OF
TECHNICAL STANDARDS

The following table is a list of published technical standards that provide guidan
ce on the design,
manufacture and use of certain types of plant.

These technical standards provide guidance only
and compliance with them does not guarantee compliance with the WHS Act and Regulations in
all instances. This list is not exhaustive.


Plant D
escription

Reference Number

Standard Title

Design

Make

Use

Amusement
Structures

AS 3533

Amusement Rides and Devices







Cranes, including
hoists and winches

AS 1418
(Series)

Cranes Including Hoists and Winches






AS 4991
-

2004

Lifting devices







AS 2550
(Series)

Cranes


S
afe use





Conveyers

AS 1755
-

2000

Conveyers
-

S
afety requirements







Electrical
installation

AS 3000

Electrical installation (known as the
Aust/NZ wiring rules)





Electrical
installation

within
an indust
rial plant

AS/IEC 60204.1

Safety of machinery: Electrical
equipment of machines
-
General
requirements






Earthmoving
machinery

AS 2294
.1


Earthmoving machinery


P
rotective
structures
-

General






AS 2958
.1


Earthmoving Machinery


Safety

Wheeled
machines
-
Brakes







ISO 6165


Earthmoving machinery


Basic types


Identification and terms and definitions





ISO 6746
-
1


Earth
-
moving machinery
-

Definitions of

d
imensions and
codes

-

Part 1: Base

machine





ISO 6746
-
2


Earth
-
moving machinery
-

Definitions of

d
imensions and
codes

-

Part 2:
Equipment

and attachments





ISO 7133

Earth
-
moving machinery
-

Tractor
-
scraper
s


Terminology and commercial
specifications





Explosive Powered
tools

AS/NZS 1873
(Series)

Power
-
act
uated

(PA)
h
and
-
h
eld
f
astening
t
ools.







Hand
-
held electric
tools

AS/NZS 60745

Hand
-
held motor operated electric tools


Safety


General requirements







Fall arrest

AS/NZS 1891
.1


Industrial fall
-
arrest systems and
devices
-

Harnesses and ancillary
equipment






AS/NZS 1891
.4


Industrial fall
-
arrest systems and
devices
-

Selection, use and
maintenance





BS EN 1263
-
1
:2002

Safety nets
-
Safety requirements, test
methods





Gas cylinders

AS 2030
.1
-
1999


Gas cylinders
-
General requirements
(known as
SAA Gas Cyl
inders Code
)






AS 2337.2
-
2004

Gas
c
ylinder
t
est
stations





AS/NZS 3509

LP (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) Fuel
-
Vessels for Automotive Use.






Industrial (Forklift)
trucks

AS 2359
(Series)

Powered industrial trucks







Industrial rope
access

systems

AS 4488
.2
-
1997


Industrial rope access systems







Lasers

AS
/NZS

2211
(Series)

S
afety
of laser products







AS 2397

Safe
u
se of
l
asers in the
b
uilding and
c
onstruction
i
ndustry





AS/NZS IEC 60825.1:
Safety of laser products



Equipment













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Plant D
escription

Reference Number

Standard Title

Design

Make

Use

2011

classification and requirements

Lifts

AS 1735
(Series)

Lifts,
e
scalators and
m
oving
w
alks
(known as the SAA Lift Code)







Machinery

AS
4024 (Series)

Safety of machinery







AS 1657

Fixed
p
latforms,
w
alkways,
s
tairways
and
l
adde
rs
-
Design, c
onstruction and
i
nstallation






AS 1788
.2
-
1987


Abrasive
w
heels
-
Selection, care and
use








AS 1893
-
1977


Code of practice for the
g
uarding and
s
afe
u
se of
m
etal and
p
aper
c
utting
g
uillotines







AS 2661
-
1983


Vapour
d
egreasing
p
lant


Design,
i
nstallation and
o
peration


Safety
r
equirements







AS/NZS 3947.3:2001


Low
-
voltage
s
witchgear and

c
ontrol
g
ear
, switches, disconnectors, switch
-
disconnectors and fuse combination
units







AS 61508
.6
-
2011


Functional
s
afety

of

s
afety
r
elated
s
ystems







AS/IEC 61511

Functional
s
afety


Safety
instrumented
system for the process industry sector







AS 62061

Safety of machinery: Functional safety
of safety
-
related electrical, electronic
and programmable electronic control

systems







ISO 13849.1

Safety of machinery: Safety
-
related
parts of control systems
-
General
principles







BS
/IEC

649
6
-
2:1997


Safety of machinery, Electro sensitive
protective equipment






AS 1121.1:2007

Agricultural tractor power take
-
offs

-

r
ear
-
mounted power take
-
off types 1, 2
and 3
-

General specifications, safety
requirements, dimensions for master
shield and clearance zone






AS 1636

Agricultural wheeled tractors
-

Roll
-
over

p
rotective structures criteria and tests






AS/NZS 2
153.1:1997

Tractors and machinery for agriculture
and forestry
-

Technical means for
ensuring safety
-

General






SAE J167
-
2011

Overhead
p
rotection for
a
gricultural
t
ractors
-

Test
p
rocedures and
p
erformance
r
equirements






Miniature boilers

AMBSC
Code

Part 1

Copper Boilers
-

Issue 7
-
2001






AMBSC Code

Part 2

Steel Boilers


Issue 4
-
1995






AMBSC Code

-

Part 3

Sub
-
Miniature Boilers


Issue 1
-
2008






AMBSC Code



Part 4

Duplex Boilers


Issue

1
-
2010






Pressure
equipment

AS/NZS 1200
:2000


Pressure Equipment







AS 2593
:2004


Boilers


Safety management and
supervision systems






AS 2971
:2007


Serially produced pressure vessels






AS/NZS 3788
:2006



Boiler and
p
ressure
v
essels


In
s
ervice
i
nspection





AS 3873
:200
1

Boiler and
p
ressure
v
essels


Operation
and
m
aintenance





AS 3920
.1
-
1993

Assurance of product quality


Pressure
equipment manufacture













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Plant D
escription

Reference Number

Standard Title

Design

Make

Use

ASME I

Power boilers






ASME II

Materials






ASME V

Non
-
destructive
e
xamination






ASME V
II
-
1

Pressure vessels






ASME VII
-

2

Pressure vessels


alternative rules






ASME VIII
-
1

Pressure vessels


Full NDE


for
AS1210 class1h (h=1)






ASME IX

Welding and
b
razing
q
ualifications






ANSI / NGV
-
2

Basic
r
equirement of
c
omp
ressed
n
atural
g
as
v
ehicle
f
uel
c
ontainers






CSA B51 Part 2

High
p
ressure
c
ylinders for the
o
n
-
board
s
torage of
n
atural
g
as as a
f
uel for
a
utomotive
v
ehicles






ISO 11439
:2000


High
p
ressure
c
ylinders for the
o
n
-
board
s
torage of
n
atural
g
as as
a
f
uel for
a
utomotive
v
ehicles






ISO/EN 13458 (Series)

Cryogenic vessels


Static vacuum
insulated vessels







Pressure piping

AS 4041
-
2006


Pressure piping






Machinery
guarding


AS 4024

(Series)




Safeguarding of machinery


general
princi
ples







ISO 12100
:2010


Safety of machinery


General
principles for design








Scaffolding

AS/NZS 1576.1:2010

Scaffolding


general requirements






AS 1577
-
1993

Scaffold planks






AS/NZS 4576

Guidelines for
s
caffolding





Ladders

AS
/NZS
1892.1/1892.2/1892.3

Portable ladders






Spray painting

AS/NZS 4114.1

Spray
p
ainting
b
ooths. Part 1:
Design,
construction and testing







AS/NZS 4114.2

Spray
p
ainting
b
ooths. Part 2:
Installation and
m
aintenance





Turbines

BS/EN 60593
-
2
:1996

Rules for steam turbine acceptance
tests





API 612

Special purpose steam turbines for
refinery services





Ventilation

AS 1668.2

The use of ventilation and air
conditioning in buildings







Work boxes
-

crane
lifted

AS 1418.17

1996

Crane
s (including hoists and winches)






AS 2550

Cranes


Safe
u
se





AS 3860
-
1991


Fixed guideway people movers







ISO 2374

Lifting appliances


Range of maximum
capacities for basic models







Key:


Abbreviations Name

ANSI


American Natio
nal Standards Institute

API


American Petroleum Institute

AMBSC

Australian Miniature Boiler Safety Committee

AS


Australian Standard

ASME


American Society of Mechanical Engineers

AS/NZS

Australian Standard / New Zealand Standard

BS


British St
andard

CSA


Canadian Standards Association

EN


Europaische Norm (European Standard)








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IEC


International Electrochemical Commission

ISO


International Standards Organisation

NZS


New Zealand Standards

SAE


Society of Automotive Engineers







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PAGE
46

OF
48



APPENDI
X
B



REGISTRABLE PLANT

List of
Plant requiring registration of design

as outlined in Schedule 5 (Part 1) of the WHS
Regulations



Pressure equipment, other than pressure piping, and categorised as hazard level A, B, C
or D according to the criteria in Secti
on 2.1 of
AS 4343

Pressure equipment


hazard
levels



Gas cylinders covered by Part 1.1 of
AS 2030.1

Gas cylinders
-

General Requirements



Tower cranes including self
-
erecting tower cranes



Lifts, including escalators and moving walkways



Building maintenance
units



Hoists with a platform movement exceeding 2.4 metres, designed to lift people



Work boxes designed to be suspended from cranes



Amusement devices covered by Section 2.1 of
AS 3533.1:2009
-

Amusement Rides and
Devices
, except
C
lass 1 structures (see bel
ow)



Concrete placement units with delivery booms



Prefabricated scaffolding and prefabricated formwork



Boom
-
type elevating work platforms



Gantry cranes with a safe working load greater than 5 tonnes or bridge cranes with a safe
working load of greater than
10 tonnes, and any gantry crane or bridge crane which is
designed to handle molten metal or Schedule 10 hazardous chemicals



Vehicle hoists



Mast climbing work platforms



Mobile cranes with a rated capacity of greater than 10 tonnes


Note
:

The plant listed as

requiring design registration do
es

not include:



a heritage boiler



a crane or hoist that is manually powered



an elevating work platform that is a scissor lift or a vertically moving platform



a tow truck



certain
C
lass 1 structures including:

o

playground stru
ctures

o

water slides where water facilitates patrons to slide easily, predominantly under
gravity, along a static structure

o

wave generators where patrons do not come into contact with the parts of machinery
used for generating water waves

o

inflatable device
s that are sealed

o

inflatable devices that

do not use a non
-
return valve.









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List of
Plant items requiring registration

as outlined in Schedule 5 (Part 2) of the WHS
Regulations



Boilers categorised as hazard level A, B or C according to criteria in Section
2.1 of
AS
4343
-

Pressure equipment
-

hazard levels
.



Pressure vessels categorised as hazard level A, B or C according to the criteria in Section
2.1 of
AS 4343
-

Pressure equipment
-

hazard levels
, except for gas cylinders; LP Gas fuel
vessels for automoti
ve use, and serially produced vessels.



Tower cranes including self
-
erecting tower cranes.



Lifts, including escalators and moving walkways.



Building maintenance units.



Amusement devices covered by Section 2.1 of
AS 3533
.1:2009

-

Amusement Rides and
Devices
,

except for certain
C
lass 1 structures (see below).



Concrete placement units with delivery booms.



Mobile cranes with a rated capacity of greater than 10 tonnes.

Note
:

The plant listed as requiring item registration do
es

not include
:



a crane or hoist that i
s manually powered



certain
C
lass 1 structures:

o

playground structures

o

water slides where water facilitates patrons to slide easily, predominantly under
gravity, along a static structure

o

wave generators where patrons do not come into contact with the parts
of machinery
used for generating water waves

o

inflatable devices that are sealed

o

inflatable devices that do not use a non
-
return valve
.








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PAGE
48

OF
48



APPENDIX
C



DESIGN SOURCES OF HUMAN ERROR

The following table lists some human errors that may be associated with the
use of plant and the
possible causes due to poor design

of the plant or systems of work associated with the plant.


Common human errors

Possible causes due to poor design

Inadvertent activation of plant.



Lack of interlocks or time lockouts.



Lack of warnin
g sign against activating
equipment under specified damaging conditions.

Several critical displays of
information are too similar or too
close together.



Errors of judgement, particularly during periods
of stress or high job demand.



Job requires operator t
o make hurried
judgements at critical times, without
programmed back
-
up measures.

Critical components installed
incorrectly.



Design and instructions are ambiguous on
installation of components.



Lack of asymmetrical configurations or guides on
connectors
or equipment.

Inappropriate us
e or delay in use
of controls.



Critical controls are too close, similar in design,
awkwardly located.



Readout instrument blocked by arm when
making adjustment.



Labels on controls are confusing.




Information is too small to

see from operator's
position.

Inadv
ertent activation of controls.



Controls easy to activate by brushing past or too
close to other controls.



Controls can be easily activated accidentally.



Lack of guards over critical controls.

Critical instruments and
displays
not read or information
misunderstood because of clutter.




Critical instruments or displays not in most
prominent area.



Design of many displays similar.

Failure to notice critical signal.



Lack of suitable auditory and visual warning to
attract o
perator's attention to information.

Plant operation results in
unexpected direction or response.



Activation direction of controls conflicts with
population norms or expectancies.

Lack of understanding of
procedures.



Instructions are difficult to understa
nd.

Following prescribed procedures
results in error or incident.



Written prescribed procedures not checked for
accurate operation.

Lack

of correct or timely actions.



Available information incomplete, incorrect or not
available in time.



Response time o
f system or plant too slow for
making next appropriate action.




Lack of automatic corrective devices on system
with fast fluctuations.

Exceeding prescribed limitations
on load or speed.



Lack of governors and other parameter limiters.



Lack of warnings on

exceeding parameters.