Nanopharmacology and Nanomedicine

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Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Nanopharmacology


and

Nanomedicine

Dr.
Basavaraj

K.
Nanjwade

M. Pharm., Ph. D.

Director and Professor

KLE College of Pharmacy,

NIPANI
-
591 237
, Karnataka, India.

E
-
mail: nanjwadebk@gmail.com

Cell No: 0091 9742431000

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15 February 2013

Nanotechnology map

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Nanoscience


Nanoscale

has

different

definitions

in

different

scientific

fields

such

as

1
-
100

nanometers

in

physics

and

chemistry,

0
.
1
-
100

nm

in

some

early

monograghs

and

1
-
1000

nm

in

biomedicine

literatures
.




The

bottom

up

assemble

with

atoms

one

by

one



100

nm

(or

below)

particles

at

bone

marrow,




100
-
200

nm

particles

at

reticular

epithelial

systems
.



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Nanopharmacology


Nanopharmacology,

a

new

branch

of

pharmacology

is

gradually

emerging

with

the

application

of

nanoscience

and

nanotechnology

in

the

field

of

nanomedicine
.




The

interactions

between

traditional

drugs

and

physiological

systems

at

nanoscle

level
.

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Nanopharmacology


Drug

design

and

drug

delivery

to

selected

targets

to

improve

pharmacodynamics

and

kinetic

profiles

toward

safer

and

effective

treatment

is

known

as

nanopharmacology
.

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Categorized
Nanopharmacology


Defining

targets



Development

of

drugs

and

carrier

systems



Studying

target

drug

interactions



Monitoring

the

target

drug

interaction

outcomes



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Defining targets


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Development of drugs and carrier
systems


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Studying target

drug
interactions

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Pharmacokinetic interactions


Absorption


Distribution


Biotransformation


Excretion


Pharmacodynamic interactions


Receptor interaction


Receptor sensitivity


Neurotransmitter release/Drug transportation


Electrolyte balance


Pharmaceutical interactions



Studying target

drug
interactions


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Usually,

the

binding

sites

of

macromolecules

are

more

hydrophobic

in

nature

than

the

surface,

and

so

this

enhances

the

effect

of

an

ionic

interaction
.



The

drop

off

in

ionic

bonding

strength

with

separation

is

less

than

in

other

intermolecular

interactions,

so

if

an

ionic

interaction

is

possible,

it

is

likely

to

be

the

most

important

initial

interaction

as

the

drug

enters

the

binding

site
.

Quantitative systems
pharmacology

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Monitoring the target

drug
interaction outcomes


1)
Loss of therapeutic effect

2)
Toxicity

3)
Unexpected increase in pharmacological
activity

4)
Beneficial effects
e.g

additive & potentiating
(intended) or antagonism (unintended).

5) Chemical or physical interaction


e.g

I.V incompatibility in fluid or syringes
mixture


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Nanopharmacology

features

1.
Using

nanoscale

tools,

such

as

scanning

probe

microscopy
.


2.
Studying

particulate

drugs,

especially

the

nanoparticulate

drugs
.


3.
Studying

the

influences

of

the

nanoparticulate

properties

of

nano

drug

carriers

on

the

therapeutic

effects

of

drugs

that

they

carry
.


4.
Nanopharmacology

theories

will

provide

instructions

for

the

bottom

up

assemble

of

nanodrugs

with

atoms

one

by

one
.


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Nanopharmacology

Target


Slow

release

nanopharmacology



Controlled

release

nanopharmacology



Bio

barrier

penetration

nanopharmacology



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Slow release
nanopharmacology



The

slow
-
release

nanopharmacology

studies

the

question

on

how

to

realize

the

slow

release

and

the

influences

of

slow

release

on

the

drug

metabolisms

and

the

therapeutic

effects
.

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Slow release
nanopharmacology


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Controlled release
nanopharmacology



The

controlled
-
release

nanopharmacology

studies

how

to

realize

the

smart

release

of

the

drugs

according

to

the

therapeutic

needs

in

the

cellular

and

tissue

microenvironments
.

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Bio barrier penetration
nanopharmacology



Bio
-
barrier
-
penetration

nanopharmacology

studies

the

capabilities

of

nanodrugs

to

passing

through

bio
-
barriers
.




Blood
-
brain

barrier


Air
-
blood

barrier



To

realize

the

treatment

of

some

focal

diseases

where

the

traditional

drugs

can’t

arrive

because

their

incapability

of

penetrate

biobarriers
.



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Transport of molecules across the BBB

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Air
-
blood barrier

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The perfect drug!


Reality


All

drugs

have

side

effects

but

new

drugs

aim

to

provide

beneficial

effects

with

minimal

side

effects


How

is

this

achieved?


1.
Identify

new

molecules

2
.

Modify

structure

of

know

molecules



Test

in

biological

tissue

or

whole

body




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Nanotechnology


based drug
delivery Systems

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Nanomedicine

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Definition of Nanomedicine




Nanomedicine

is

the

one

of

the

most

valuable


medical

application

of

nanotechnology

as

the

name

specifies

naomedicine

involves

the

use

of

nano

particles

in

the

surgical

and

medical

treatement

of

pateints
.


OR



We

can

say

nanomedicine

is

the

nanotechnology

application

which

is

used

for

engineering

or

binding

molecular

or

atomic

machines

for

the

treatment

of

diseases

in

living

organisms
.



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Nanomedicine


Nanomedicine

is

nanotechnology

used

for

the

treatment,

diagnosis,

monitoring

and

control

of

biological

systems


Nanomedicine

includes

the

delivery

and

targeting

of

pharmaceutical,

therapeutic,

and

diagnostic

agents

using

nanoparticles

to

cancer

and

other

cells


Nanomedicine

includes

nanomaterial

for

bone,

cartilage,

vascular,

bladder

and

neural

applications


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Background


Nanomedicine

is

the

monitoring,

repair,

construction,

and

control

of

human

biological

systems

at

the

molecular

level

using

engineered

nanodevices

and

nanostructures
.



Nanomedicine
,

including

nanodiagnostics
,

nanotherapeutics
,

and

the

development

of

nanomedical

devices
.


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How
nanomedicine

works?



Nanomedicine

works

at

a

molecular

or

atomic


scale
.



The

most

advanced

form

of

nanomedicine

uses

the

nanorobots

and

nanoinstruments

as

surgeons
.




Nanomedicine

repair

damaged

cells

or

get

into

the

cells

and

replace

or

assist

damaged

intracellular

structures

at

individual

stage
.

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Goals of
Nanomedicine

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End goal of
nanomedicine

is improved diagnostics, treatment and
prevention of disease


Goals of
Nanomedicine

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Ultimate goal is to integrate detection, diagnostics, treatment and
prevention of disease into a personalized single platform



Recent and future
breakthroughs in medicine

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Nanotechnology

holds

key

to

a

number

of

recent

and

future

breakthroughs

in

medicine


Cancer Treatments

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Because

of

their

small

size,

nanoparticles

can

pass

through

interstitial

spaces

between

necrotic

and

quiescent

cells
.


Tumor

cells

typically

have

larger

interstitial

spaces

than

healthy

cells


Particles

collect

in

center

bringing

therapeutics

to

kill

the

tumor

from

inside

out
.


Nanoparticles

as Sensors and
Therapeutics

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Glutathione (GSH) provides a selective and tunable release
mechanism



Once inside cells,
fluorophores

and drugs selectively dissociate


Nanoparticle

Success


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Both

cationic

and

anionic

particles

penetrate

and

accumulate

in

tumors
.


However,

only

cationic

particles

diffuse

fully

throughout

the

tumor
.


Types of contrast agents used
for MRI

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Contrast agents used for MRI

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Advantages and applications



Diagnosis

using

nanomedicine


Nervous

system

tracking



Drugs

dispersion


Artificial

antibodies
.



One

of

the

biggest

advantage

of

naonoemdicne

is

that

it

can

transform

common

medical

procedures

into


faster

one

with

90

percent

accuracy

rate
.



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Diagnosis using
nanomedicine


Diagnostic

nano
-
apparatus

could

be

attached

to

keep

check

of

the

internal

chemistry

of

the

body
.




Mobile

nanorobots
,

with

wireless

transmitters,

could

easily

circulate

in

the

blood

and

lymph

systems

and

send

out

alerts

when

chemical

imbalances

appear

within

the

blood
.



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Drugs and contrast agents


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Detection of Cancer

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Breast Cancer Cells

Healthy Cells


On
the left, cancer
cells fluorescence.


On the right, healthy cells show minimal fluorescence.

Nervous system tracking


Nanomedicine

has

also

helped

doctors

to

better

understand

the

phenomenal

changes

in

the

human

nervous

systems
.




Fixed

nanomachines

could

be

inserted

in

the

nervous

system

of

the

human

body

to

monitor

pulse

rate,

brain

activity,

and

other

important

functions
.


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Drugs dispersion


Live

saving

drugs

are

one

of

the

important

ingredients

in

the

latest

medicines

but

its

unusual

and

excess

usage

could

cause

death
.




Nanomedicine

also

has

successful

applications

for

the

reduction

of

extra

drugs

from

human

body
.



Implantation

of

nanomedicine

devices

could

disperse

drugs

or

hormones

as

required

in

people

with

chronic

imbalance

or

deficiency

states
.

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Nanomedicine

platform for
targeted drug delivery

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Artificial antibodies


Nanomedicine

was

the

first

to

conceptualize

the

artificial

red

and

white

blood

cells

and

later

on

it

successfully

showed

the

positive

results
.



Cancer

patients

are

now

treated

by

injecting

artificial

red

blood

cells

to

balance

the

human

body

blood

level
.




Artificial

antibodies,

white

&

red

blood

cells

and

antiviral

nanorobots

could

be

considered

as

successful

applications

of

nanomedicine
.

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Nanorobots


Imagine

going

to

the

doctor

to

get

treatment

for

a

persistent

fever
.



Instead

of

giving

a

pill

or

a

shot,

the

doctor

refers

you

to

a

special

medical

team

which

implants

a

tiny

robot

into

your

bloodstream
.



The

robot

detects

the

cause

of

your

fever,

travels

to

the

appropriate

system

and

provides

a

dose

of

medication

directly

to

the

infected

area
.



To

treat

everything

from

hemophilia

to

cancer
.



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Nanorobots


A

viable

nanorobot

has

to

be

small

enough

to

navigate

through

the

human

circulatory

system,

an

incredibly

complex

network

of

veins

and

arteries
.




The

nanorobot

must

also

have

the

capacity

to

carry

medication

or

miniature

tools
.




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Nanorobot

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Advantages of
Nanoscale

devices in Medicine



Devices

smaller

than

50

nm

can

easily

enter

most

cells



Devices

smaller

than

20

nm

can

transit

out

of

blood

vessels



Devices

are

capable

of

holding

thousands

of

small

molecules



Contrast

Agents



Drugs



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Major Areas of Development
of
Nanomedicine





Prevention and control



Early detection



Imaging diagnostics



Multifunctional Therapeutics


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Medicines research

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Thank You

e
-
mail:
nanjwadebk@gmail.com

Cell No: 0091 9742431000

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15 February 2013