GENERAL REPORT OF THE 1 NUR INTERANTIONAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CONFERENCE 2008

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GENERAL REPORT OF THE
1
st

NUR
INTERANTIONAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
CONFERENCE

2008

















Compiled by:









Dr.Safari Bonfils


2

Plenary sessions

Day1: Tuesday October 21, 2008


Prof. Musahara Herman, Dean Faculty of Economy an
d Management, N.U.R.

“Social Sciences and Development: Improving research Link to policy for Development”

Definition of Social Sciences
-

Before all science = Philosophy
-

evolution of Social
Sciences


Inter and Cross Disciplinarity


Development and Par
adoxes


Cause of
poverty: colonialism/imperialism, Structural adjustment, Good Governance


Policy


Research


Policy and Research. The role of Universities in Research: Research to have
ability to impact on Policy and Policy Decision Makers.


Prof. Ken
t Nnadozie,

Centre for Intellectual Property Policy

Faculty of Law, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

“Intellectual Property Rights and Research”

Why is intellectual property protected and who benefits?
-
How intellectual property is
protected? Law and Tec
hnology
-

IP considerations in research stages
-

what
are the key
challenges for Public Research?
IP for diffusion of Technology & Research Results
-

Establishing IP Policy & Carrying out IP Audit


The Role of Government

IP regimes are a Tool for overall ec
onomic policy and goals should determine how they
are used;
Appropriate
IP

regime
s

could

help a country tap resources sustainably and
also
strengthen incentives for innovation.


Day2: Wednesday October 22, 2008


Keynote adress by Prof. Tuomo Kauranne,
Laa
penranta University of Technology,
Finland

“The role of Mathematics in the estimation of CO
2

sink forests”

Laser measurements and satellite measuremets of forest occupation are compared using
biyesian statistics to estimate CO
2

reservoires.


Invited speech

by Prof. Venkat Bokka,

“A New Method for Multi
-
Sensor Fusion In Robot Localization Using Wireless Sensor
Networks And Extended Kalman Filter”

Mr B.Venkat, Mr. B. Uday Kumar,
Ms. B.Pavani

Robot Localization problem is the fundamental problem in making rob
ot truly
autonomous. The robots have to use sensors, instruments and environmental information
to find its location. There is an existence of errors in both the measurements, whi
ch
results in inaccurate localization. This uncertain information needs to be
combined in an
optimal way to obtain the best state estimates i.e. location and head angle. Sensor fusion
provides techniques to combine information from different sensors in providing a best
estimate of the robot's state.
The uncertain information from di
fferent sensors can be
fused by extended
K
alman filter.



3

In the study presented, the localization problem is discussed as a case of state estimation
problem and the optimal solution to estimate the state is implemented using Extended
Kalman Filter
.

Kalman

Filters are a classical approach to estimating states of noisy
systems in noisy environments. The localization is achieved using a wireless sensors
network (Zigbee protocol). For each sensor node response, the system produces a time
-
stamped distance estim
ate to the responding node. The distance estimate is an integer
estimate of the distance between the robot and the sensor node in feet.


Algorithms that solve the localization problem combine initial information and relative
and absolute position measureme
nts to form estimates of the location of the robot at a
certain time. Together the sensors can provide a more complete picture of a scene at a
certain time. Multi
-
sensor fusion is also important since it can reduce the effects of errors
in measurements. In

this paper the algorithm used to fuse is Extended Kalman Filter.
The
nonlinear system and measurement models are discussed and the behavior of the
extended kalman filter for irregular and circular paths is observed using Matlab.


Panel presentation: Prof.

Shyaka Anastase, Director of CCM
-

N.U.R.

“Impact Assessment on the Sudents’ Loan Scheme by
the Students Financing Agency
for Rwanda

SFAR on Higher Education Development in Rwanda”

Prof. SHYAKA Anastase, Mr. MUSAFIRI Elly, Mr. MUTWARASIBO Ernest


The pre
senter introduced the study by saying that since the 1980s, Rwandan government
has been providing loans to Rwandan students to study in national and international
Institutions of Higher Learning to support them in accommodation, feeding and health
insuranc
e facilities. Since the creation of the National Universit
y of Rwanda (NUR) and
other higher institutions of learning in Rwanda, there have been various changes in the
administering and management of the loan scheme. In 2004, the Government of Rwanda
estab
lished the Student Financing Agency for Rwanda (SFAR) to make Students Loan
Scheme better operational, with the mission to continue the delivery of the loans and to
recover the funds from those who were given loans in the past. Late November 2007 a
new mec
hanism for the Students Loan Scheme was implemented by the Ministry of
Education and SFAR for proper delivery of the loans.


The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of SFAR on Rwandan higher education
system and to suggest recommendations for bette
r service quality delivery by SFAR. The
paper also shows the socio
-
economic background and demographic characteristics of
NUR students in the different
Fa
culties. In the study, an assessment of the impact of the
new changes in the Students Loan Scheme on h
igher education development in Rwanda
was done, focusing on the case of NUR.


Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were applied in data collection and
interpretation. Data gathering techniques were questionnaires and semi
-
structured
interviews. A q
uestionnaire was administered to 400 NUR students from different
faculties and randomly selected. For interviewees, they were all purposively selected. The
study was conducted from February to August 2008.



4

Findings revealed that students who are partially

supported by SFAR may have
difficulties in paying their contribution since majority come from low income earning
families. There have been impacts on the students’ academic, social and economical ways
of living during the beginning of the academic year an
d socio
-
economic ways of living
are not conducive. The majority NUR students supported by SFAR come from low
income earning families, vulnerable families and some are orphans.


In their conclusion, the authors said that the new mechanism has not been prop
erly
implemented and has created negative impact on the students’ welfare system, especially
to those who are partially supported. This is also worsened by the delay of the students’
bursary.
The study was conducted in a team and the main recommendation is

that
consultation between policy makers and concerned students and other stakeholders
should be done before any decision be taken ( for scholarship/student’s loan).


Key note Adress by,
Vice Rector Academic Affairs and Research
,
ILPD/Institute of
Legal Pr
actice and Development, Nyanza
.


“Bridging Legal Gaps: Attracting the World to Rwanda through Legal Research”

Dr. Roelof H. Haveman


How legal research in Rwanda can be structured, in order to gain a more significant
position in the world
. There is a need
to make choices regarding:
Research topics

-

Research methodology

-

Legal education



Cooperation
.

A list of research topics was mentionned: Common and Civil Law, Gacaca, Rule of Law,
Universal jurisdiction, (Prevention of) genocide, Public International L
aw/International
Criminal Law, e
tc
...

Dr Francois Naramabuye, Director of CEED (N.U.R.)

Presentation of the

Centre for Environment, Entrepreurship and Sustainable
Development (CEE
S
D) of the N.U.R.


Day3: Thursday October 23, 2008


15:30 Prof. Luhandjula J
ean
-
Pierre, UNISA.

“Relationships between Markov process, Semi
-
groups

and Partial Differential
Equations”

Mathematics is used in solving problems in current life. Among other applications are:
Queue models

-

Games model

-

Inventory

model
.

Prof. Hans Egneus
,
Hans Egneus, Section of Human Ecology, School of Global
Studies, University of Göteborg, Sweden

“Is

transdisciplinary research and learning a solution to Rwandan sustainability and
environmental problems?


The presenter introduced two problems:

Problem1
:

What characterizes ”todays” sustainability and environmental: They were
generally not foreseen and the causes, effects and solutions are complex; many of the
problems can not be observed by man, but be described by scientists (leads to
controversies). T
hey can be risks for all sectors of the society. Need a long term time
perspective, scale matters.



5

Problem2
: What characterizes todays sustainability and environmental:

They are
manifestations of a specific stage in a global development; they are mainly d
riven by
economic, scientific and technological development; they are a part of the new economy,
with a dominace of neoliberal economy i.e market oriented. All these have lead to the
creation of new organisations and systems to tackle the problems. Solutio
ns are mostly
based on ”expert systems” and top down designed models. Lead to complexity in
governance situations.

The production of knowledge is characterise by:

-

The
Context;

-

Disciplinary base
;

-

A s
ocial organization
;

-

Reflexivity
;

-


Accountability
;

-

Quality
control


There two modes for each characteristic:






Context

Mode1:
Academic context, norms of basic research. Research driven by the interests of
the academic community, practical outcome not necessary

Mode2:

Research intended to be useful for society (
read the “people”), government and
industry. Organized around problems and “issues”. Knowledge production is produced
in cooperation or negotiation between stakeholders with different interests


Disciplinary base


Mode1:

Knowledge production consistent w
ith disciplinary context. Distinction between
theory and application
.

Mode2:

Knowledge production transdisciplinary. Integrating different skills and social
norms of various stakeholders. Consensus oriented. Dynamic interaction between theory
and applicati
on
.


Social organization

Mode1:

Institutionalized based on universities and colleges, limited disciplinary
cooperation. Research teams discipline based and long term

Mode2:

Knowledge production takes place in diverse contexts, including universities,
non
univeristy research, government agencies, NGOs, industry, consultancies.

Research
teams often transitory, includes people with a large range of expertise and knowledge.
Team composition problem dependent
.



Reflexivity



6

Mode1:

Autonomous,

Mode2:

Dialogic
process, capacity to incorporate multiple views
.


Accountability

Mode1:

Peer accountability. The scientist is expert, disseminating knowledge to a general
(and often ) uniformed public (politicians ??).

Mode2:

Social accountability typical for the whole r
esearch and knowledge production
process. The research process involves a multitude of different stakeholders.


Quality control

Mode1:

Quality based on scientific excellence. Peer review. Key issue contribution to
own discipline

Mode2:

Quality based on dif
ferent criteria reflecting the social interests and composition
of the review system. It is context and use dependent and reflexive and adaptive to local
contexts and societal changes


Some Arguments for Trans/Inter
-
disciplinarity



As problems are increasin
gly complex and interdepedent, they cannot not be
tackled isolated in one sector or discipline (cf the Millenium Assessment)



Problems are often ”ill
-

structured” (poverty eradication, climate change)



Transdisciplinarity can ideally break free of reduction
istic and mechanistic
assumptions about the ways ”things” are connected



Modern solutions should at the best be based on a scientific practice that can
handle uncertainity, non
-
linearity and value plurality of different stakeholders



Modern solutions should

also have a capacity to support policy makers



Should be able to handle the ”information” explosion



Should be able to handle situations where there are different perspectives on an
observed problem


Taxonomy of Interdisciplinarity

1.Multidisciplinary rese
arch and learning
:
Research that involves several fields in a
loose way or to a restricted extent. The major part of research activities is carried out in a
disciplinary
fashion. There are t
hree subcategories
:


a. Encyclopedic multidisciplinarity
:



Projec
ts or activities that cross field boundaries (joint seminars, anthologies, journals,
courses, curricula) without any influence on field
-
specific knowledge production.
Researchers appear as experts in their fields, they are often invited as representatives
of

that body of knowledge. Such experts are “givers,” not “takers.” A coordinating routine
or

person is needed for combining the results.


b. Contextualising multidisciplinarity
:



Projects or activities in which knowledge produced within other fields is

taken into


7

account when identifying research and learning goals.
Besides this, research is

disciplinary.


c. Composite multidisciplinarity
:


Projects or activities in which complementary skills are used to tackle complex problems

or to achieve a shared

goal. Knowledge production is primarily disciplinary or
contextually

multidisciplinary, but research results are integrated
within a shared framework.

Interdisciplinary research and learning
.


Research that is based on active interaction across fields. T
his interaction takes place in

the framing of research/learning problems, the execution of research/learning, and the

formulation and analysis of results. There are t
hree subcategories:


a. Empirical interdisciplinarity
:


Empirical results are gathered f
rom several fields in order to test a hypothesis, answer a

Research/learning question, and/or develop a theory.


b. Methodological interdisciplinarity
:


Methods from different fields are combined in order to test a hypothesis, answer a

Research/learning

question, and/or develop a theory.


c. Theoretical interdisciplinarity
:


Cross
-
field integration at the level of concepts, models, hypotheses, and theory. The

outcome is a theoretical synthesis or an integrative framework. In some cases, this

framework

becomes institutionalized as a field or formalized as a discipline,
subdiscipline

or widely applied methodological orientation.


Interdisciplinarity and Production of Knowledge


Reconfiguration

means that interdisciplinary work reconfigures disciplinary
and
professional knowledge and knowledge communities so that theories and research areas
are reshaped. The appropriate approach to judging quality and success for
reconfiguration is not to impose standard assumptions, but to insert an interdisciplinary
-
spe
cific discourse into the ideology of excellence (Klein 1996:210f, referring to Messer
-
Davidow).


Broadening

means that whereas disciplinary work is “deepening” knowledge,
interdisciplinary work is “broadening” knowledge (by taking into account more
variabl
es, more methods, more viewpoints, more perspectives and more theories (cf.
Klein 1996:212).



8

Synthesis

means that interdisciplinarity produces new knowledge. The core criterion of
synthesis is the generation of new coherent knowledge (such as theory and c
oncepts) out
of two or more qualitatively different types of knowledge. The epistemic rules for this
process are not yet sufficiently described.



Barriers to inter and transdisciplinary research and learning

Structural barriers, re. organizational structu
re of science, including mechanisms that
build the organizations, attitudes of organizations

2. Knowledge barriers, lack of “understanding” about other disciplines and their way of
doing research and teaching. The concept of “knowledge deficit”.

3. Cultura
l barriers, cultural characteristics of different fields of enquiry e.g how
language and argumentation is used. The problems of meaning of words and terms and
borrowing of words and terms across fields. Value differences as barrier forming.

4. Epistemolog
ical barriers, how disciplines look upon the world and how one looks
upon production of knowledge.

5. Methodological barriers, different styles in undertaking an inquiry. Often very
difficult to overcome because disciplinary assessment is tied to this (pee
r review
system). Note the closeness to the epistemological dimension.

6. Psychological barriers, a researcher and teacher might have developed and made an
intellectual investment in a discipline or field. To change the then achieved attitudes will
be diff
icult without and outright support to do so. How to work with others is often more
of a psychological problem than disciplinary. If you get marginalized when participating
in interdisciplinary research, why continue ?


7. Reception barriers, how results ar
e communicated and received by an audience which
does not see the value of interdisciplinarity. This barrier is important as it reflects on the
evaluation dimension of produced knowledge. Close related to the peer review issue in
assessing quality.


Themes

in inter/trans
-
disciplinary education
.





Design curricula and courses which
integrate

knowledge from several disciplines.
Can take place at all levels in the education system.





Design or implement courses aiming at giving
broad general

knowledge,
general
ly more multi
-
disciplinary than interdisciplinary




Focus on transmitting or promoting integrative skills to participants




Incorporate diversity, traditional knowledge and global perspectives in education




Develop, promote or build new learning communities
, for example non
-
formal
education



Introduce and transfer knowledge from interdisciplinary production and
dissemination of knowledge to various disciplinary efforts



9



Connect and link courses from different disciplines with an intent of promoting
trans
-

i
nter
-

or multi
-
disciplinary concepts and method




Working on developing methods specifically aiming at integrating of knowledge


Global Challenges to Sustainable Development

1. Sustainable development for all

2. Democracy a necessity ?

3. Can we have globa
l policies ?

4. Can we make technology, information communication work for all ?

5. How can we reduce poverty with economic systems ?

6. How to tackle emerging remerging diseases ?

7. How can we change institutions to the sustainability dilemma ?

8. Can a
changed status of women improve the human condition ?

9. Can we bring population growth and resource use into “ balance”

10. What is the effect of new wars and new types of conflicts on sustainable
development



10

Parallel session
1
:
Social Sciences and Huma
nities


Day

One
:

21
st

October 2008


Chair:
Prof Déo BYANAFASHE, Dean Faculty of Arts and Humanities, NUR.


R
eporters:

Dr BAIG and Dr JONAS.


Time:
14 hrs to 17.30 hrs.


Table:

Topic to be presented.


ITEM.

TOPIC OF PAPER.

AUTHOR(S).

PRESENTER(S).

1

Develo
pment of qualitative legal education in
Rwanda.


Jawahari
S.

Kayihura D.

Kayihura D.

2

Un modèle d’unité et de diversité

:

le cercle
herméneutique de l’éthique et la culture
traditionnelle rwandaises
.

Murenzi J.


Not presented

3

Achieving democratic educ
ation in Africa
throu
gh

learner
-
centered pedagogy: the
challenge of transition and student assessment

Okenyi S.


Not presented

COFFE BREAK

4

Household food security predictive
purposes and automated systems adopting
case from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda
f
or Rwanda

Masanja V.G.

Mugabo Ph.

Masanja V.G.

Mugabo Ph.

5

Effectiveness of corporate Planning
-
A
case study of Rwanda R
e
venu
e

Authority

Rao Rama R.

Kamanzi M.



Rao Rama R.

Kamanzi M.




11


Presentation 1




Development of qualitative legal education in R
wanda


Ms. Jawahari sudharsanam, Mr.Didace Kayihura
.


In the
ir

study, an attempt
was

made
by the authors
to look at the relationship between
legal education, rule of law and sustainable development. An attempt
was

made to
identify parameters for qualitati
ve legal education in Rwanda.


According to the presenter, democratic institutions are natured by legal education and
there are parameters of qualitative education including: rule of law for sustainable
development; training of lawyers; suitable curriculu
m for the training of lawyers;
individuals who intend to become lawyers, politicians, etc; rule of law for sustainable
development.


While looking at the content and methods of legal education in Africa, it should be borne
in mind about the diversity of Af
rican legal system. A survey about African institutions’
legal education showed that there was persistence in Anglophonic.


In legal education, there are different methods of lecturing: case method and problem
method. Case
method

is a technique, in vogue i
n legal education and was introduced by
Prof Lang. It focuses on real method situation and guided by field instructors to develop
students for professional life; while problem method and lectures supplements to lecture
method. It focuses on methods student
s and teaches how to solve problem. These
methods, any one or all, can be supplemented to the lecture method which is to be student
centered and should be supported by: l
egal research
; f
actual investigation
;
c
ommunication
; c
ounseling
; n
egotiation
.


Student
s have to have the ability: to analyze and find solution for ethical
dilemma, etc.
; to
promote justice, fairness and morality; to improve profession; professional self
development.


Unlike in majority of East African countries, the Rwandan system so far is

inspired by
Belgium system.

The Faculty of Law began working since Oct 1973 at the NUR. With
the introduction of reforms a new name was given to the program. i.e. the Bachelor of
Laws that is equivalent to Licence.


To strengthen the Faculty of Law the N
PT/NUFFIC project partnership was made. The
new curriculum was developed with the introduction of new courses. At each completion
of each year a certificate and diploma might be granted.


The audience noticed also a number of activities involving the Facul
ty of Law: a
n ad hoc
Law reform Commission

mandated to propose an act for the organization and jurisdiction
for the courts of judicature; an act related to the code of ethics; a Criminal Prosecution
Authority.


12


The second International Conference on Rwanda

Law Revision took place in 2003. The object of
the conference was to develop a frame work of judicial reforms in Rwanda. After that conference
a number of activities were initiated: basic legal education was made and skills required initiated;
fast track

judicial system; Law Reform Commission; Internal legal Assistance Consortium was
invited and Rwanda Bar Association also helped to provide legal professional practice. In 2006
an Institute for Law Practice was established in 2006.

Thought there is a signi
ficant improvement, the presenter mentioned that
till now the
country doesn’t have
a P
ermanent
L
aw
C
ommission.


After this historical overview of the Faculty of Law and the judiciary system in Rwanda,
the presenter made some recommendations amongst:


-

There

is a need to insist upon attendance for requisite of lecturers, tutorials, moot courts
and practical training given by the faculty;

-

Apart from training in professional skills, legal training should be implemented;

-

Good infrastructure is required;

-

Law scho
ols should develop their own strategies; etc.

At the end of the presentation,
participants appreciated the effort done by the Faculty of
Law and recognized this Faculty is

capable now of doing very well, given resources
available and opportunities existing
.


Presentation
2


“Household food security predictive purposes and automated systems adopting case
from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda for Rwanda”

Prof. MASANJA V.G., Mr. MUGABO Ph., National University of Rwanda.



T
he general objective of this study

was
to

use existing data from Lake Victoria Basin,
to
develop predictive purpose and automated models on food security and use the models to
predict household food
expenditures (HFE) of the nine districts in Kenya, Tanzania, and
Uganda, and base on this to do si
mulations for Rwanda.


For that purpose, d
ata were collected in three countries: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.
Among many indicators, the authors selected indicators closely related to food security at
the household level.


The following hypothesis was giv
en:
household food expenditures depend on household
income and the size of household.

The variables were:


-

Annual Household (HH) food expenditures (AHFE)


13

-

Household size

-

Annual Household net income (AHNI)

The predictive models have been constructed

contro
lling HH food expenditure as
function of HH size and HH net income.

To test the model fitness
a
nalysis of variance
(ANOVA) have been computed using SPSS software, and the fisher test results that the
model is efficacy in the studied area. Regression coeffi
cients have been tested using t
-
test
(student test); and the test show that the HH size and HH income are sufficient to
characterize food expenditure in the studied area.
T
hose coefficients have the following
implication:

-

One percent increase in food expen
diture leads to an expected increase of 0.5% in
net income of the HH.

-

One percent increase in food expenditure leads to an expected decrease of 0.4% in
size of the HH.

But to have an automation of the support system for the model, the authors needed to
sea
rch

the environment for conditions calling for decisions
. R
aw data
was

obtained,
processed, and examined for clues that m
a
y identify problems
. Next,
Inventing,
developing and analysing possible courses of action

and t
his involves processes to
understand th
e problem, generate solutions, and test solutions for feasibility.
Finally an
action was
chosen

and implemented.
After
classifying Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda HHs
into HH categories

and making a
General architecture for our DSS

the authors were able
make de
cision at the District Council Level in Rwanda.


At the district level, the IDSC

(information decision support centre) must be guided by
three strategic objectives
:



-

First
,

development of information and decision support systems (IS/DSS) for the
district
council.

-

Second
,

supporting the establishment of end
-
user managed information and
decision support centres in the individual centres.

-

Third and more indirect was to encourage, support, and initiate informatics
projects that would accelerate the development

of Rwanda local government
framework. To achieve these strategic objectives, a tri
-
level architecture for
information infrastructure and decision support is conceived: IDSC level, District
nodes level and National level.

Finally, the presenter said that t
he findings reveal that:



-

HH size and annual HH income if taken together have an influence on annual HH
food expenditures.

-

O
ne can build a DSS basing on the multiple regression output hence DSS shows
that more than 30% of responding HH in Kenya, Uganda a
nd Tanzania are
average food secure.

-

The DSS built for Rwanda local government leaders is applicable to help districts
to manage the state of being of its population by planning for hunger that can
occur at a certain time during the year, due to different
factors.

Therefore, the following conclusion was drawn by the authors:


14


-

Only three variables (food expenditure, HH income, size of HH) are needed to
enable decision of whether a HH is food secure or not. It is easy to collect data on
daily basis on the 3
variables without incurring expenses as this can be done by
IMIDUGUDU leaders as their routine weekly duties without additional costs.

-

These data can then be used in the Decision Support System by the local leaders
who
do not
need
to
know much about comput
ing and it is powerful in giving
warning on monthly basis on the food security /insecurity of household in each
UMUDUGUDU, then at district level to know the status of HH food security/
insecurity and take appropriate steps.

-

Districts in Rwanda are in the
process of implementing a
N
ational
L
evel
D
ata
collection system (now i
n

preparation)
these three variables could be included so
that the DSS can fit well as one of the tools to combat poverty at HH level.

At the end of the presentation, questions were rai
sed by participants:

-

About the three variables, particularly about food which is perishable. This variable
would a problematic to make a predictive model.

-

To know how those three variables could be related

-

At what degree

one can appreciate the food securi
ty

-

Either focusing on supply or demand: the problem is to access to the food. So, how can
this mathematical model solve this problem?

The presenter answered to those questions and comments saying that, the data were
collected from rural area. There were se
venteen variables. What this model is doing is to
reduce all these variables: outcome indicators and process indicators. It was mentioned
that things have been chosen so that they could deal with this subject. The relationship

between variables is about fo
od security and food security is measured by calculating
calories availability (reference to FAO standard).


Presentation
3


“Effectiveness of corporate Planning
-
A case study of Rwanda Revenue Authority”

Prof Rao RAMA & Mr Emmanuel KAMANZI


The presenter
started by explaining how Corporate Planning is important for an
organization. However, he indicated
there has been no substantive evidence resulting
from a scientific study analyzing the effectiveness of corporate planning in Rwanda
Revenue Authority

and
that h
opefully the current study w
ould

open the doors for a
variety of them.
E
ffectiveness of corporate planning can be measured by making a
descriptive study or analysis of what has been planned, how it was implemented and the
results obtained. Th
at could

be viewed in terms of the amount of revenue collected,
service delivery standards, financial management systems, Internal Business Processes
and satisfaction of customer and stakeholders’ requirements in comparison with the
targets.


The general objective
s of the study were : t
o understand the nature, process and
implementation of corporate planning in Rwanda Revenue Authority
; t
o determine the

15

effectiveness of corporate planning in Rwanda Revenue Authority
; t
o offer solutions and
recommendations in fillin
g the gaps for an effective corporate Planning
.


The study aims to answer to the following se questions:


a)

What is the concept of corporate planning?

b)

What is the corporate planning process of Rwanda Revenue Authority?

c)

How is RRA corporate plan implemented?

d)

Is RRA corporate planning function, a key factor to its better performance?

e)

To what extent does corporate planning contribute to the performance of RRA?

The study was supported by the methodological approach:


-

Due to the nature of
the
research and to ensu
re that the whole population was
represented, a population
sample of
46

respondents was selected from all
departments; this sample is made up of all senior managers of RRA that is from
Grade 7
-

Highest grade.

-

Purposive sampling techniques w
ere

used to choo
se respondents who met the
purpose of the study. Senior managers of RRA were preferred because they are
the ones who ensure the daily follow up of the authority activities.

-

Concerning the documents and interviews, purposive sampling technique again
was use
d to select the documents which were found relevant to the study.

-

Documentary review was the technique applied to analyze the secondary data
while questionnaires were used to collect opinions of respondents about corporate
planning in RRA. An interview sch
edule was further used for this endeavour.


Concerning the findings, the presenter said that data
were

analyzed and discussed under
specific issues that formed the focus of the study. Findings were presented and analyzed
in details following the objective
s of the study in relation to the theoretical framework
.


The great importance of corporate planning to RRA was revealed by the highest
percentage of
91.3%

of the total respondents in support of corporate planning based on
facts that it enables the institu
tion to meet deadlines of activities, ensure efficient
reporting and better performance of the institution as a whole.

Then, t
he progressive
positive performance registered by RRA in achieving the tax revenue targets of 118.7 b,
136.0b, 173.4b, 198.2b and
252.6b
over

the targets of 112.4b, 126.3b, 150.3b, 176.6b and
220b in the year 2003
-
2007 respectively was mainly due to its
harmonized Corporate
Planning approach

that ensures effective monitoring, specific reporting timelines to each
activity and departme
nt and evaluation mechanisms of the daily Authority operations.



The presenter concluded saying that the purpose of the

study was to analyze the
effectiveness of corporate planning

in RRA. The research was focused on the
measurement of effectiveness of
C
o
rporate
P
lanning in RRA in order to find out whether
it can be recommendable to other institutions to use it.

He mentioned that the
Corporate
P
lanning is
nothing but everything
, but that
corporate planning alone d
idn’t

produce
better results;
it

wa
s a mean
s not an end in itself.




16

At the end of the presentation, the presenter gave the following recommendations:


-

Intensive trainings

on corporate planning was still highly required to the
employees which could enable them to carry out their corporate plans wit
h much
skill, knowledge and expertise well knowing the future orientation of the
institution;

-

RRA corporate plans should be
communicated

to all concerned employees who
later implemented them instead of being communicated to the heads of
departments and div
isions;

-

Avoiding
constant self assessment

which may be biased and hiring outsiders for
the assessment of the institutional performance as justified by majority
respondents when asked on what can be done for corporate planning to be
effective.

-

Corporate pla
nning in RRA should
strengthen tax education

and taxpayer services
among major priorities so as to encourage customer compliance.



Participants congratulated the presenter for the study and for his good presentation

and
said that planning was indispensabl
e because it is a part of management function and
what is a needed to study as separate function. Other participants said that while
Corporate Planning is an important management function, there are some authors who
criticize this management function becau
se of uncertainty that characterizes
organizational environment. The presenter concluded the presentation saying that actually
as he mentioned it Corporate Planning was nothing but everything.


17

Parallel session
1
:
Social Sciences and Humanities


Day

Two
:

2
2
nd

October 2008


Chair:
Prof.
Musahara Herman, Dean of Faculty of Economy and Management


R
eporters:

Dr BAIG and Dr JONAS.


Time:
14 hrs to 17.30 hrs.


Table:

Topic to be presented.


ITEM.

TOPIC OF PAPER.

AUTHOR(S).

PRESENTER(S).

1

Motivation at work in

context of change: case
of ministry of education

Serupia S
. E.

Serupia S
. E.

2

Is human development paradigm a realistic
one in relation to sub Saharan Africa?

Ndahiriwe
I.

Ndahiriwe
I.

3

Childhood sexual abuse in female university
students

Igiraneza G
.

Kakoma J
.
B
.

Igiraneza G
.

Kakoma J
.
B
.
,

COFFEE BREAK

4

Rwandan political culture: pilot study of
the southern province

Gasana C.

Paul R.

Martin M.

François M.

Pierre Claver R. Eric N.


Martin M.


5

The Effects of blended learning
technology among the Stu
dents and
Lecturers at the National University of
Rwanda

Pavalam SM

Jawahar M

Felix K. A.

Pavalam SM





18

Presentation 1



“Motivation at work in context of change: case of ministry of education”

Dr. Serupiya Etienne, Faculty of Social Sciences and Politic
al Administration, National
University of Rwanda.


At the starting of his presentation, the author said that he had been willing to make a
study about motivation at work since a long time ago. His environmental work led him to
do research this research in
order to comprehend this matter. The theoretical approach of
this study was supported by motivational approaches and management strategies.


Motivational theories include theory of content (referring to Maslov’s theory of
motivation) explained by pyramid o
f needs (come first physiological needs, then social
needs followed by security needs, then esteem needs). There are also theories of process
which explain that motivation depends on the kind of organization. According to these
theories, environmental aspe
cts will impact employee’s motivation. Four sorts of needs
are distinguished: success needs, power needs, autonomy needs, relationship needs, etc.


The presenter said that cognitive models attempted also to explain motivation in saying
that motivation depe
nds on three factors: the employee’s expectation (in terms of what he
will obtain after achieving his work), the value that the employee gives to the
reward/salary, and the fair system of rewarding. These theories, according to the
presenter do not explain

very well motivation. He said that some leadership would hinder
motivation.


About Management strategies, the presenter distinguished relationship between:

-

Motivation and leadership;

-

Motivation and reward;

-

Motivation and evaluation;

-

Motivation and communi
cation;

-

Motivation and tasks enrichment;

-

Motivation and cultural factors

This study was carried out in Rwandan context: 9 millions of habitants, life span 47 years
for women and 44 years for men and GDP 893 USD/habitant.



Considering this context, researc
h questions were:

-

Does motivation depend on how people live?

-

What are the sources of motivation?

-

Does motivation depend on the difference between people?

-

How to assess motivation?

The study was supported by this hypothesis:



19

-

Motivation depends on personal

features;

-

There is relationship between motivation and environmental factors;

-

The kind of leadership impacts motivation;

To very those hypotheses, a qualitative method was used. The study revealed that there
were some factors which could reduce motivation
: salary, training (people said that only
educated employees were granted other training), the kind of work, tasks diversification,
etc. Moreover the kind of leadership could hinder motivation. But, personal
characteristics could also hinder motivation: th
e more employees were educated, the less
they were motivated (because they expected more), executives, women and technicians
employees were generally demotivated.

At the end the presenter made some recommendations:

-

Improvement of salary conditions;

-

Get ri
d of routine activities;

-

Give opportunities for training and promotion;

-

Fair evaluation;

-

Improve organizational communication and collaboration between employees;

-

Define clearly objectives,

-

Etc.

Presentation 2



Is human development paradigm a realistic o
ne in relation to sub Saharan Africa?”

Mr. Ndahiriwe innocent, Faculty of Social Sciences and political Administration,
National University of Rwanda.


The presenter introduced his presentation by asking some questions: To what extent are
the Millennium de
velopment goals a reality for Sub
-
Saharan Africa? Is there any need for
a new development approach that is specific for Sub
-
Saharan Africa?

According to the presenter, the theme that continues to run through was that sustainable
development in Africa stil
l remained at minimum levels. He added that according to
Chambers, the majority of households especially those in the rural areas, tended to be
stuck in the “deprivation trap” the elements of which include Poverty, Physical weakness,
vulnerability, isolati
on, and powerlessness.


The objectives of this study were:


-

To clarify the concept of development, what it means and its relation to human
development.

-

To clarify the human development paradigm, what it means and the components
of the paradigm.

-

To examine

the necessity for a new development paradigm for Sub
-
Saharan
Africa

According to the presenter the development perspective was a rational view. He said that
there were as many perspectives, visions ideas, reflections, theories and discourses on
developmen
t. Each claimed to offer prescriptions that would lead to human wellbeing;
but by all accounts, human societies continue as they were. And, given this serious

20

contradiction there were an urgent need for critical reflection on development both in
theory and

as practice.

Anyway, he said development must have at least three major goals:

-

To reduce poverty, and raise the standard of living of millions of people living in
poverty.

-

To expand the range of choices open to people so that they may choose more
satisfyi
ng lives.

-

To enhance the capabilities of people so that they may come closer to fulfilling
their potential.

-

Genuine human development fulfills the needs of self identity, self
-
worth,
creativity, self expression and personal freedom.

Considering the human d
evelopment as paradigm and referring to UNDP, the presenter
said that
there are four essential components of the human development paradigm
namely:

-

Productivity, which means the enhancement of people’s productivity and their full
participation in the proce
ss of income generation and remunerative employment.

-

Equity, means providing accessible equal opportunities by effectively eliminating
all barriers to economic and political participation.

-

Sustainability, which means ensuring that all forms of capital
-
phys
ical, human,
environmental should always be replenished.

-

Empowerment means development is by people, not only for them, but
participatory development.

However, according to the presenter, the Human development report, 2006, described a
grim picture in the
area of Water and Sanitation. The report mentioned that Sub
-
Saharan
Africa would reach the water target in 2040 and the Sanitation target in 2076. Sub
-
Saharan Africa to get on track, connection rates for water would have to rise from 10
million a year in t
he past decade to 23 million a year in the next decade. Access to water
and Sanitation equipped people to get themselves out of poverty, and to contribute to
National Prosperity. (HDR, 20006).


In conclusion, the presenter said that there was a need of hum
an development paradigm
that was specific for Sub
-
Saharan Africa. Each country would pursue a development
approach that met its specific needs. National strategies should be based on solid
evidence and proper monitoring and evaluation of development progra
ms. There should
be true ownership of National program appropriate to local conditions and politically
sustainable.


Presentation 3


“Childhood sexual abuse in female university students”

Igiraneza Grace, MD, Prof. Kakoma JB, Faculty of Medicine, Nation
al University of
Rwanda.



21


The presenter said that child sexual abuse

was a form of child abuse in which a child is
used for the sexual gratification or satisfaction of an adult or older adolescent. The
presenter added that the child sexual abuse was also
a use of a child for any form of
sexual activity or behavior by an adult or adolescent. It was a betrayal of trust by
someone who had power over the child. Any adult who was sexually abused as a child
was a survivor of childhood sexual abuse.

In Rwanda, in

consultations of obstetrics


gynecology department at CHUK :

-

2005, 690 consultations for sexual violence

;

-

2005, 690 consultations for sexual violence;

-

2007, 765 consultations;

-

2008 (from January to June) 137 cases


The objectives of this study were:

-

Assess the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among women university
students

-

Evaluate the relation between the perpetrator and the victim

-

Assess the long time effects of child abuse in adulthood

-

Evaluate circumstances of rape.

-

Determinate the averag
e age when abuse occurred

-

Determine the profile of the perpetrator.

The presenter said that methods used to achieve these objectives were:

-

Cross section and descriptive study

-

Population
: Participants in the current study included 185 undergraduate fema
le
students enrolled at National University of Rwanda

-

An anonymous
questionnaire was distributed

-

Data were collected by Epi data and analyzed by SPSS package


After investigation, the presenter said that he obtained these results:

-

Demographic pattern:


o

Th
e average age of the population was: 23.46 +/
-

2.53. the youngest being
20 years old and the oldest being 34 years.

o

Distribution according to the age:

of 185 students;

o


(73%) were 20
-

24 years old,

o

40 (21.6 %) were 25
-

28,

o

10 (5.4%) were more than 28

years.



-

Prevalence of rape and age at the time of victimization

o

Prevalence = 13.5


22

o

36% of the victims underwent the abuse when they were 11
-
15 years

The study showed also the effects of sexual abuse:

-

Clinical effects:

o

76% :burn sensation ,

o

60% : genital

bleeding,

o

24 %: pruritis and

o

8% : vaginal discharge.

o

Umurungi (2007) : 8.65% Trichomonas v. infection, 6.45% of
gonococcia, et 3.9% of association of the two above.

o

pregnancy

o


12 % in our study.

o

Umurungi (2007) : similar rate 13.3%

o

Recent ethiopian

survey on young girls who disclosed experiences of
being victims of rape found a rate of 17% of unwanted pregnancy


-

Psychological effects:

o

Freud, in 1896, was the first to make a link between CSA and mental
problems in adulthood

o

72% : fear of intimacy


o

68% : loss of trust in men

o

60% : loss of self esteem, and

o

28% : dyspareunia

o

Courtois (1988) : 40% of victims deal with:

o


inability to trust people, fear of intimacy, depression, suicidal thinking
and other destuctive behavior such as low self esteem,

guilt, anger,
isolation, and addictions (drugs or alcohol) .

Then, the presenter drawn conclusion:

-

Prevalence of CSA was 13,5%

-

The most targeted and vulnerable group was teenagers: 11 to 15 years girls (
36%), followed by those of 15 years and more ( 32
%)

-

56% of the perpetrators were known and close people to the victim ,family
members are involved in 16%

-

44% of the perpetrators were unknown

-

In most cases the abuse took place (76%) either to the perpetrator’s house (40%)
or to the victims’ (36%)

-

The u
se of weapon was also disclosed in 24% cases.

-

Unwanted pregnancy was revealed in 12% of all cases of CSA.

-

Clinical effects were reported suggesting the presence of genital infection and
trauma.

-

Psychological effects were the most prominent.

The present
er made recommendations including:



23

-

The prevalence of sexual victimization of women on college campuses suggests
the importance of continuing to identify correlates of female sexual victimization
among college students

-

Identifying relationships between ri
sk factors and various forms of sexual
aggression would allow for prevention programs to target directly variables
relevant to the population

-

There is a need of further studies on sexual violence.

-

Training medical personnel and social worker for a better m
anagement of victims
of sexual violence

-

Encourage reporting sexual abuse to the authorities


Presentation 4


“Rwandan political culture: pilot study of the southern province”

Mr C. GASANA, Mr Paul R., Mr Martin M., Mr François M. Mr Pierre Claver R. and M
r
Eric N.


The
overall objective of this pilot study was to generate scientific knowledge that would
shed some light on Rwandans’ attitudes toward the country’s political system and its
various parts and their attitudes toward the role of self in the syste
m, so that such
knowledge could serve as a reliable basis for designing future policies and appropriate
interventions in education for democracy, national unity and reconciliation. Thus, the
survey questionnaire used was structured around the conventional
areas of focus in
political culture studies, namely:





Participation related political socialization (decision making at family, school and
workplace levels);



Pride in the Nation and the political system;




Political information and opinion on politics and
Government affairs;



Participation to influence Government at local and central levels;



Social trust and the strategy of influence;



Impact of Government at local and central levels;




Partisanship.


The research was carried out in following sectors:
BUSASAMA
NA, BYIMANA,
KABAGARI, KADUHA, KAYENZI, KIBEHO, MUSHA, MUYIRA, NGOMA and
SAVE. Within each Sector, a minimum number of 45 persons aged 18 years and over
were selected and interviewed. The respondents were selected as follows: 5 political
leaders, 2 NGO mem
bers, 2 teachers (at every level of the education sector),4 persons
from religious groups, 2 businessmen/women, and at least 19 women were included in
the sample. To allow for reasonable diversity, where possible respondents were selected
from five differ
ent cells of each visited Sector. In total, around 9 respondents per cell
(Akagari) were interviewed. At the end the total number of respondents was 461.

Two training were carried out:




Training of Survey Assistants, Testing of the Questionnaire and Field

Deployment



24



Training of Data Processing Assistants and Creation of an SPSS Data Base.


To carry out this study, the researchers used a qualitative method. A questionnaire was
used and questions were related to:


-

Affiliation to

political

parties

;

-

Decision
-
making within families

;

-

Pride in the nation and political system;

-

Political Information and Opinion on Politics and Government Affairs;

-

Participation to Influence Government at Local and Central Level;

-

What one would do if their grassroots leadership wer
e about to pass a law or
regulation that would be harmful to them or their community;

-

What they would do if their grassroots leadership were about to pass a law or
regulation that would be harmful to them or their community * Education Cross
tabulation;

-

Ha
ving ever done something to influence grassroots leadership to take a decision
of their own liking;

-

Having ever done something to influence grassroots leadership to take a decision
of their own liking * Rural/Urban Cross tabulation,

-

Etc.

About findings, th
e presenter explained that 49.5% said that each member family
deliberate and personally when taking a decision to elect a candidate during elections.
But 35.33 % of

respondents

said that the decision was taken in family agreement and
11.6% said that the fa
mily chief made decision.

Concerning pride in the nation and the political system, 85.7% of respondents said
Gacaca judicial system made the pride of Rwanda, 82.2 % said that they trust the
government.But 36.2% of respondents said genocide and its ideology

was shame, while
23.2% said it was poverty and 13.2% said it was violence towards women, unfair
allocation of income, etc.


About elections, considering elections held in 2003, how to vote in 2008; at the time of
the study 60% of respondents said that the
y would vote as they did in 2003, 29% had not
yet made up their mind; while 2% said they would vote differently. About pluralism, the
study found out that 65% of respondents supported it while 35 % are against it.


In few words, the presenters said that ma
jority of Rwandans trust the government and are
proud of being Rwandans. But he said that there is a need to carry on in delivering and
improve in teaching Civism courses, in facilitating access to newspapers for people, etc.


Presentation 5


“The Effects
of blended learning technology among the Students and Lecturers at the
National University of Rwanda”

Ms.
Pavalam SM, Mr. Jawahar M, Mr. Felix K. Akorli.


25

The presenter started by explaining that the Traditional Method of Learning was
characterized by the
fact students had to:

-

memorize without understanding;

-

Memorize without Understanding;

-

Acceptance;

-

Summative assessment (Stressful Environment);

-

No individual care (Large classes).

For teachers, they were more to teach, used more chalk and talked a lot.

The

presenter showed the advantages of E
-
learning. “combines both the traditional
method of teaching as well as online education thro’ Virtual Learning Environment
(VLE) and students explore on their own, available at 24/7, enhances student
participation and
finally assessment is usually formative”

She said that NUR officially adopted MOODLE (
M
oodle
O
bject
O
riented
D
ynamic
L
earning
E
nvironment) for its eLearning in 2007. The University decided on this
platform after carefully reviewing the features of many pla
tform.

The research was carried regarding a selected period (March 2008


July 2008) to
evaluate the effect of E
-
learning method, training of Lecturers on use of MOODLE and
interaction between Staff and Student.


Ms Pavalam explained that, at the NUR, the

total number of lecturers was 467, and

-

10% underwent eLearning training,

-

Normally 360 hours of workload

-

Minimum credit hour for a module is 45, maximum is 90

-

Lecturer was allowed a minimum of 4 modules and a maximum of 8 modules

Considering good effect
s of E
-
learning on both side (Students and Teachers) Ms
Pavalam, drawn conclusions:


“E
-
Learning serves as an excellent tool in student centred learning and helps in
activities such as dissemination of course materials, exchange of information such as
foru
ms, chats, etc and submission of assignments online without consuming much
time in writing, correcting, compiling and ultimately makes life better than before.
But she pointed out some practical problems: “Staffs feels that adopting student
centred learni
ng consumes much time, connectivity issues, language issues, resistant
to change to new technology are to mention a few. From the students’ perspective
access problems, student to computer ratio is less; access time is less is found. E
-
Learning department
Lacks funding, necessary infrastructure (eLearning lab,
equipments, Human Resources)”.


Regarding these practical problems, Ms Pavalam formulated these recommendations:

-

There should be appropriate policies for eLearning to favour it.


26

-

Awareness should be
raised among the staff and students on the use and also the
benefits of eLearning.

-

Increase in student to computer ratio would improvise the access time.

-

Provision of support in terms of technical, human resource, financial in a various
range would flour
ish eLearning


27

Parallel session
1
:
Social Sciences and Humanities


Day Three:

23
rd

October 2008


Chair:
Prof.
Musahara Herman, Dean of Faculty of Economy and Management


Reporters:

Dr BAIG and Dr JONAS.


Time:
08.30 hrs to 13.30 hrs.


Table:

Topic to be
presented.


ITEM.

TOPIC OF PAPER.

AUTHOR(S).

PRESENTER(S).

1

Un modèle d’unité et de diversité
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Auth
entic Learning in a Sociocultural Framework: A
case study on non
-
formal learning

Sven B. Andersson

Ingrid Andersson

Sven B. Andersson

Ingrid Andersson

9

The Role of Gender and Income in
Employee Commitment: An Empirical
Study


Akinyemi, Benjamin
Oyegoke


Akinyemi, Benjamin
Oyegoke




28

Presentation 1



«

Un modèle d’unité et de diversité

: le cercle herméneutique de l’éthique et la culture
traditionnelle rwandaises

»

Mr. Murenzi Janvier, Centre Universitaire des Arts, Université Nationale du Rwanda.


The au
thor introduced his presentation by quoting Jean Ladrière (1979) and saying that
no culture could extinguish the sense in its wholeness, and yet each lives it in a way of
wholeness.


The objectives of this communication are to clarify the internal capabili
ty of this model.

In fact, in era of competitiveness, where global market reveals itself as unique but in
diversity, universal but contextual, our communication is justified by the aim of showing
in respect of Rwandan ethics and cultural an alternative mod
el of unity and diversity.


This study explains the model in referring to Alexis KAGAME and Maniragaba
BALIBUTSA who respectively paved the way in a crossed study between “classical
philosophy” and “Bantu
-
Rwandan philosophy” for Alexis KAGAME but leaner an
d dual
for Maniragaba BALIBUTSA.


The study refers a lot to A. KAGAME.In spite of the advantage of the link between ethics
and culture in Rwanda, this latter isn’t the unique inspiration of ethics and vice
-
versa.

The logic of Rwandan ethics and culture is
participative rather than explaining, where it
matters to understand and not to demonstrate. Rwandan ethics and culture appreciate art
break free virtues and its capability of unsubstancialized truth. This is revealed by riddle,
tales, etc. or in critic so
ng tales, or in social rank for nobility “imfura” and in philosophy
in general.


According to the presenter, through Rwandan

ethics and culture the study aims to clarify
an alternative, dynamic and open model and not imperialist. It’s a means of resolution

of
conflicts and differences, which neither nullify them, nor explain them, but understand
them in their unity and their diversity.


Presentation 2

“Determinants and Profitability of Rice production in Cyabayaga Watershed, Eastern
Province of Rwanda”

Ing
abire Ch., Bizoza A.R., Mutware J., Faculty of Agriculture, National University of
Rwanda.


The presenter introduced the study by saying that in Rwanda, agricultural sector
contributes about 40 percent of GDP compared to other sectors. Agricultural sector
provides considerable opportunities for employment and about 90 percent of the
population depends on it for subsistence.

But, d
ifferent constraints affect agricultural
development such as limited arable land, poor soil fertility due to land degradation and

soil erosion, and use of traditional agricultural techniques
.


29

Rwandan government has opted for intensified agriculture to increase per capita income
of farmers in rural areas by promoting certain crops such as rice, maize, sorghum, irish
potatoes, and bea
ns.


The reasons explained
to promote rice production include:



Better/efficient use of land in the marshlands.



Reduction of pressure on land located in the hillside.



Higher productivity in marshland (when compared with other
crops)



Easily accepted by farm
ers as a subsistence and cash crop.

The aim of the study was to analyze determinant factors of rice production and its
financial profitability in the watershed of Cyabayaga in the Eastern Province of Rwanda.

Data collection was carried out in the watersh
ed of Cyabayaga which is located in the
agro ecological zone of the “
East Savana
” at 1,400 m above the sea (Altitude).Cyabayaga
marshland receives water from Muvumba river and its soils is classified into alluvial
soils, vertisols, and carbonates.


Data we
re collected from a stratified sample of 46 rice growers and members of
CODERVAM cooperative operating in the same watershed in 2007. Farmer respondents
were grouped into 3 categories based on their farm sizes:



Category (1): Greater or equal to 60 acres



Category (2): 30 and less than 60 acres



Category (3) : Less than 30 acres

Information collected relate mostly to factors of production namely farm size (land),
labour (man day), and capital (seeds and fertilizers). Production factors were estimated i
n
terms of their related costs in Rwandan currency and Period considered was 7 months
(Season 2007B).



This study considered financial profitability analysis



Financial profitability was performed by applying the Cost
-
Benefit Analysis
(CBA) approach.



To com
pute the net benefit, a comparison of costs and revenue was done at farmer
level.



The decision criteria considered was the Net Present Value (NPV).




The discount rate considered is 13 percent equivalent to the market interest rate
(reference was made to B
anque Populaire).




The price used to compute the revenue is 140 Rwandan Francs (the price paid by
the cooperative before milling per kg).



CBA calculations and respective Net Present Values for the three categories are
presented in the Tables below :



30

To b
etter respond to analysis question a regression analysis was carried out.



The assumption made was that the profit gained by rice growers as results of their
production depends mostly on labor and area cultivated and less to investments
made in terms of fe
rtilizers and seeds.



A Cobb
-
Douglas function was adapted to estimate the relationship between rice
production and operating costs of factors that are likely to have a direct impact:
Capital (seeds and fertilizers), labor, and land.




Given that we suspected

the problem of endogeneity due to possible reverse
causality between production and capital (operating inputs), the OLS estimate of
the capital is likely to be biased and inconsistent ( Verbeek,2008).



Endogeneity was tested by applying:

Durbin

Wu


Haus
man procedure.



Results from the test showed the contrary to expectation and hence capital is
heterogeneous


The following conclusion and recommendations were made:



The average production of rice in the watershed is yet insufficient compared to
theoretical

bench mark of 7 tons per hectare.



The explanation is lower productivity of production factors, mostly capital
leading to lower returns or profit



There is a need to support farmers to have access to credit facilities or other
institutional arrangements th
at will enable them have access to agricultural inputs.



If farmers were provided with different training (such as use of inputs and
management of credits obtained); their production would be increased .Hence,
there would be a higher profitability.



Finally,

a long
-
term analysis of financial profitability of rice production is
recommended given that the results in this are of short term period.

Presentation 3

“An assessment of the utility of Herzberg’s two
-
factor theory in explaining employee
job satisfactio
n at SAPREF (South African Petroleum Refinery)”

Byukusenge E., Department of Management, National University of Rwanda.


The study was mainly concerned with human resource management and application of
the above theory on job satisfaction.


The study was c
arried out to find out what factors influence job satisfaction. The study
was conducted by taking a sample of 61 respondents. Multiple regression analysis was
used.


The study revealed in general that different factors influence job satisfaction. The study

also revealed that the factors responsible for job satisfaction vary at different ranks.



31

The study finds out the lack of applicability of this theory. The presenter pointed out that
this theory helps to highly energise work place, allows workers particip
ation motivate the
work force through intrinsic value of work, personal growth.


The study found out that working conditions, interpersonal relations, advancement and
growth, administrative policy, health factors provide job satisfaction. Some participants

also pointed out that in addition to the above, freedom at work, creation of amicable
environment and self recognition also contribute to job satisfaction.


Presentation 4

“Innovation in Agricultural value chains/clusters: A review of the state of the Art

in
Africa”

Rama R., Mutarindwa S., National University of Rwanda.

Poverty still bounds in the society, especially in the rural areas. There were low
entrepreneurship, access to knowledge and innovation. Several obstacles have prevented
smallholder farmers

and other vulnerable groups from benefiting from economic growth.
As my out, there’s a need for institutions through networks and linkages to enhance the
ability of smallholder farmers to access knowledge and technology.


The objectives of the study were:



Generate empirical evidence from the review of literature to understand the inter
relationship between institutions and creation, accumulation sharing of knowledge
for innovation.



Identification and understanding of the role of networks, associations,
par
tnerships and linkages in creating, accumulating, sharing and using knowledge
around the agricultural clusters and



Identify options and develop policies to facilitate agricultural innovations

In this study the role played by the institutions in the cluster

were analyzed:

Government regulates, polices, and supports;



The academia does the research, provides innovative approaches and helps in
providing most of the extension services;



The donor community comes in to support the initiatives
-
SIDA/SAREC



The indust
ry (private sector) does the business work.

Moreover there were innovations within the identified triple helix:



Enhanced innovativeness among firms and farms,



Enhanced competition and cooperation among firms and farms within clusters and
sectors, and acqu
isition of competitive mindset.



Auxiliary role of different stakeholders in the clusters

The presenter explained that there were selected studies on the African continent:
empirical evidences linkages in the system.


32

1.

The study analyzed Kenya agricultural cl
usters, and the lessons learnt were:
Linkages in farm
-

agribusiness were a common feature of agricultural production,
marketing and processing; and the role played by the initiator of the linkage was
important.

2.

This research considered also Uganda case st
udies and the key lessons from
Ugandan review were:



Farm
-
agribusiness linkages (clusters) in Uganda were organized in a complex
manner;



It was not clear how these linkages had affected efficiency;



There was still a need to promote integration and coordina
tion in the three sub
sectors studied.

3.

Nigeria clusters:
Abakili Rice Processors, Sorghum Out grower; Fuman Agric
Agricultural Products Fruit Juice Manufacturers; Cocoa Exporter Ed&F Man
Nigeria

:


The key lessons from Nigeria were:




Supply chain efficie
ncy was still low innovation across required;



Need for reduction of transactions by agribusiness firms because of many traders
there;



Role of the government not visible to promote clusters initiatives.

4.

Ghana Clusters:
Sampa Jimini Cooperative Cashew Proces
sing Society; Afife
Rice and Vegetable Irrigation Cooperative Farmers and Marketing Society, etc.

The key lessons from the Ghana clusters were:


Public, donors or non
-
governmental agency support for agribusiness should be holistic
and integrated and the r
ole of the stakeholders was not visible.

From the cases studied conclusions were drawn:




The coordination of linked activities allowed better information and innovation
for cluster development purposes;



Creating competitive advantage required the manageme
nt of the value chain
linked as a system;



Relocating, reordering, regrouping, or even eliminating activities paramount in
cluster configuration were often at the root of a major improvement in
competitive position.

Moreover the key observations from the
review were:



Innovation is occurring in Africa clusters but it is variable and not clear how deep.



Innovation in rural areas remains a critical constraint.



Stimulating innovation in informal, staple food markets remains a key policy
objective for poverty r
eduction


33



The role of the academia remains critical in the clusters reviewed. More
collaboration between government, industry and academia is vital like the case of
Triple Helix in Tanzania.

This study finally considered Rwandan potential clusters:




Coffee
: this is grown and processed by cooperatives, coffee washing stations, and
factories, marketed by Private companies(sturbucks), OCIR
-
Café and private
individuals and facilitated by NGO’s (ADAR, SPREAD ACDI
-
VOCA, USAID),
MINICOM, MINAGRI, and OCIR
-
Café, N
UR;



Tea: This is grown and processed by Cooperatives and individuals OCIR
-
Thé
factories, marketed by OCIR
-
Thé, private companies international and local
OCIR
-
Thé and facilitated by OCIRTHE, MINAGRI, MINICOM;



Cassava: this is grown Farmers cooperatives, in
dividuals, government through
TIG) processed by
i
ndustries (COVIBAR) marketed by international buyers.
Private individuals and is facilitated by Government, local NGO’S.



Etc.

This presentation was ended by making some suggestions about innovation and
clust
er initiative in Rwanda including:




ROLE OF NUR



Kick starting the process of innovation meeting with ministers, industry, Michael
porter on Rwandan competitiveness



SIDA support Ifor Williams from New Zealand cluster navigators, Stephen
Malortie from Veno
va and,



Pilot workshops on cluster mapping in coffee.

Presentation 5


“Tourism Multiplier Effects: Empirical Evidence from Rwanda”

Ms NTIBANYURWA Agnès


According to the presenter, tourism is an economic sector with powerful intersectoral
linkages.
The st
udy investigates the extent to which tourism contributes to economic
development. Income and employment multipliers are developed to measure the extent to
which tourism adds value to economic wealth in Rwanda.

This study has two objectives:


-

To investigat
e channels through which tourism contributes to economic growth

-

To measure tourism income and employment multipliers in Rwanda

In tourism, the multiplier effects reflect the final change in output in an economy
resulting from the initial change in tourist
spending (Ennew, 2003). This means that

34

every spending a tourist undertakes in a visited area has an impact (big or small) not only
on the final output in the rest of the economy, but also all the way through the process of
spending. Different types of tou
rism multipliers exist but the focus is on income
multiplier and employment multiplier
. And
Tourism income multiplier is referred to as an
additional income injected into the economy as a result of an increase in tourism
spending (Cooper,
et al
., 1998; Son
g, 2000).

Moreover, t
he income generated as a result
of tourism can take different forms (wages and salaries, rent, interest and profits)
depending on the status of the beneficiary.

Tourism employment multiplier serves to
inform on the total number of jobs

created by an additional unit of tourist spending.


However, there are challenges to tourism development. World perception of Africa:

The
African continent is known to be unstable, disease infected and crime ridden
(Briedenhann and Wickens, 2004). Other c
hallenges range from poor infrastructure, such
as roads, water supply, electricity, insufficient accommodation, poor telecommunication
facilities, poor public health services, financial constraints to start the business to security
problems (Gauci, Gerosa
and Mwalwanda, 2001).

Structural constraints, institutional
weaknesses including political and social turmoil obstruct the development of the tourism
sector and hinder its contribution to economic growth of many developing countries



Concerning the method
ological approach, in

this study, the input
-
output (I
-
O) model has
been used to determine the tourism income and employment multipliers in Rwanda. The
I
-
O model is used to translate the different linkages that exist between economic sectors
I
-
O model origi
nates in the research done by Wassily Leontief in the 1930s
.
It is a
method of tabulating the whole economic system in the form of a matrix known as I
-
O
tables, for which rows represent the sales by each economic sector to each of the others
and the column
s represent the purchases each sector does from each of the other
economic sectors.



Concerning the findings, the study reveals that
Rwanda is blessed with many tourism
attractions among which are the Volcano National Park, home of mountain gorilla, it’s
major tourist attraction; Akagera National Park with its ‘Big Five’ together with a full
range of mammals; Nyungwe Forest National Park, the largest single contiguous forest of
its type remaining in East and Central Africa; historical and cultural sites (R
IPA /AIPA,
2002, volume 2).

For the past five years the service sector contributed towards the biggest
share of the country’s GDP

taking over agriculture.
Indicators show that this growth is
mainly attributable to the tourism, transport and communication s
ectors.


Three sectors (tourism, Agriculture and transport) were considered in this study to
capture the multiplier effects.

The size of income multipliers for the three sectors under
consideration are as follows: 2.713; 2.432 and 2.952 respectively for t
ourism, agriculture
and transport. These values indicate the total income multiplier effects over the local
economy. For a change of income of RWF 1 in the tourism sector, there is a total income
of RWF 2.713 generated in the local economy.



The study lea
ds to the following conclusions: Tourism
is an economic activity with
strong backward and forward linkages. In addition to the direct effects that take place in

35

the studied sector, tourism in this case, the remaining income/employment impacts
(indirect and

induced) are generated in other economic sectors as a result of initial
injection of income and employment in tourism. This means that tourism does not only
contribute to economic growth of Rwanda, but also stimulates other sectors to do so.
Failure to re
cognise the value of the tourism sector will limit the country’s economic
performance.


Presentation 6


“The interface of corporate governance and environment management in Rwanda”

Rama R., Gasasira G. J., National University of Rwanda


The Government of R
wanda is concerned by environmental issues. As environment
pollution is a global issue, many international environmental protocols have been signed
by the Government of Rwanda, among others Kyoto protocol to avoid an increasing rate