From Puppets to Robots: A Unit on Human Movement

embarrassedlopsidedAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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Schoolwide Enrichment


Puppets to Ro
bots



1







From Puppets to Robots:

A Unit on Human Movement


A Schoolwide Enrichment Program: Grades 5 through 8









prepared by

Jackie Gerstein, Ed.D.




Introduction









2

Less
on 1:


Biomechanics


Human Arm



4


Lesson 2:


Shadow Puppetry





9


Lesson 3:


Robotics


An Introduction




17

Lesson 4:


Mindstorms






21



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2

From Puppets to Robots


Overview:

This unit begins with students exploring the history of puppetr
y through researching and
constructing shadow puppets and marionettes. A focus of this unit is on exploring human
movements and how they can be incorpor
ated into making the puppets. Later lessons build

on
student knowledge of human movement, puppetry con
struction to explore and build robots.

From Puppets to Robots uses principles and practices from the following theoretical and
pedagogical tenets:



Schoolwide
-
Enrichment (Renzulli and Reis)



Differentiating Instruction (Tomilson)



Events of Instruction (Hunt
er & Gagne)



Integration of the Arts and Movement into the content areas



Use of Technology


NM Content Standards

Language Arts



The student demonstrates, analyzes, evaluates and reflects upon the skills and processes
used to communicate by listening to a
nd viewing a variety of auditory and visual works.
(Language Arts, V)



The student conducts and compiles research data, synthesizes findings, and develops an
original conclusion to increase personal an community depth of knowledge. (Language Arts,
VI)



The s
tudent responds to, examines, and critiques historically or culturally significant issues
and events portrayed in literature that both illustrate and affect people, society and
individuals. (Language Arts II)



The student conducts and compiles research dat
a, synthesizes findings, and develops an
original conclusion to increase personal and community depth of knowledge. (Language
Arts, VI)


Science



Understand that light is a form of energy and can travel through a vacuum. (Science,
Content Standard 1)



Know t
hat light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object and then it is reflected,
refracted, or absorbed. (Science, Content Standard 1)



Students will know and understand the impact between science and technology in society.
(Science, Content Standa
rd 15)

Essential Questions:



How can we incorporate what we know about human movement into the
construction and operation of puppets and robots?



How can building puppets and robots help us learn about the human body?



How can a historical perspective and

knowledge of shadow puppetry influence
a future oriented technology of robotics?



How can

the integration of biomechanics, puppet construction, and technology
assist with the construction of robots?



How can robots help people with physical disabilities gai
n mobility?




H潷 捡c w攠楮捯牰潲慴攠w桡t w攠e湯w 慢潵t 桵m慮 m潶敭敮e i湴漠t桥
捯c獴ru捴i潮 慮d 潰敲eti潮 of 灵灰整e 慮d r潢ots?



H潷 捡c 愠桩獴潲楣ol 灥r獰s捴iv攠慮搠k湯wl敤g攠of 獨s摯w 灵灰整ry infl略湣n 愠
f畴ur攠eri敮t敤 t散e湯lo杹 潦or潢oti捳c



H潷 捡c t
桥 i湴n杲慴i潮 of 扩潭o捨c湩捳c 灵灰整 捯c獴ru捴i潮, 慮搠t散e湯l潧y
慳獩獴 wit栠h桥 捯cstr畣ti潮 of r潢ot猿

Essential Questions:



H潷 捡c w攠楮捯牰潲慴攠w桡t w攠e湯w 慢潵t 桵m慮 m潶敭敮e i湴漠t桥
捯c獴ru捴i潮 慮d 潰敲eti潮 of 灵灰整e 慮d r潢ots?



H潷 捡c 愠a
i獴潲楣ol 灥r獰s捴iv攠慮搠k湯wl敤g攠of 獨s摯w 灵灰整ry infl略湣n 愠
f畴ur攠eri敮t敤 t散e湯lo杹 潦or潢oti捳c



H潷 捡c t桥 i湴n杲慴i潮 of 扩潭o捨c湩捳c 灵灰整 捯c獴ru捴i潮, 慮搠t散e湯l潧y
慳獩獴 wit栠h桥 捯cstr畣ti潮 of r潢ot猿


Essential Questions:



How can we incorporate what we know about human movement into the
construction and operation of puppets and robots?



How can building puppets and robots help us learn about the
human body?



How can a historical perspective and knowledge of shadow puppetry influence
a future
-
oriented technology of robotics?



How can

the integration of biomechanics, puppet construction, and technology
assist with the construction of robots?



How can r
obots help people with physical disabilities gain mobility?




H潷 捡c w攠楮捯牰潲慴攠w桡t w攠e湯w 慢潵t 桵m慮 m潶敭敮e i湴漠t桥
捯c獴ru捴i潮 慮d 潰敲eti潮 of 灵灰整e 慮d r潢ots?



H潷 捡c 愠桩獴潲楣ol 灥r獰s捴iv攠慮搠k湯wl敤g攠of 獨s摯w 灵灰整ry infl略湣n 愠
f
畴ur攠eri敮t敤 t散e湯lo杹 潦or潢oti捳c



H潷 捡c t桥 i湴n杲慴i潮 of 扩潭o捨c湩捳c 灵灰整 捯c獴ru捴i潮, 慮搠t散e湯l潧y
慳獩獴 wit栠h桥 捯cstr畣ti潮 of r潢ot猿

Essential Questions:



H潷 捡c w攠楮捯牰潲慴攠w桡t w攠e湯w 慢潵t 桵m慮 m潶敭敮e i湴漠t桥
捯c獴ru捴i潮
慮d 潰敲eti潮 of 灵灰整e 慮d r潢ots?



H潷 捡c 愠桩獴潲楣ol 灥r獰s捴iv攠慮搠k湯wl敤g攠of 獨s摯w 灵灰整ry infl略湣n 愠
f畴ur攠eri敮t敤 t散e湯lo杹 潦or潢oti捳c



H潷 捡c t桥 i湴n杲慴i潮 of 扩潭o捨c湩捳c 灵灰整 捯c獴ru捴i潮, 慮搠t散e湯l潧y
慳獩獴 wit栠h桥 捯cstr畣
ti潮 of r潢ot猿



Schoolwide Enrichment


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bots



3




Art



The student uses dance, music, theatre/drama, and visual arts to express ideas. (Art,
Content Standard 2)



The student demonstrates an understanding of the dynamics of the creative process. (Art,
Content Standard 4)



The student will use dance, m
usic, theatre/drama, and visual arts to express ideas. (Art,
Content Standard 2)



The student generates a wide variety of ideas. integrate understanding of visual and
performing arts by seeking connections and parallels among arts disciplines as well as all

other content areas.(Art, Content Standard 3)


Career Readiness



Demonstrate basic computer operation skills in a variety of applications to access and
organize information; (Career Readiness Standard 3)



Design a class product or process to solve an identi
fied problem and explain the benefits
that will result if the product or process is used. (Career Readiness Standard 3)



Unit Goals

By the end of this student, students will have gained knowledge and skills related to:

1)

The biomechanics of movement.

2)

Basic
construction techniques of measurement, cutting, woodworking.

3)

Technology


use of Powerpoint and online resources.

4)

Computer control logic.

5)

Presenting both oral and written ideas clearly, concisely and convincingly.

6)

Strategies for solving complex problems.

7)

Teamwork and project management.
























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Lesson 1: Biomechanics
-

The Human Arm


Anticipatory Set
-
Gain Attention (Type I Enrichment)
-

Runs and Jumps

1.

Separate the group into two smaller groups. Ask one group to complete Runs and Jumps.
S
et up a “stage” area


a gym or outdoor area with at least 100 feet of running space.
Use
a bag or tape marking to define where you would like the students to jump. They must run
across the “stage”, leap over the center spot as if they are jumping over a

large puddle.
After the jump, they run around the circumference of the room back to the end of the line.

2.

Have the other group sit on the sidelines and sketch or make notes about how the body
moves as it runs and as it jumps. Tell students to especially
observe the movement of the
arms and legs.

3.

Switch groups so both groups have the opportunity to do both the Runs and Jumps and the
sketching/note taking. Have a follow
-
up discussion about the students’ sketches and notes
making connections to human biomech
anics.

4.

Have the students explore the arm’s 7 degrees of freedom using the exercises found at:

http://www.thetech.org/exhibits_events/online/robots/arms/7deg.html


Unit Obj
ectives


By the end of this unit, students will be able:

o

To demonstrate how the muscles in an arm function.

o

To identify the 7 degrees of freedom of their arms,

o

To compare and contrast the human arm with a robotic arm using the

the following terminology:




End
-
Effector



Dexterity



Range of Motion

o

To articulate a rationale for the importance of using teamwork to complete

A project.



Present the Learning Stimulus (Type
II Enrichment)



Internet Research

1.

Review the following websites with students for genera
l information about arm movement:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/factfiles/workinpairs/biceps_animation.shtml


2.

Guide the students through

this Internet lesson:

http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih6/bone/guide/lesson3a.htm


(Teacher’s version)

http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih6/bone/activities/activities_toc.htm

(Student’s version


Click onto Lesson 3


anatomy of a kick)



Guided Instruction (Type II
Enrichment)



Robotic
Arm 1

Materials List



craft sticks (2 per model)



rubber bands (2 large and 2 small per model)



scissors or other tool to cut notches in craft sticks


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Provide the students with the following directions:



Use the materials and diagram to make a simple model of
the arm to show how it lifts a ball
toward the shoulder. Work individually or in pairs.




To simplify things, have only two "bones" in your
model. One will represent the scapula and humerus;
the other will represent the radius and ulna. (Build a
more compl
ex model if desired.)




Wrap the two small rubber bands around the craft
sticks to secure the bones at the elbow joint but
allow the joint to move.




Cut two small notches in each craft stick to
represent the origin and insertion of each muscle. Using rubber

bands to represent muscles,
attach two muscles, the biceps and triceps, to your model arm.




Make sure your model works. That is, when you pull on a muscle (contract it), the arm
moves in the way the real arm would.

http://www.pbs.org/safarchive/4_class/45_pguides/pguide_1002/44102_builders.html




Robotic Arm 2

Materials List



Wooden craft sticks



Drill



Small brass paper fasteners



Assorted materials


Pro
cedure



Drill holes through the craft sticks as shown in the diagram. Each student will need four
drilled sticks and four brass paper fasteners. Dampening the sticks before drilling can
reduce cracking the wood.



Have students assemble robot arms as shown
in the illustration.



Tell them to try to pick up a pencil or some other object with the
arm. They will find the task difficult.



Next, tell the students to design some sort of end effector for the
end of the
arm

that will enable them to pick up the object
. Students
should make their end effector and attach it to the ends of the
arm

with glue.



Evaluate their work by having them demonstrate picking up the
object.

http://www.
nasaexplores.com/show_912_teacher_st.php?id=03010994741



Robot Hand


As an Extension, students can make a Robot Hand:


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http://www.sciencetoymaker.org/robothand/assembl.html


Independe
nt Practice (Type III Enrichment)



Build Your Own Artificial Arm


Engage the class in the following discussion:

-

Assume that you are a mechanical engineer working on the design of an artificial arm for
someone who has lost function of his or her arm/hand.


What are some of the design
considerations you will have to take into account?


What capabilities will you want to design
into the arm/hand? What capabilities of the human arm/hand might you be willing to give up
in your design?




Provide students with
the following directions:



You are a member of a team of three or four students, working together to design and build
a robot arm out of the following materials which are provided to you.


-

Resources/Materials:



3" wide and approx. 22" long strips of cardbo
ard
--

5 or so



Binder clips (different sizes)
--

8 or more



Brads
--

@10



Clothespins
--

6



Craft sticks
--
10
-
15



Fishing line
--

3
-
4 feet



Hangers
--

1 or 2



Paper clips (diff. Sizes)
--

10
-
15



Pencils
--

3
-
4



Rubber bands (different sizes)
--
15



Tape
--

cle
ar and masking (partial rolls should be fine)



Twine
--

3
-
4 feet



Various size scraps of cardboard
--
10 assorted




The robot arm must be at least 18 inches in length, have at least three degrees of
movement, and be able to pick up an empty Styrofoam cup.



Y
our team must agree on a design for the arm and identify what materials will be used.
Your team should draw a sketch of your agreed upon design prior to construction. Part of
the teamwork process is sharing ideas and determining which design your team
will use.



There is no "right" answer to the problem
-

your team's creativity will likely generate an arm
that is unique from the others designed in your class.


www.ieee.org/portal/cms_docs_iportals/iportals/education/preuniversity/tispt/pdf/
lesson
s/robot
arm
.pdf












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Assessment


Project Self
-
Assessment


Name________________________


Date:__________


Please select the a
ppropriate response for each statement:



Always



Usually



Sometimes



Rarely

Then explain why you selected that response.


1.

I was prepared for the class activities:


2.

I participated constructively in the lesson projects:


3.

I kept a positive attitude:


4.

I listened
attentively:


5.

I contributed much to the team projects:


6.

I worked well in groups:


7.

I was persistent


I didn’t give up if the learning tasks or project became too difficult for me:


8.

I produced quality work:


9.

I was successful in completing the class projec
ts:


10.

I could clearly explain what I learned from these lessons:


Provide short answers for the following:

11.

I think I did a particularly good job this week with_______________________ ( choose one
of the unit projects) because I…


12.

In general, here is how I
would describe my performance.


13.

My thoughts related to our class assignment(s) at this time are:


Choose one of the following



I am confident that teacher will general agree with my self
-
assessment OR



I feel a conference with the teacher is necessary at thi
s time: (Yes, No)


Teacher’s Comments:


Student Signature: ________________________________________________


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Teacher Signature: ________________________________________________




Accommodations for Biomechanics


Your Arm


The Challenge

Accommodation

Des
cription

Gifted Student

Independent
Research

Students can do additional research on the
biomechanics of arms. Findings from their research
can be incorporated when students build their
artificial arm.

Attention Deficit
Disorder

Cue Cards







Time Trac
ker
Visual Timer and
Clock



T桥 摩r散瑩e湳 for 敡c栠hf t桥 pr潪散ts (R潢oti挠
Arm ㄻ R潢潴楣⁁rm ㈻ a湤 B畩l摩湧 慮 Artifi捩慬
Arm) 慲a 灲楮t敤


i渠污r来 灲楮t


潮 捵c 捡牤c.
l湥 摩re捴i潮 or st数 灥r 捡牤. A t敡捨cr 潲 灥敲
t畴ur 捡c r敡d t桥 摩r散ti潮s

慬潵搠dit栠h桩猠
獴畤敮t.




T桥 time tr慣ker 慳獩獴s t桥 獴畤敮t in k湯wi湧
桯w m畣u tim攠楳eft wit栠愠giv敮 灲pj散e.

䱥慲湩湧
Di獡siliti敳





C潮捲整e
Pr敳e湴nti潮 &
Brok敮 D潷渠楮t漠
Sm慬l敲eSt数s

M潤el猠of t桥 pr潪散ts for t桩猠l敳獯渠


th攠tw漠
r潢潴o
挠arm猠慮d t桥 慲tifi捩慬 慲a


慲a 捲e慴敤 a猠
數慭灬敳ef潲 t桥 st畤敮t献 T桥 m潤敬猠r数r敳e湴
敡捨⁳cage of t桥 捯c獴r畣瑩u渠灲o捥獳c 獯 t桡t
bACe 獴数 i猠摥m潮strat敤 i渠n 捯ccr整e m潤敬
f潲m.
























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9




Lesson 2: Shadow Puppetry



Anti
cipatory Set
-
Gain Attention (Type 1 Enrichment)
-


Shadow Movement

Either early in the morning or later in the afternoon (for longer shadows), take students outside
and instruct them in the following:



Can you make your shadow big or small?



Can you hide y
our shadow?



Can you make your shadow touch another shadow without bodies touching?



Can you make your shadow point different directions?



Can you make your shadow not touch your feet?



Work with a partner to make shadow monsters (2 heads, 4 arms, etc)



Ask stu
dents to think of more instructions.

http://www.sasta.asn.au/qualityscience/earlyyears/Nicholas1Lesson.html


Two Heads Are Better Than One

Students will participate in
Jackie’s shadow puppet show,
Two Heads Are Better Than One.


Unit Objectives (Inform Learners of Objectives)

Post the following objectives
-

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

1)

Identify factors which might affect the size and position of the

shadow of an object.

2)

Describe the properties of a shadow including intensity and position of the light source
and the distances and angles between the light, object, and surface.

3)

Define the terms translucent, opaque, and transparent.

4)

Demonstrate construct
ion techniques of measuring, cutting, and making pivot points.

5)

Record data using online resources.

6)

Demonstrate special effects functions of Microsoft PowerPoint

7)

De
monstrate grade
-
level proficiency in writing to express personal ideas by; following a
plan i
n which ideas are logically ordered; directing writing to the intended audience;
language purposefully, and using the stages of the writing process: prewriting, drafting,
revising, and proofreading.

8)

Utilize effective teamwork and project management skills


Assessing and Stimulating Prior Knowledge

Students will use the either the Visual Thesaurus or Microsoft Thesaurus to define the following
words and then create visual symbols that define each term:



S桡摯w




P異灥t




St慧e




S捲i灴




S捥ce




Piv潴




Tra湳
l畣u湴




O灡q略



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Transparent




Performance



Direct Instruction
-
Presenting Stimulus Material (Type II Enrichment)
-

Materials:



Graphic Organizer


Artsedge (see attached)


Procedure:

1.

Students will learn about Shadow Puppetry through the information pre
sented at:



http://www.artsedge.org/shadowpuppets/artsedge.html

2.

Notes will be taken on the Shadow Puppetry Graphic Organizer


Artsedge


Guided Instruction
-
Providing learning guidance (Ty
pe II Enrichment)

Materials:











Procedures:

1)

Students will be taught basic performance techniques

a)

Explain to students that they are to perform a simple shadow puppet show using the
following guidelines:

i)

You are each to make a simple puppet using a
basic shape by taping a shape of his
or his choice onto a flexi
-
straw.

ii)

The theme of your puppet show is “The Whole is Greater Than It’s Parts”. So you
and your partner will perform a scene about how your two parts come together to
form a different shape.


b)

Review the following guidelines for performing a shadow puppet show:

i)

The puppets must be flat on the screen at all times.

ii)

You are not stand in the way of the light source.

iii)

Entries and Exits should be smooth and with purpose
-

not just falling on and off
s
creen.

iv)

Some action should be devised to incorporate all areas of the screen

not just
walking along the bottom.

v)

You should try to create some interaction between puppets on the screen.

vi)

Puppets should be able to do things that human actors could not.

vii)

As
k if the audience can: see it? hear it? do they care? (Berman, 2004)


c)

Each pair performs their show


with feedback from the audience following
the performance.


2)

Students will be taught how to construct the shadow puppets with pivot points:



P慴a敲e猠f潲 扡獩挠灵灰et



H潬
攠灵湣e敳e



M慳ai湧 慮d 灬慳瑩挠t慰e



S敷i湧 湥敤l敳e 桥慶y t桲敡搮



Br慳猠灡灥r f慳a敮敲e



Ex慣瑯ak湩v敳…eS捩獳sr猠



B慭扯漠ak敷敲猠or 摯w敬 r潤猠



Rigi搠dir攮e




C慲摳a潣k



䙬數e
-
獴r慷s



Tri
-
f潬搠dr敳ent慴楯渠f潡m
扯慲a
-

捵c to 摥獩r敤 獩z攮



Ri捥⁰慰cr or

i湴nrfa捩湧
m慴ari慬 f潲 t桥 獣r敥渮



A渠䱃D 灲pj散瑯r




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Instruct studen
ts to use the notes they took on the Artsedge Graphic Organizer and the
following directions.

i)

Cut out puppet parts.


ii)

Make cuts and perforations in body with paper punches or exacto knives. Holes in
body and clothing are for decoration as well as to allow

light to show through the
parts to highlight details, such as a mouth or bangles and to create
interesting shadow patterns.

iii)

Assemble by attaching paper fasteners through the holes at the joints.
Leave fasteners loose enough to allow the joints to move fr
eely.

iv)

Fasten straight sticks, rods or wire to puppet’s hand and body by
sewing on with heavy thread, string, or tape.

v)

Run a central rod or wire from the head down the body and through one leg for at
least six inches below foot to serve as a handle.

vi)

Se
e
http://www.csu.edu.au/faculty/arts/commun/devising/shadowpuppets.html

for
additional directions.


3)

Students will make the shadow screen.



See Attachment “Making the Scre
en”.


4)

Students will be shown how to create a storyboard

a)

Brainstorm with the students what the separate scenes are in the story and what the
main action is that is happening.

b)

Using a separate page for each scene have children list the following for each sc
ene:

i)

setting,

ii)

characters,

iii)

puppets to be used

iv)

music, special effect techniques

c)

Children can sketch the scene and pictures of the puppets to be created on each page.

d)

Place the pages in order on a poster board so that the organization of the piece is vis
ible
to everyone during the creation of the piece.

e)

The Storybook Organizer (attachment) can be used for students to create individual
stories.


5)

Students will be shown how to create scenes and special effects using Microsoft
PowerPoint:



Using Google Image
s



Animation



Sound Effects


Independent Practice
-
Eliciting the Performance (Type III Enrichment)

Students will develop and perform a complete shadow puppet show with script, puppets and
background.

1)

With students in groups of four, inform them that each gro
up must create a short, five
-
minute
shadow play using puppets created by each member which will culminate in a performance
for the lower grades. The theme is to be based on a theme of this unit


“How Robots Can
Help Humans.”

2)

Tell students that their play
s should have a beginning, middle, and end; and that they need
to storyboard it. For some basics tips to get your students started, see the ARTSEDGE
How
-
to,
The Basics of Storytelling

@
http://artsedge.kennedy
-
center.org/content/3283/



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Another great resource is the ARTSEDGE How
-
to,
Playwriting with Your Students

@
http://artsedge.kennedy
-
center.org/content/3281/


3)

Use the “Creating the Shadow Play” handout (see attached) for guidance
http
://artsedge.kennedy
-
center.org/content/3895/

Feedback and Assessment

The Shadow Puppet Rubric will be used for both giving feedback and the final assessment.

1)

The following rubrics will be given to the students to use as a reference as they prepare thei
r
independent project.




Storyboard
-

multimedia : Shadow Puppets



From Puppets to Robots
-

Shadow Puppet Show

(note


assessments created with Rubistar)


2)

Prior to performing the show for the younger students, a “dress rehearsal” will be conducted.
The stud
ents’ peers will use the rubric,
From Puppets to Robots
-

Shadow Puppet Show,

to
give feedback.


3)

During the final performance, the teacher will use this same rubric for assessment purposes.











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Accommodations for Shadow Puppetry

The Challenge

Accommodation

Description

Physical Limitations


inability to cut and
construct the
puppets

Assistive
Technology

http://artsedge.kennedy
-
center.org/shadowpuppets/artsedge.html

Students can create their own shadow puppet show
with the use of simple keyboard movements. This
can be found by linking into “The Puppet Studio”
section where the student can choose a background,
choose their puppets, select puppet movements, and
inclu
de background information.

Dysgraphia and
written language
difficulties
connected to the
storyboarding.



Assistive
Technology




Flexible
Grouping



Students can sketch out the storyboard scene
and record the dialogue and setting details into a
recorder.



Stud
ents could be grouped by talent


a good
writer with a good artist.

Gifted Student

Curriculum
Compacting


Additional
Changes

Gifted students can be given the challenge to created
advanced puppet designs


with at least three pivot
points.


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Hearing Impair
ed

Use of cues,
visuals, and sign
language

The shadow puppet show lends itself to the visually
impaired! The dialogue
-
script can be done in sign
language to the side of the puppet stage.


References:



http://artsedge.kennedy
-
center.org/shadowpuppets/artsedge.html



http://artsedge.kennedy
-
center.org/content/3879/



http://www.elm.maine.edu/assessments/teacher/shadow/describe.stm



http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/confratute/confsh.html

(see 18
The Art of Shadow Theatre

Kristin Berman)



http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php



http://www.csu.edu.au/faculty/arts/commun/devising/shadowpuppets.html













Use the following
ArtsEdge
website to take notes:

http://artsedge.kennedy
-
center.
org/shadowpuppets/artsedge.html
















Ancient Art

Puppetry Picks

From Pieces to Puppets


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Casting the Shadow

Shaping the Shadow

Setting the Scene

Coaxing Out the Character


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Making the Screen




Since you will be using an LCD projector, measure a 3:4 ratio such as 18” x
24”. Cut the cardboard out from the middle of th
e frame, using a utility
knife, graphic artist's blade, or scissors. Next, draw lines on the sides of the
box as shown in Figure 2. Use a knife or scissors to cut along the lines to
remove the top, front, and bottom sides of the box. (You now have a theat
er
frame with "wings!")







Find a piece of white cloth
-

like a piece of an old
sheet
-

or a piece of while butcher block paper
-
big
enough to cover the opening in the frame. Use
masking tape or duct tape to fasten the corners of
the cloth over the bac
k of the frame opening
(Figure 3). When the corners are tight and there
are no wrinkles, put tape along all the edges. (It's

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important to keep the screen tight and wrinkle
-
free!)











Set your screen up on a table edge as shown in Figure 4.











http://www.osv.org/kids/crafts2.htm








Robotics


An Introduction


Gain Attention (Type I
Enrichment)
-


Tying a Shoe

Introduce the activity to the students:

Tying a shoe, an every
-
day task th
at seems easy enough for us, is difficult, if not impossible, for
a mechanical robot. Robots have limited movement, only a few sensors, and are controlled by
computers which must be programmed with instructions for each step required.


Materials Needed



s
hoes that tie



tongue depressor



masking tape



heavy gloves



2 pairs of pliers



blind folds


Give the following directions to the students:

1.

Try tying your shoes blindfolded.

2.

Now, repeat the activity but with heavy gloves on your hands.

3.

Then, tape tongue depr
essors onto your thumbs and forefingers and try again.



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4.

And if those activities weren't difficult enough, tie your shoes with pliers. First, use pliers in
both hands; then with only one hand; finally with two people
--

each with one pair of pliers.


It is

helpful for participants to discuss their experience after each variation. For fun, these
activities can be set up as a race between two people.

http://www.thetech.org/robotics/activit
ies/page05.html

Journal Questions:

(1) Describe your thoughts and feelings for each of tests you made. (2) What would it be like to
be in a robot’s body for a day?



Objectives

By the end of this unit, students will be able:



To define and describe a robo
t, its functions, and what it can and cannot do.



To express new insights and learning through a journal format.


Direct Instruction (Type II
Enrichment)



Internet Research

Students will answer the questions using the Internet resources.

Read:



http://www.occdsb.on.ca/%7Eproj4632/learnmore.htm#What%20is%20a%20Robot
? And
then take the quiz on
http://ww
w.occdsb.on.ca/%7Eproj4632/kidsrobotquiz.htm

Journal Question:

How did you do on the quiz? Describe what you learned.




http://www.thetech.org/exhibits_events/online/robots/ov
erview/

Journal Question:


Describe what you learned in (1) Introduction to Robotics; (2) Five Main Parts (define each); (3)
Today’s Applications; (4) The Future.



http://
www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid
-
robotics
-
group/cog/cog.html

Journal Question:


What is a human
-
like robot?




http://science.howstuffworks.com/robot.htm

Journal Questions:

How do human components

compare to a robot’s? If you had the opportunity, what part of your
own body would you make robotic? Why and what changes would you make?




h
ttp://www.roboticstrends.com/displayarticle35.html?POSTNUKESID=5e00b69650c7c5651f
bcfea0a29f7b6d

Journal Questions:

What are some ways in which robots are helping people with disabilities? Do you know anyone
who this technology could assist? Explain.



G
uided Practice (Type II
Enrichment)
-

Design Your Own Online Robot

Have students complete the website interactive.

http://www.mos.org/exhibits/robot/index.html

(online version)

All six tasks nee
d to be completed:



Patrol a Building



Entertain Humans at a Party


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Explore the Surface of Mars



Search a Sunken Ship for Gold



Explore a Volcano



Clean Up Solid Nuclear Waster


Journal Reflection:

Which of the tasks you completed did you enjoy most? Why?



Ind
ependent Practice (Type III
Enrichment)
-

Design a Robot Prototype

Materials Needed



drawing supplies



building construction sets or household junk
--

boxes, rods, tongue depressors, pipe
cleaners, hot glue kit, etc.


Procedures

Give the students the followin
g directions:



Decide on a task for a robot to do to help a person who has no or limited used of his or her
arms
-

catching a ball, digging a hole or washing the dishes.



Be creative in your solutions
--

think about how various animals and machines perform
different tasks.



Draw a robot to do your task. Use household junk or construction materials. Time or
materials can be limited to resemble real engineering challenges.



Write a story about your robot explaining why the robot was needed and how it will
accom
plish its task.

http://www.thetech.org/robotics/activities/page06.html


Journal Reflection:

(1) What purpose do you think robots will play in the future of our society? (2) What would

it be
like to design new inventions for a career?



Assessment

Assessment will be based on the journal reflections made for this lesson’s instructional events.
Criteria for the journal reflections area:




Journals


Rubric


Read each statement below.

Then indicate from the following rating scale that best

reflects your assessment of the student's work.

1=Weak

2=Somewhat Weak

3=Average

4= Strong

5=Very Strong


1. The topic of the journal entry meets the requirements of the assignment.

1


2


3


4


5

Comments:


2. The journal entry covers the personal perspectives and feelings of the student.


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20

1


2


3


4


5

Comments:


3. The entries provide very descriptive explanation of the journal question.

1


2


3


4


5

Comments:


4. The organization of the journa
l entries are clear and easy to follow.

1


2


3


4


5

Comments:


5. The journal entry flows smoothly from one idea to another.

1


2


3


4


5

Comments:


6. The spelling, grammar, and punctuation in the journal are accurate.

1


2


3


4


5

Comments:


7. The j
ournal entry is neatly typed or handwritten.

1


2


3


4


5

Comments:


8. The effort put forth has demonstrated the full potential of the student's capability.

1


2


3


4


5

Comments:







Accommodations for An Introduction to Robotics


The Challenge

Acco
mmodation

Description

Gifted Student

Mentoring





Competitions

If a gifted student becomes interested in any topics
researched during their Internet searches, then he or
she could visit with one of the experts from Los
Alamos Labs or Intel corporation.


Gifted students in this area can make plans for
participation in the New Mexico Science Olympiad
-

http://infohost.nmt.edu/~science/olympiad/


Non
-
readers &
Reading Dyslexia

Assistive
Technology



Alternative
Formats

A screen
-
reader can be used so students can listen
to the written information being presented in the
website searches.


The answers to the journal questions can be
recorded or created through drawing/computer

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clipart.

Learning
Disabi
lities

Use of Color
-
Coded File
Folders

A file folder is created for EACH project/Internet
research project. The project description and the
journal question is attached to the inside covers of
the file folders.






























Robotics


Mindstorms



Anticipatory Set
-
Gain Attention (Type I Enrichment)
-

Mindstorms NXT Demonstration

1.

Show the students the following video streams:



http://rcj.sci.brooklyn.cuny.edu/



http://mindstorms.lego.com/botstars/BoneBot.aspx



http://mindstorms.lego.com/botstars/GuardBot.aspx


2.

Give students live demonstration of the Mindstorms R
obot.


Objectives
-

By the end of the unit, the student will be able:

1.

To describe the major components found in a robot


sensors, motors, gears, power
sources, and computer programming.


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2.

To begin designing a robot whose goals is to accomplish a task specifi
ed by the student.

http://www.kipr.org/curriculum/content.html


Direct Instruction and Guided Practice (Type II Enrichment)
-

Mindstorms NXT Tutorial

Students will complete Mindstorms NXT tutoria
ls:


1.

Building the Lego Robot


tutorial that comes with the software

2.

NXT Programming

http://www.ortop.org/NXT_Tutorial/html/essentials.html



Independent Practice (Type III Enrichment)

Mindstorms NXT Robotics Competition

Students will participate in a “mock” robotics competition. Footage from a competition can be
viewed at:
http://www.irvingisd.net/robotics/

[Click onto Download/View
Video (
28.5 MB
)

(2003 TCEA Promotional)]


Teams will create and develop a unique robot that is designed to solve a problem that a person
who has limited use of their hands and/or arms might encounter. It is a problem of their own
choosing. Judging criteri
a will be based on design and complexity of the robot, creativity and
originality, selection of the problem and a workable solution. A logbook should be kept that
documents the team’s progress and explains their thought processes as they developed the
inve
ntion. The team will also be judged on the marketing and presentation of the product.


Rules:

• Each team should consist of no more than 4 members.

• Each team will have a 6ft table to conduct their presentation and will be limited to that space.

• Present
ation time is limited from 3 to 5 minutes.

http://www.netxv.net/pm
-
view.php?page=437





Assessment

Students compete against class teams in using the same process and criteria as a robotics
competi
tion.




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http://www.netxv.net/pm
-
view.php?page=437













Accommodations for Mindstorms


The Challenge

Accommodation

Description


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Gifted Student

Appropriate
Challenge




Cluster Gro
uping




Gifted students can be encouraged to meet the
highest level of one or more of the robotics
competition criteria


complexity of programming;
construction; creativity and originality.


As this is the last lesson for this unit, a sub
-
group of
studen
ts may have demonstrated a propensity
towards robotics. These students can be clustered
together to create their team robot.

Emotional


Behavioral
Difficulties

Flexible Grouping

Peer Tutoring &
Support

Form the teams for the robotics competition
(Inde
pendent Practice) prior to the NXT Tutorials so
they can learn to work together and support one
another from the beginning of the lesson.

Limited Readers

Reading Disabilities

Use of NXT
visuals.

The directions to Legos and NXT are schematic and
image
-
base
d. They lend themselves to students who
are struggling with the written word. Provide an in
-
depth tutorial on how to read them


the Lego format
may assist in experiencing success.