CHAPTER 1 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR IN CHANGING TIMES

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CHAPTER 1



ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR IN CHANGING TIMES


MULTIPLE CHOICE


HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS


1.

The study of organizational behavior is concerned with:


A.

psychosocial, interpersonal, and organizational structure


B.

psychosocial, i
nterpersonal, and work design


C.

interpersonal, group dynamics in organizations, and work design


D.

psychosocial, interpersonal, and group dynamics in organizations


ANSWER: D, easy, K&C, pg. 4


2.

The study of individual behavior and group dynamics in o
rganizational settings describes the content of
study in:


A.

organization theory


B.

organization design


C.

organizational behavior


D.

organizational development


ANSWER: C, medium, K&C, pg. 4


3.

Which organizational variable(s) is (are) important to t
he study of group dynamics?


A.

organization structure


B.

role conflict & ambiguity


C.

job task


D.

hierarchy of authority


ANSWER: B, medium, K&C, pg. 8


4.

The description of an organization as clockworks in which human behavior is logical and rational

would
come from which level within the organization?


A.

individual level


B.

group or department level


C.

organizational level


D.

internal level


ANSWER: C, medium, synthesis & evaluation, pg. 4


5.

The description of an organization as more like a sna
ke pit with daily conflict, distress, and struggle would
come from which level within the organization?


A.

group level


B.

organizational level


C.

individual level


D.

department level


ANSWER: C, medium, synthesis & evaluation, pg. 4






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Chapter 1




6.

The FAA’s
need to address change in air travel due to the tragic events of September 11, 2001 reflect which
metaphor of an organization?


A.

virtual


B.

clockwork


C.

snake pit


D.

free flight


ANSWER: C, medium, K&C, PED
-
OR, pg. 6


7.

The snake pit metaphor of orga
nizations would be reflected by which of the following?


A.

the events of September 11, 2001


B.

free flight


C.

the increase in the number of passengers and the drop in airfares prior to 9/11/2001


D.

the FAA’s relatively poor safety record since the dere
gulation of the industry in 1979


ANSWER: A, medium, K&C, PED
-
OR, pg. 6


Understanding Human Behavior


8.

An internal perspective of human behavior tends to explain a person's actions in terms of:


A.

job demands


B.

personal value system


C.

task design


D.

organization communication channels


ANSWER: B, medium, K&C, pg. 6


9.

All of the following are internal behavioral processes
except
:


A.

cognition


B.

perceiving


C.

judging


D.

leading


ANSWER: D, medium, analysis, pg. 6


10.

The internal and external

perspectives offer:


A.

complementary explanations for human behavior


B.

similar explanations for human behavior


C.

conflicting explanations for human behavior


D.

alternative explanations for human behavior


ANSWER: D, hard, synthesis & evaluation, pg.

6


11.

When a manager states, "Mary is an outstanding employee because she has a high need for achievement,”
the manager is using which explanation for Mary's behavior?


A.

internal


B.

external


C.

interactive


D.

cultural


ANSWER: A, medium, appl., pg.
6




Organizational Behavior in Changing Times
3




12.

When Mary's manager states, "Mary is an outstanding employee because she is paid extremely well", the
manager is using which perspective for Mary’s behavior?


A.

internal


B.

external


C.

interactive


D.

cultural


ANSWER: B, medium, appl., pg. 6


1
3.

Kurt Lewin may have best captured alternative explanations for human behavior when he state behavior is a
function of:


A.

the individual personality and preferences for leadership style


B.

the consequences of compliant and deviant behavior within soci
al groups


C.

culture and the systemic properties of the organization


D.

the person and the environment


ANSWER: D, medium, K&C, pg. 6


Interdisciplinary Influences


14.

The science of human behavior and individual differences is:


A.

anthropology


B.

soc
iology


C.

engineering


D.

psychology


ANSWER: D, easy, K&C, pg. 6


15.

Culture and the study of learned behavior comprise the domain of:


A.

management


B.

anthropology


C.

sociology


D.

psychology


ANSWER: B, easy, K&C, pg. 7


16.

When Black & Decker pla
ced a special emphasis on human productivity and efficiency through the
application of organizational goal setting and differential piece rate systems, they were borrowing ideas
from the discipline of:


A.

psychology


B.

anthropology


C.

sociology


D.

engi
neering


ANSWER: D, medium, appl., pg. 7


17.

Research focusing on the effects of efficient cultures on organizational performance and how pathological
personalities may lead to dysfunctional cultures highlights which disciplines contribution to org
anizational
behavior?


A.

psychology


B.

sociology


C.

anthropology


D.

medicine


ANSWER: B, medium, appl., pg. 7


4

Chapter 1




18.

The first discipline to take the modern corporation as the unit of analysis and emphasize the design,
implementation, and coordination of

various administrative and organization systems was:


A.

psychology


B.

sociology


C.

management


D.

anthropology


ANSWER: C, medium, appl., pg. 7


19.

The recent emphasis on sources and treatment of hypertension with respect to occupational health and we
ll
being is an example of a contribution from which discipline?


A.

medicine


B.

psychology


C.

sociology


D.

management


ANSWER: A, medium, appl., pg.7


THE ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT


20.

The specific setting within which organizational behavior is enacted w
ould be called the:


A.

situation


B.

external environment


C.

organizational context


D.

group


ANSWER: C, easy, K&C, pg. 8


Organizations as Open Systems


21.

Which of the following is not an internal component of a work organization?


A.

structure


B.

t
ask


C.

technology


D.

product market


ANSWER: D, easy, K&C, pg. 9


22.

The task of an organization is reflected in its:


A.

human resources


B.

mission or purpose


C.

input materials


D.

structure


ANSWER: B, medium, K&C, pg. 9


23.

In an open system

the transformation or conversion of inputs to outputs is accomplished with:


A.

technology


B.

task structure


C.

borrowed financial resources


D.

robots


ANSWER: A, medium, K&C, pg. 9



Organizational Behavior in Changing Times
5




24.

The core technology of a university is its:


A.

student brain pow
er


B.

library, laboratories, classrooms, and computer equipment


C.

registration and billing systems


D.

athletic programs


ANSWER: B, medium, appl., pg. 9


25.

A federal regulatory agency can be considered part of an organization's:


A.

formal structure


B.

labor market


C.

external task environment


D.

transformation technology


ANSWER: C, medium, appl., pg. 9


26.

The use of a wide range of tools, knowledge, and/or techniques used to transform inputs into outputs is
called:


A.

task environment


B.

stru
cture


C.

the mission


D.

the technology


ANSWER: D, medium, K&C, pg. 9


27.

An organization’s suppliers, customers, and federal regulators is called the:


A.

task environment


B.

market


C.

political economy


D.

general environment


ANSWER: A, medium, K&C
, pg. 10


28.

The human, informational, material, and financial resources of an organization system would be considered:


A.

inputs


B.

throughputs


C.

the transformation


D.

outputs


ANSWER: A, medium, K&C, pg. 10


The Formal And Informal Organizatio
n


29.

The beliefs and assumptions about people, work, and the organization best reflects the:


A.

formal organization


B.

overt part of an organization


C.

informal organization


D.

social surface


ANSWER: C, easy, K&C, pg. 10



6

Chapter 1




30.

All of the following ar
e aspects of the formal organization
except
:


A.

job descriptions


B.

the friendship/relationship between two employees


C.

the hierarchical superior
-
subordinate authority relationship


D.

the workflow sequence between two departments


ANSWER: B, easy, syn
thesis & evaluation, pg. 10


31.

The Hawthorne Studies uncovered the importance of:


A.

the workflow and scheduling of work for production efficiency


B.

delegating authority downward and throughout the organization


C.

the informal organization and its im
pact on productivity


D.

viewing an organization as clockwork


ANSWER: C, medium, K&C, pg. 11


Six Focus Organizations


32.

Enron represents which of following sectors?


A.

the manufacturing sector


B.

the government sector


C.

the service sector


D.

the n
on
-
profit sector


ANSWER: C, medium, appl., pg. 13


33.

Harley
-
Davidson best reflects which sector of the U.S. economy?


A.

service sector


B.

throughput sector


C.

manufacturing sector


D.

transformation sector


ANSWER: C, medium, appl., pg. 13


34.

The
largest sector of the 9.3 trillion dollar U.S. economy is the:


A.

manufacturing nondurable goods


B.

manufacturing durable goods


C.

service sector


D.

government purchases (local, state, federal)


ANSWER: C, medium, K&C, pg. 11


35.

Which of the followi
ng best describes the American Heart Association?


A.

not
-
for
-
profit


B.

manufacturing


C.

publicly
-
owned entrepreneurial


D.

privately
-
held entrepreneurial


ANSWER: A, medium, K&C, pg. 15



Organizational Behavior in Changing Times
7




THE CHALLENGE OF CHANGE


36.

A leading force currently driving cha
nge at work is:


A.

global competition


B.

politics


C.

quality


D.

process management


ANSWER: A, easy, K&C, pg. 15


International Competition In Business


37.

Success in international competition requires organizations to be responsive to:


A.

changes in

demography


B.

changes in the marketplace, ethnic, religious and gender diversity


C.

changes in information technology


D.

changes in wage structure


ANSWER: B, hard, K&C, pg. 17


Four Themes Related to Change


38.

The four main driving forces creating a
nd shaping changes at work include:


A.

globalization, demography, diversity, ethics


B.

globalization, technology, religiosity, ethics


C.

globalization, technology, diversity, employee attitudes


D.

globalization, technology, diversity, ethics


ANSWER: D
, medium, K&C, pg. 17


Customer
-
Focused for High Quality


39.

The study reported in your textbook where a positive relationship was found between TQM practices and
financial performance also found that this relationship was influenced by which of th
e two following
variables?


A.

organizational culture and CEO leadership


B.

stronger structural controls and structural exploration as it relates to implementation of TQM
programs


C.

reward systems and quality circles


D.

high degrees of self
-
empowerment

and participation


ANSWER: B, medium, K&C, PED
-
SF, pg. 18


40.

A significant aspect of total quality management is:


A.

employee driven suggestion systems


B.

continuous improvement and attention to customer needs


C.

the use of computers


D.

the suboptim
ization of resource allocation


ANSWER: B, medium, K&C, pg. 18



8

Chapter 1




Behavior and Quality at Work


41.

Which of the following statements is most correct with respect to total quality management?


A.

Quality control is the responsibility of specialists who rando
mly perform quality checks on items as
they leave the assembly line.


B.

Quality is a customer
-
oriented philosophy with important implications for virtually all aspects of
organizational behavior.


C.

Quality is an employee
-
oriented philosophy required by
quality engineers.


D.

Quality is machine driven with quality improvements resulting from use of robotic equipment.


ANSWER: B, medium, K&C, pg. 17


Managing Organizational Behavior in Changing Times


42.

Globalization, workforce diversity, technological i
nnovation and __________ are four interrelated themes
of importance for managing organizational behavior into the 21st Century.


A.

customer satisfaction


B.

employee compensation


C.

moral and ethical behavior


D.

job analysis


ANSWER: C, medium, analysi
s, pg. 19


LEARNING ABOUT ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR


43.

Learning about organizational behavior can best be described as a(n):


A.

mastery of basic objective knowledge


B.

development of specific skills and abilities


C.

application of knowledge and skills


D.

multidimensional activity


ANSWER: D, medium, K&C, pg. 19


Objective Knowledge


44.

A questioning, probing attitude is at the core of:


A.

job performance


B.

organizational reality


C.

critical thinking


D.

subjective knowledge


ANSWER: C, hard, synthe
sis & evaluation, pg. 22


45.

Objective knowledge, in any field of study, is developed through:


A.

experience


B.

past practices and training


C.

a review of the relevant literature


D.

basic and applied research


ANSWER: D, medium, K&C, pg. 22



Organizational Behavior in Changing Times
9




Skill Dev
elopment


46.

Acquisition of objective knowledge and skill development can occur interactively through:


A.

rote memorization


B.

experiential learning


C.

reading


D.

imitating the successful behavior of others


ANSWER: B, medium, K&C, pg. 22


47.

As an e
ffective learner of organizational behavior knowledge and skills, the student:


A.

must rely primarily on the group process


B.

should not experiment with new ideas and information


C.

must passively accept the direction of others with more knowledge


D.

m
ust accept responsibility for his or her own behavior, actions, and learning


ANSWER: D, hard, appl., pg. 23


48.

Which of the following set of functional skills have been identified by the U.S. Department of Labor as
necessary for success in today's workp
lace?


A.

resource management, information management, and personal interaction skills


B.

personal interaction, critical thinking, and conflict management


C.

system behavior and performance, resource management, and critical thinking skills


D.

critical
thinking, conflict management, and information management skills


ANSWER: A, hard, K&C, pg. 22


49.

Developing skills is different from acquiring objective knowledge because it requires:


A.

empirical testing


B.

induction


C.

deduction


D.

structured pra
ctice and feedback


ANSWER: D, medium, analysis, pg. 22


TRUE
-
FALSE QUESTIONS


1.

Change is the biggest challenge on American managers’ minds today.


ANSWER: True, pg. 3


2.

Role set, norms, intra
-

and intergroup behavioral dynamics are key aspects of the

study and field of
psychology.


ANSWER: False, pg. 6


3.

The study of individual differences is the main focus of anthropology.


ANSWER: False, pg. 7


4.

Management involves the coordination of activities and human resources for the accomplishment of
orga
nization goals.


ANSWER: True, pg. 7



10

Chapter 1




5.

A complete understanding of organizational behavior requires only an understanding of the organizational
context within which human behavior is acted out.


ANSWER: False, pg. 8


6.

A business firm's interaction with

the environment is a characteristic of an open system.


ANSWER: True, pg. 8


7.

The informal organization is the unofficial part of the system.


ANSWER: True, pg. 10


8.

The hierarchy of authority or chain of command is an important feature of the informa
l organization.


ANSWER: False, pg. 10


9.

Global competition is a leading force driving change at work.


ANSWER: True, pg. 15


10.

Total quality management is an employee
-
driven philosophy of management.


ANSWER: False, pg. 17


11.

Total quality managemen
t is a total dedication to continuous improvement.


ANSWER: True, pg. 17


12.

The study and management of organizational behavior is primarily an art rather than a science.


ANSWER: False, pg. 19


13.

Skill development is facilitated by structured practice

and feedback.


ANSWER: True, pg. 22


14.

Organizational behavior is an applied discipline where a student is trained in organizational behavior
principles.


ANSWER: False, pg. 23


MATCHING QUESTIONS


1.

Task




A. Economic activity outside of the firm.



Open System


B. An organization's primary concern: goal, and/or reason for existence.



Environment


C. Tools, equipment, and procedures for producing output.



Technology


D. An organization that receives inputs from the environment and releases
outputs t
o the environment.



Organizational


E. The result of an organization's conversion process.


Context



Output



F. The specific setting within which organizational behavior is enacted.



ANSWER: B, D, A, C, F, E


Organizational Behavior in Changing Times
11




2.

Management


A. The applied science of en
ergy and matter.



Engineering


B. The science of human behavior.



Psychology


C. The science of human learned behavior and study of organizational culture.



Sociology


D. A discipline concerned with the study of organizations.



Anthropology


E. The sci
ence of society and study of groups.



ANSWER: D, A, B, E, C


3.

Feedback


A. Dedication to continuous improvement and meeting customer demands.



Skill




B. Research results or scientific information.


Development



Objective


C. Learning and mastery of
physical and social abilities.


Knowledge



Total Quality


D. The primary concern for managers in the 1990s.



Change



E. Knowledge of results.



ANSWER: E, C, B, A, D


4.

Brinker



A. Once a leader in electricity, natural gas, and communications who
se business


International


was difficult to define and has destroyed more value than any organization to
date.



Harley
-
Davidson


B. A large public service and manufacturing organization emphasizing e
-
services
and the manufacture of printing and digital i
maging products.



Enron



C. A manufacturing organization with over 3 billion in annual sales and people
as the company’s only sustainable competitive advantage.



American Heart


D. An organization whose stated purpose is to inspire and implement soluti
ons to


Association


the environmental crisis.



Hewlett
-
Packard


E. The best example of a non
-
profit organization.



Patagonia


F. An organization who provides non
-
durable goods in the form of a portfolio of
restaurants based on a multiconcept casual dini
ng market approach.



ANSWER: F, C, A, E, B, D



12

Chapter 1




ESSAY QUESTIONS


1.

Explain why it is important to study organizational behavior.



ANSWER: Of the four principal ingredients (task, technology, structure, and people) of an organization,
employees are the mo
st difficult to manage and change. Individuals display numerous differences, group
norms can influence productivity, and leaders can fail. Motivation, leadership, and group dynamics are
very difficult to understand. Greater understanding of these behavi
oral phenomena can enhance one's
managerial effectiveness. (pg. 7
-
9)


2.

Provide an example of a business firm as an open system.



ANSWER: An open system gathers or receives inputs from its environment, transforms these inputs through
application of techn
ology, and provides a finished product to the environment or market place. A Heinz
food processing plant purchases raw tomatoes, onions, and other vegetables from the environment. It then
mixes and cooks these ingredients and converts them into catsup. T
he catsup is bottled, packaged, and
shipped to the marketplace. (pg. 9)


3.

Distinguish between informal and formal organizations. Are they complementary or contradictory?



ANSWER: The formal organization consists of positions, departments, organization l
evels, and the
authority and lines of communication that link organization parts and people together. The personal
relationships and friendships between two or more organizational members constitute an informal
organization. The formal and informal can c
oexist, be mutually reinforcing, or in conflict. The task of the
manager is to be aware of the informal and try to manage the situation so that the informal supports and
furthers the goals of the formal organization. (pg. 11)


4.

Identify the four reason
s managing organizational behavior will be challenging in the 1990s.



ANSWER: They are (1) the increasing globalization of the marketplace, (2) greater workforce diversity, (3)
continuing technological development and innovation, and (4) the continuing co
ncern and demand for
higher moral and ethical behavior at work. (pg. 20)


5.

What is the difference between objective knowledge and skill knowledge?



ANSWER: Objective knowledge is the information gained from research and scholarly activity. Answers to
s
cientific questions resulting from research studies form the knowledge base for effectively managing
organizations. Skill development refers to the practice and feedback associated with mastering behavioral
abilities necessary for successful management. (
pg. 21)


6.

In addition to basic enabling skills, the Department of Labor has identified five essential functional skills
necessary to be successful in the workplace now and in the future. Briefly identify these skills.



ANSWER: The essential skills incl
ude (1) resource management skills such as time management; (2)
information management skills such as data interpretation; (3) personal interaction skills, such as teamwork;
(4) systems behavior and performance skills, such as cause
-
effect relationships; a
nd (5) technology
utilization skills, such as troubleshooting skills. (pg. 22)



Organizational Behavior in Changing Times
13




7.

Briefly identify and discuss the major challenge to managers in today’s "market or environment.”



ANSWER: Change is the biggest challenge on American managers’ minds. Chan
ging realities in the
workplace are challenging managers, employees, and executives alike to learn new skills and to adapt
themselves to new work environments. Change becomes its own challenge and where change is especially
rapid, organizations must be re
sponsive and flexible. (pg. 15)


8.

Briefly identify the major drivers of change in the current work environment.



ANSWER: Change is driven by (1) global markets, (2) evolving customer needs, (3) breakthrough
technological developments, and (4) competiti
on (international). (pg. 15
-
18)