Telerobotics Concept Paperx - The CCSDS Collaborative Work ...

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Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Concept Paper

Concerning Space Data System
Standards

TELEROBOTICS

March

201
3

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EM STANDARDS
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CONTENTS

Section

Page

1

INTRODUCTION
................................
................................
................................
..........

1
-
1

1.1

PURPOSE

................................
................................
................................
...............

1
-
1

1.2

SCOPE

................................
................................
................................
....................

1
-
1

1.3

REFERENCES

................................
................................
................................
.......

1
-
1

2

TELEROBOTICS INTEROP
ERABILITY

................................
................................
....
1

2.1

MOTIVATION AND NEED

................................
................................
......................
2

2.2

APPROACH

................................
................................
................................
...............
3

2.3

BENEFITS

................................
................................
................................
..................
4

2.4

INCLUSION

................................
................................
................................
...............
4

2.5

MISSION APPLICATIONS

................................
................................
.......................
4

2.5.1

CSA

................................
................................
................................
.................
5

2.5.2

DLR

................................
................................
................................
................
5

2.5.3

ESA

................................
................................
................................
.................
6

2.5.4

NASA
................................
................................
................................
..............
6

2.6

OPERATOR VENUES

................................
................................
...............................
6

2.7

TESTING & PROTOTYPIN
G

................................
................................
...................
7

2.8

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPME
NT

................................
................................
...........
7

3

OTHER WORKING GROUPS

................................
................................
........................
9


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1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

PURPOSE

This document is a Concept Paper for the Consultative Committee fo
r Space Data Systems
(CCSDS)
. CCSDS Concept Papers are working documents of the CCSDS, its Areas, and its
Working Groups.
Concept Papers

have no official status, and are simply the vehicle by which
technical suggestions are made visible to the CCSDS. They are valid for a maximum of n
ine
months and may be updated, replaced, or rendered obsolete by other documents at any time.
This Concept Paper is intended for consideration by the CCSDS
Mission Operations
and

Information Management Area (MOIMS)

as a brief statement of the technical sco
pe of
the

proposed Working Group in Telerobotics.

1.2

SCOPE

This concept paper describes the technical scope of MOIMS
-
TEL, a proposed Telerobotics
Working Group with
in

the Mission Operations and Information
Management Area.

It is the
Charter of MOIMS
-
TEL to de
velop standards that s
upport the safe, collaborative operation
of mixed teams of human and robotic assets in the
exploration of
space.

1.3

REFERENCES

The following documents
are
reference
d

in this
Report
.

At the time of publication, the
editions indicated were

valid.

All documents are subject to revision, and users of this
Report
are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the
documents indicated below.

The CCSDS Secretariat maintains a register of currently valid
CCSDS

documents
.

[
1
]

Rob Ambrose
and

Brian Wilcox, chair
s
. Robotics,
Tele
-
R
obotics
and Autonomous
Systems Roadmap: Technology Area 04
.
Washington, D.C.
:
National Aeronautics and
Space Administration
,
April
201
2
.

[2]

International Space Exploration Coordination
Group
.
The Global Exploration

Roadmap
.

September 2011.

[3]

Yves Gonthier
, et

al.,
A Human
-
Robotic Partnership Assessment
f
or
t
he Global
Exploration Strategy
.
Global Space Exploration Conference, Washington, DC.

2012.

[
4
]

CCSDS A20.0
-
Y
-
3
,
CCSDS Publications

Manual

(Yellow Book,
December
20
11
)
.

[
5
]

CCSDS
A02.1
-
Y
-
3
,
Organization and Processes for the Consultative Committee for
Space Data Systems
(
Yellow Book, July 2011
)
.

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2

TELEROBOTICS INTEROP
ERABILITY

The
proposed
Telerobotics Working Group
recognizes that the development of the
component

technologies
required to
extend human presence and capability

into space is
accelerating rapidly, and that there are
emerging requirements for
t
elerobotics
interoperability and cro
ss
-
support between International civil space agencies
.

A common
framework for telerobotic operations
would allow

for diverse robotic assets to collabora
te on
mission goals and realize
cost
-
savings from the cross
-
support provided by the participating
Agenci
es.

We

will
develop interoperability standards that are applicable to the widest possible cross
-
section of the telerobotics techn
ology development and operation
s

communit
y
.
We are not
developing an all
-
encompassing system for all robot communication
, nor a
re we developing

standards
governing the development of telerobotics
technology
. Instead,

we are developing
the
compatibility layer that
will permit

operators
and robotic agents to
freely
exchange
information
, enabling

operators to communicate with heterog
eneous robots in a uniform
fashion
.

The Telerobotics Working Group will develop a standards specification for
software data
structures and routines that simplif
ies

the process of communicating between multiple
diverse robots and their command and control s
ystems.
The specification will include three
main elements: message formats, application programming interfaces (APIs) and functional
descriptions of the application services that support
supervisory telerobotics operat
ions over
near
-
Earth time delay. For
instance, the specification
may
define
a message format

for
describing the configuration of a robotic asset, the API for sending and receiving th
at

message and a

functional description of a
n application service that ensures that robot
s do not
collide with
each other or their human collaborators.

We believe that the following areas of telerobotics technology development
will

benefit from
knowledge of



and participation in



the development of a telerobotics interoperability
standard, and
we
will
endeavor to include these elements of the
space robotics
community
in
the standards process through outreach efforts:



Sensing and perception, which
seeks new detectors, instruments and techniques for
localization, proprioception, obstacle detection, object

recognition and the processing
of that data into a system

s perception of itself and its environment.



Mobility
, which

includes surface, subsurface, aerial and in
-
space locomotion, from
small machines to large pressurized systems that can carry crew for lo
ng excursions,
using modes of transport that include flying, walking, climbing, rolling, tunneling and
thrusting.



M
anipulation
, which

is focused on force control, compliance, eye
-
hand coordination,
tactile control, dexterous manipulation, grasping, multi
-
a
rm control and tool use.



Autonomous systems
, which

seek

to improve performance with a reduced burden on
crew and ground support personnel, achieving safe and efficient control, and enabling
decisions in complex and dynamic environments.

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H
uman
-
systems inter
face
, which

i
ncludes classical areas of tele
robotics such as
haptics and augmented reality with newer topics that include human safety, human
-
robot teams, crew decision support, interaction with the public, and supervision
across the time delays of space.



Automated
rendezvous

and docking
, which

has focused on coupled sensing and range
measurement systems for vehicle pose estimation across short and long ranges,
relative navigation sensors for vari
ous constraints, autonomous GN
C algorithms and
implementation

in flight software, integration and standardization of capabilities,
docking mechanisms that mitigate impact loads that can increase allowable spacecraf
t
structure and mass,
and
electric
-
fluid
-
atmospheric transfer across docked interfaces.



Systems
engineering
, which includes
the required tolerance to environmental factors
of vacuum, radiation, temperature, dust, and system level modular design
philosophies that provide for interoperability and support international standards.

In recognition that tel
erobotics technology is deployed to serve the larger mission goal, we
also welcome participation from other domains,
including
:

power
;

destination systems
;

information
,
modeling
, and
simulation
;

habitation
;

and communications technology.

Each of
these affi
liated domains may be able to benefit from the knowledge that the telerobotic
components of a mission system share a common status reporting format or state query
mechanism.

2.1

MOTIVATION AND NEED

Ongoing human missions to the International Space Station have

an integrated mix of crew
working with I
ntravehicular
A
ctivity
(IVA) and
Extravehicular Activity
(EVA) robots and
supporting autonomous systems on
-
board spacecraft and in mission control. Future
exploration missions will further expand these human
-
robot p
artnerships. Robots, telerobots
and autonomous systems are already at work in space exploration Agencies, and each of
these Agencies will see even more pervasive use of these systems in their future.

International collaboration for exploration beyond lo
w E
arth orbit is a policy shared by many
space exploration Agencies.
NASA, ESA, JAXA, CSA and other Agencies have identified a
wide range of

internationa
l partnership opportunities for
exploration,

including robotic

precursors, human
-
robotic assistants, crew
mobility, long duration robotic

ser
vicing, and
payload offloading.
While the goals (why), destinations (where) and timetables (when) for

exploration
may continue to shift
,
the
connections
between A
genci
es

remain an important
part of
how we will explore

spa
ce
.

We will explore not with human

or

robotic missions, but with humans

and

robots in
partnership. Exploration beyond low Earth orbit will involve an international team of

humans
and robots working together

on Earth and in space.

Collaboration
across the wide spectrum
of telerobotics development and operations
is complicated
both
by the

diverse heritage of the
component

systems

and the
logistics

of managing international teams.

Through the development of telerobotic operations standards, we can
decrease the cost
associated with telerobotic technology development and integration, decrease risk through
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earlier and more thorough testing opportunities, and decrease the cost of operations through
cross
-
support and elimination of duplication of effort.

2.2

APPROACH

The proposed Telerobotics Working Group

intends to adopt CCSDS’s
mantra
of “
a
d
o
pt,
ad
a
pt, develop” as its approach to developing interoperability standards for Telerobotics. We
will



where appropriate



adopt
the best of the existing
tele
robotic
s standards, adapt them

for
use in
space
,
and develop new
standards
where needed
to meet s
pace exploration
requirements
. We anticipate the need to develop new standards in the areas of safe
telerobotic

and human
-
robot operations in the presence of d
isrupti
on
-
prone and time
-
delayed
communications links, as well as standards that facilitate the
integration and operation of
multi
-
sourced

robotic exploration systems
.

Where appropriate, we will build the new
standards upon the base of existing applicable CCSDS standards

and w
e will also engage the
standards community in extending existing standards in areas where current capability is not
sufficient to support the need
s of robust telerobotic collaboration.

We believe that
the standards to be developed
by
the Telerobotics Working Group
will be
best
expressed
through
the development of
a
Green and Blue book.

The Telerobotics
Standard Roadmap Green Book will describe the W
orking Group goals, the products to be
developed, and a strategic plan for the development of a complete set of standards for
supervisory telerobotics operations. Initial elements of the Green Book will include a path
towards the development of a
Telerobot
ic Standard

Blue Book that will include a description
of the Message Exchange formats, APIs, and Services required to interoperate in the
telerobotics arena along with any Working Group
-
identified prerequisites for Blue Book
development.

The initial goal o
f the Telerobotics Working Group is to develop the
Telerobotics Standards Roadmap Green Book; after agreement on the Roadmap, we will then
develop the Telerobotic Standard Blue Book.

There exist a number
of
potential
technical solutions that are candidates

for
consideration and
inclusion in this new telerobotic standard:



Asynchronous Message Service (AMS)
,

which defines

a set of standard protocols that
enable communication over a “message bus”
.



Application Support Services (APP)
, which

defines standard serv
ices that are
provided to onboard software applications
.



Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
,
which
is a standard
developed by the Object Management Group (OMG) to provide interoperability
among distributed
software
objects.



Data
-
Distribution

Service for Real
-
Time Systems (DDS)
,
the first open international
middleware standard directly addressing publish
-
subscribe communications for real
-
time and embedded systems.



Delay
-
Tolerant Networking

(DTN) technology, which provides
interoperable
communi
cations with and among extreme and performance
-
challenged environments
where continuous end
-
to
-
end connectivity cannot be assumed
.

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Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS)
,
an SAE International standard for
communication, command and control of
unmanned systems
.



Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate (RAPID), a software reference
implementation for remote operations that promotes interoperability between robot
software modules.



Mission Operations (MO), a framework for defining services
in an abstract manner
produced by the CCSDS Spacecraft Monitor and Control (SM&C) W
orking
G
roup
.

2.3

BENEFITS

There is a strong international desire to collaborate on defining Telerobotics standards
to

reduce the life cycle costs associated with interoperabili
ty and cross
-
support

in space
exploration
.

Spaceflight is costly across the development, flight unit production,
and
launch and operation
phases of missions. Spaceflight is also risky to both man and machine.
Through
collaboration, the international commun
ity can contribute to research that will

reduce cost
and risk. An even greater benefit is when
these
new technologies increase capabilities or add
whole new functions that
extend the possibilities of space exploration.

The savings and risk reduction obtain
ed through the development of any component
Telerobotic technology is multiplied by the opportunity that interoperability offers us to
directly measure and compare similar technologies without a combinatory increase in
development cost. Telerobotic interop
erability would allow component technologies to be
tested in a rich shared environment



such as an ISS
-
based test
-
bed



without the need to
create new infrastructure to support each new technology.

2.4

INCLUSION

The Telerobotics Working Group shall be open to

including the
contributions
of all Agencies
involved in the development of space
-
r
el
ated technologies
.

Although we welcome and
encourage interaction with the field of terrestrial robotics, the goal of the proposed Working
Group is directed toward spa
ce
applications, as distinguished by the

need to
operate safely in
the presence of humans in a communications environment characterized by frequent
disruption and time delay.

2.5

MISSION
APPLICATIONS

Although it is not possible to foresee all future opportunities

for collaboration, we are
encouraged by the progress made to date in establishing
a number of collaborative
telerobotics efforts

that serve as examples for what is achievable
.

Within NASA, the Human Robotic Systems

(HRS) project create
d

RAPID, the
Robot
A
pplication Programming Interface Delegate
, which standardizes the
messages and services
that support supervisory telerobotics operations over near
-
Earth time delay
.

The HRS
project
is advancing the development of exploration robotics
through collaboration
among

severa
l
NASA centers and Universities
. HRS is investigating multiple exploration scenarios using a
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combination of heterogeneous
robotic agents and operation systems
with vastly different
development heritages. These agents and operation systems
can i
nteroperate and coordinate
in a many
-
to
-
many relationship instead of the more traditional point
-
to
-
point arrangement.

HRS has also established a RAPID
-
based relationship between ESA’s XArm2 exoskeleton
and NASA JSC’s Robonaut 2
dexterous humanoid robot

tha
t will have XArm2 controlling a
Robonaut dexterous arm.

Since
October 2010,
NASA’s Human Exploration Telerobotics project and ESA’s
METERON project
have explored areas of common interest, goals and opportunities for
collaboration based on their mutual desi
re to use the ISS as a test
-
bed for the preparation for
exploration beyond low
-
Ea
rth orbit. The projects have similar goals



such as the on
-
orbit
operation of surface telerobots



and face similar challenges



such as engineering network
communications li
nks that provide the required level of performance consistent with operator
workloads and autonomous systems capabilities.
Specific benefits
that can be
achieved from
collaboration include: a reduction in the up
-
mass requirement by allowing human interface

devices such as joysticks to be shared between projects
; sharing of test facilities on the ISS,
reducing the need for laboratory space dedicated to robotics experimentation; and increased
scientific validity of experimental results by inexpensively divers
ifying the surface test
platforms to include robotic agents from multiple test facilities and Agencies.

We anticipate that each Agency
participating in the proposed Telerobotics Working Group
will work to ensure that their exploration roadmaps are
reflected in the technical plans of the
proposed Telerobotics Working Group. To that end, we list here e
xamples of missions
currently in flight



and those that are on Agency’s exploration roadmap
s



that involve
telerobotic elements

that

might derive bene
fit from the use of a common telerobotic
operations standard
.

2.5.1

CSA



Rover Development



On
-
Orbit Servicing and Refueling



ISS SSRMS and Dextre Operations



Lidar
-
based Incoming Vehicle Monitoring



Onboard Communication and Coordination Interfaces for Robotic and I
nstrument
Subsystems



Integration with Ground Segment and Operations Subsystems

2.5.2

DLR



ROKVISS Kontur II: Telespresent control of a 2
-
DOF robot (ROKVISS) on the
ground from an operator onboard the ISS using a force reflecting joystick. This
mission will
prepare and test the real
-
time communication infrastructure for
METERON.



DEOS (Deutsche Orbitale Servicing Mission): The primary mission objectives of the
DEOS mission are to capture a tumbling non
-
cooperative Client satellite with a
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servicer spacecraft (a
utonomously and teleoperated) and to de
-
orbit the coupled
configuration in a pre
-
defined corridor at end of mission.



Justin: In the future, humanoid robots are envisioned in space environments. The
mobile robotic system Justin


with its compliant controll
ed lightweight arms and its
two four
-
fingered hands


is DLR’s experimental platform for research topics in this
field such as the development of robust control strategies and intelligent manipulation
planners for dual handed manipulation.

2.5.3

ESA



METERON

(
Mul
ti
-
purpose End
-
To
-
End Robotic Operations Network
)



Eurobot (EVA Assistant Robot)



IVA Robotics



ExoMars (TBC)



ATV



European Robotic Arm

2.5.4

NASA



Robonaut 2
M
ission to
the
I
nternational
S
pace
S
tation



Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satel
lites



Astronaut Control of Surface Telerobots from Orbit



ISS Refueling



On
-
Orbit Servicing and Refueling



Free
-
flyer Inspection Robot



Astronaut Jet
p
ack



ISS
Dexterous Pointing Payload



Geo
synchronous

Ref
uel
ing



H
ubble
S
pace
T
elescope

Deorbit Mission



Near Earth Asteroid
Robotic Precursor



Crew Transfer Vehicle



Multi
-
Mission Space Exploration Vehicle



Deep Space Experimental Test Facility



Deep Space Vehicle



Human
to
Mars Orbit

/

Phobos



Human
to
Mars
Surface
Mission

2.6

OPERATOR VENUES

The proposed Telerobotics Working
G
roup recognizes that there will continue to
be new
mission concepts involving human
-
robot teams working in varied locales. Current mission
concepts
include



but are not necessarily limited to



humans operating robots:
f
rom

IVA
and EVA

environments
; from orbit

to the surface of the orbited body and vice versa; between
ground
-
based locations, either on the same surface body or between bodies; in
-
transit to or
from a remote exploration site; and from a
Lagrangian point
. In each of these cases, some
element of a collaborative standard may be gainfully applied which provides the human
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operator with an effective means of controlling a robotic agent. Although the time
-
delay
aspect of the teleoperation problem represents a c
ontinuum, the proposed Telerobotics
Working Group is mainly concerned with delays
of the magnitude found between Earth and
Near
-
Earth Objects as a maximum.

2.7

TESTING

& PROTOTYPING

The proposed Telerobotics Working Group encourages
participating organizations

to
look for
opportunities to
involve their
technology development lab
oratories in Agency f
ield
-
testing
as
a way to provide
opportunities for interoperability testing.
Although we do not anticipate
directly supporting the development of a common communicat
ions network infrastructure
between participating Agencies, we will
encourage

the development of such infrastructure as
a way of reducing the costs associated with the independent
prototyping

and test activities
required of CCSDS standards development grou
ps.

The members of the Telerobotics
Working Group will actively promote the early prototyping
and field
-
testing
of the messages,
APIs and services
described
i
n their Blue Book
.

To encourage the widest possible test
coverage, prototypes will be encouraged i
n different computer languages, such as C++ and
Java, and testing will occur against both actual and virtual robotic assets. We expect each
official prototyping effort to implement all defined messages and APIs; however, due to the
effort required, individ
ual prototypes may implement simplified versions of the specified
services. When taken together, all services will receive at least one complete implementation
with
in

the full set of Blue Book prototypes.

2.8

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPME
NT

There remain many
technical
challenges related to the application of telerobotics
technologies to mission needs.

In this section, we highlight some examples where
collaboration between Agencies may
cause

an increase in the pace of technology
development.

The proposed Telerobotics Wor
king Group welcomes collaborators working in
these fields
that

wish to participate in technology development
-

and mission
-
focused
collaborations.

The proposed standards will not pertain directly to these technologies, but
will provide an avenue by which th
ese individual technologies can more readily be tested in



and interoperate with



a complete mission
-
relevant human
-
robotic system.



Object Recognition and Pose Estimation



Fusing vision, tactile and force control for manipulation



Achieving human
-
like
performance for piloting vehicles



Access to extreme terrain in zero
-
, micro
-

and reduced
-
gravity



Grappling and anchoring to asteroids and non
-
cooperating objects



Exceeding human
-
like dexterous manipulation



Full immersion, telepresence with haptic and multi

modal sensor feedback



Understanding and expressing intent between humans and robots



Verification of Autonomous Systems



Supervised autonomy of force/contact tasks across time delay



Rendezvous, proximity operations and docking in extreme conditions



Mobile m
anipulation that is safe for working with and near humans

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As an example, a new proximity operations sensor technology
might generate localization
messages in a standard format, enabling all local agents (ISS, approaching vehicle, nearby
robotic manipulator
s, telerobotics displays and controls) to readily integrate the sensor data
into their control systems.

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3

OTHER WORKING GROUPS

The proposed Telerobotics Working Group is concerned with developing software data
structures and routines that simplify the process of communicating between multiple diverse
robots and their command and control systems. The developed
standard

would have t
he
characteristic of a compatibility layer that permits operators, operation tools and robotic
agents to exchange information while allowing operators to communicate with heterogeneous
robots in a uniform way.

We will engage the CCSDS Working Groups that a
re actively involved in the development
of middleware and messaging standards. Where appropriate, we will advocate for those
functional and performance characteristics that are required for the proper operation of the
Telerobotics standard. We anticipate e
ngaging members of the
Spacecraft Monitor and
Control Working Group (MOIMS
-
SM&C)
,

Delay Tolerant Networking Working Group
(SIS
-
DTN)
,
Application Support Services Working Group (SOIS
-
APP)
and
Asynchronous
Message Service Working Group (SIS
-
AMS)
at a minimum
, with

additional groups as
warranted.