Paper4_Review

electricfutureAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Name:

Varsha Surasani

Subject:

ACS 562 Systems Analysis and Design

Paper 4:

A
Telerobotic Assistant f
or
Laparoscopic s
urgery

Advisor:

Dr. John Tanik









This paper explains how to develop a new generation system that can work cooperatively
with a huma
n surgeon to off
-
load routine tasks and to reduce the number of people needed in
operating system. Most of the key enabling technologies such as 3D imaging, modeling,
visualization, real
-
time sensing, telerobotics, and system integration that are computer
based
are used in this system.





Remote center
-
of
-
motion robot:

a.

Design drawing

b.

Photograph of whole robot

c.

Photograph of distal four axes

All motions are kinematically decoupled at the point where laparoscopic instrument would
enter the patient’s body.

M
anipulator Design
:

This section explains how the instrument motions are to be
programmed for a safe operation.
Safety, contr
ol convenience, and flexibility
for us
e in a
wide variety of surgical applications are

i
mportant factors in determining
the manipul
ator
design.

Robot Motion Control Subsy
s
tem
:

This section explains how low level motion control and
high level motion control are performed.

Human
-
Machine Interfaces
:

This section explains how surgeon interacts and controls the
surgical instruments and whi
ch type of instruments can be used to perform the surgery
efficiently.


Instrument Mounted Joystick

The embodiment shown is functionally equivalent to a three button mouse which is a single
track
-
point adapted from an IBM ThinkPad computer and three push
buttons in package
about 35mm across.

Operating Modes:


Direct Teleoperation: This section explains how surgeon interactively controls the motion of
the robot by directly commanding individual motions and how the controller responds to the
torque values se
nsed by force sensor in the robot’s wrist.


Vision guided operation:



In
-
vivo video display with superimposed control menus


This figure shows typical video display seen by the surgeon when using the system.

The menus on the left hand side of

the screen

correspond to control modes or robot functions.
The “snapshot” images on the right hand side correspond to previously saved robot viewing
positions. Typically, the surgeon would select desired functions or robot positions by using of
the instrument mounte
d joystick to position a cursor over the desired menu item and then
“clicking” a button. In some modes (e.g., “pan”) pushing on the joystick causes the robot to
shift viewpoint seen through the camera.

Guided Autonomy:

Assistive Functions:




In
-
vitro dem
onstration of point and grab application



(a) Experimental setup, con
sisting of the surgical robot holding a Store therapeutic
laparoscope with a 6 mm

working channel, a rubber simulation of patient an
atomy, and a
small target to be
grasped by a surgical

instrument inserted
into the working channel of the
laparoscope.

The robot is draped as it would be in surgery.

(b) Force compliant manual

guiding of the robot. The robot enters this mode

whenever the
surgeon depresses
two buttons on opposite sides of th
e instrument carrier.

(c) Display monitor after

the surgeon has designated the target using the

instrument mounted
joystick to
place cursor crosshairs on the image of the target.

(d) Scene just after the computer

has located the target by multiresolution

correlation. T
his
view shows the correlation
window tree. Normally, this display is used for de
bugging and
would be suppressed
in production use.

(e) Insertion of the instrument into the working channel.

(f
)
The scene during the pickup operation. The pel
let a
ppears to be off
-
centre, but is
lined up
with the working channel of the scope
.