Human Centered Product Design

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Feb 21, 2014 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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1

Human Centered Product Design

Research portfolio, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering

October 1, 2002



1.

Design theory and support


1.1

Methodology, tools and techniques

1.1.1

Design processes in product development (Roozenburg)

1.1.2

Methods and techniques for the co
nceptual phase of design (Stappers)

1.1.3

Product conceptualization in collaborative virtual prototyping environment (Horváth)


1.2

Life cycle engineering and design

1.2.1

Personal energy systems (Bremer)

1.2.2

Engineering design with new materials (Kandachar)

1.2.3

Design for susta
inability (Brezet)


1.3

Product functionality and experience

1.3.1

Usage evaluation (Kanis)

1.3.2

Product aesthetics and experience (Jacobs)

1.3.3

Consumer preference (Schoormans)



2.

Design of future products


2.1

Product intelligence

2.1.1

Transparent interfaces (de Ridder)

2.1.2

Intelligence
in products (Keyson)

2.1.3

Product advantage and market acceptance of intelligent products (Hultink)



2.2

Design for all

2.2.1

Design for healthy environments (Goossens)

2.2.2

Dynamic anthropometry (Molenbroek)





2

THEME 1


1. Title portfolio theme and director


Design Theory a
nd Support

Prof. dr. J.P.L. Schoormans



2. List of programmes




Methodology, Tools and Techniques



Life Cycle Engineering and Design



Functionality and Experience of Products



3. Scientific summary of the theme


Motivation

Technological advances lead to

innovative products. These products do not automatically fit to the
needs and wishes of the potential user. It is the aim of Industrial Design to develop products that
do

fit
the needs and wishes of users and society as expressed in the mission statement
of the faculty of
Industrial Design Engineering: “create products for people”. Needs and wishes are changing in an
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Methodology, Tools and Techniques
. The research of this program focuses on the theoretical
fundamentals of the des
ign process as well as
the methods, tools, and techniques that will be used by
designers and design teams during the creative development of new product concepts, the new
problems and opportunities that are offered by computer
-
enabled product technologies
and on ways to
measure the effectiveness and efficiency of these methods, tools and techniques.


Life Cycle Engineering and Design
. This program is directed to the extension of knowledge with
respect to product life cycles. Attention is directed to technol
ogical, ecological and economic research
issues.


Product Functionality and Experience.

This program focuses on the complex relation between users
and products. The ability to predict the implications of product concepts such as usefulness,
acceptance and

experience by the user, is a critical task for the designer.


Duration

The duration of this theme will be 8
-
10 years.


Relevance of the theme

Relation to the mission of the faculty and the university

This research theme is related to the core of the miss
ion of the faculty Industrial Design Engineering:



3

“Create products for People”. This mission can only be achieved through a multidisciplinary design
approach in which aspects are integrated such as engineering, ergonomics, aesthetics and aspects of
sustain
ability. This research theme reflects the theoretical content of the recently defined masters of
the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering.


The research in this theme addresses trends stated in the ARTD study.

“Extending of the boundaries of technolog
y” requires that new methods, tools and techniques be built
upon a better understanding of the thinking processes, actions and role of the future designer
-
engineer.
A thorough analysis of the designer and his tasks should be done on many levels from a ment
al,
cognitive and perceptual level to the physical setting, including the tools and actions involved. All of
the fields mentioned above will benefit from knowledge of the creative process and of the influences
these elements have on the innovation level of

new product ideas. Next, the “Extending of the
boundaries of technology” is represented, not only by technological innovations, but also by the
exploration into factors that are difficult to measure, such as user behavior, feelings, expression and
emotion
s regarding products. Research into the meaning of “comfort”, “satisfaction”, “attachment”
and other areas is expected to expand the borders of our current knowledge and improve the process of
design as well as the products resulting from that process. Fin
ally, “The knowledge and management
of the materialisation” is well expressed in the engineering, construction, manufacturing and new
materials
-
related aspects of the research that are found in the life cycle engineering programme.


Societal relevance

The
research contributes to the development of new products that fit the needs and demands of
tomorrows' users. A better user
-
product relationship is expected to improve the way people live and
work. Products that score high regarding usability, acceptance and

importance to the task will increase
user attachment and add to their satisfaction in life. Products with lower environmental burden during
production and/or during use improve the quality of life both in the short and long run. In this way this
theme wil
l contribute to the idea posed in the ARTD report that “technology can score high by
improving quality of life”.






4

PROGRAMME 1.1


1. Title portfolio programme


Methodology, Tools and Techniques



2. List of subprogrammes and subprogramme leaders




Des
ign Processes in Product Development / Ir. N.F.M. Roozenburg



Methods and Techniques for the Conceptual Phase of Design / Dr. P.J. Stappers



Product Conceptualization in Collaborative Virtual Prototyping Environment / Prof. dr. I. Horvath



3. Subprogramme
members

Rank

title and name

Professors

prof. dr. I. Horváth

vacancy Chair Design Techniques

vacancy Chair Design Methodology

Associate professors


dr. H.H.C.M. Christiaans

dr. P.A. Lloyd

ir. N.F.M. Roozenburg

dr. P.J. Stappers

dr. J.S.M. Vergeest

Assi
stant professors


ir. E.J.J. van Breemen

ir. J.J. Broek

ir. A. Hoeben

ir. H. Kuipers

dr. ir. R. van der Lugt

ir. C.C.M. Moes

ir. W. Muller

ir. G.J. Pasman

ir. F.E.H.M. Smulders

dr. ir. A.C. Valkenburg

ir. W.F. van de Vegte

ir. J.C. Verlinden

dr.ir R.W. Vro
om


4. Scientific summary of the programme


The complexity of the design process is well recognized. Managing the design process to predict at an
early stage the implications of a product concept and its usefulness, is a critical task for a designer.
Nex
t to that, designers need to integrate knowledge from different backgrounds into one single
product concept. More and more, the complexity of modern products involves large, multidisciplinary,
often even dispersed design teams. In order to integrate the kn
owledge from different team
-
members
specific design methodologies, techniques and tools are needed. This research theme focuses on the
exploration, development, validation and implementation of innovative methodologies, techniques and
tools to support prod
uct designers in the creative and integrated development of new products
.







5

DESCRIPTION OF SUBPROGRAMME 1.1.1


1. Title research subprogramme and subprogramme leader


Design Processes in product development / ir. N.F.M. Roozenburg



2. Scientific desc
ription of the subprogram


Central problem statement and goal

The goal of this program is to increase our understanding of the factors that go to make up the design
processes including product development. Influencing factors break down into a number of m
ulti
-
disciplinary areas such as the nature of design problems, the structure of design processes, the abilities
and experience of designers, design representation, design thinking and reasoning, creativity, and
communication. The overall goal is to be achi
eved both through empirical studies


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Critical/theoretical analyses.
One part of the program aims to investigate and clarify t
he concepts and
ideas designers and researchers use in discussing, investigating and practicing design. For example,
concepts like function, form, structure, behavior, intention and morality, although having relatively
straightforward meanings in simple co
ntexts, become problematic when applied to an evolving design
process. By thinking through the concepts involved in design theory and design practise, this project
hopes to arrive at clear and useful definitions of key ideas. This will be done in two main

ways.
Philosophical analysis is a powerful tool in looking at the logic of design reasoning and the conceptual
relations between design process elements. Critical analyses look at how representations of designing,
in flow diagrams or on television for e
xample, contain ideological subtexts.


Empirical studies.
The second part of the program focuses on empirical studies of designing as a form
of complex human action. This research concentrates more on what it is that designers do when they
follow a design
process. Although this part of the program concentrates mainly on industrial
designers, the intention is not to be limited to any one discipline, being
also

concerned with
comparative study. The research methodology used here is a mixture of qualitative
studies (case
studies, narratives, ethnographic studies etc.) and quantitative laboratory research; identifying,
operationalising and measuring key variables that affect the design process. These variables include
task domain, expertise of designers, adop
ted strategies, time and budget constraints and organizational
and physical context (e.g. team designing and remote designing


Coherence with research inside and outside TU Delft

UK: Bath University, University College London, Open University, Coventry Uni
versity, Sheffield
University, Edinburgh University. Denmark: Technical University of Denmark. Germany: Berlin
University, Darmstadt University. Australia: Sydney University. US: MIT, Stanford University,
Seattle, Carnegie Mellon University and Buffalo Uni
versity.




6

DESCRIPTION OF SUBPROGRAMME 1.1.2


1. Title research subprogramme and subprogramme leader


Methods and Techniques for the Conceptual Phase of Design / dr. P.J. Stappers



2. Scientific description of the subprogram


Central problem statement
and goal

This research program focuses on the development of methods and techniques to be used by designers
and design teams in the early phases of the design process. During these phases the design problem is
analysed, initial ideas are formed and subsequ
ently developed into concepts. There is a growing
pressure on the early phases because of increased technological complexity, increased attention for the
social, cultural, and experiential contexts of product use, and the need for faster development of new

products. Central to the early phase is the generation, integration and communication of new ideas and
existing knowledge. Much of the ideation and communication occurs through visualisations such as
sketches, storyboards, mood boards and collages and thr
ough simple physical mock
-
ups as concept
prototypes. These means are becoming more important because much of the information is perceptual,
emotional, cognitive and social and thus difficult to verbalise. Furthermore these means are important
because desi
gn teams are increasingly working in (remote) collaboration with specialists from diverse
backgrounds having their own frame of reference and language. Visualisations and (interactive)
prototypes facilitate communication across disciplinary boundaries.


T
he broad range of traditional tools needs to be expanded with the new possibilities offered by digital
technologies, such as (1) realising dynamic and interactive tools for expression, communication,
experience, and inspiration, (2) bridging the gap to lat
er phases in the design process where computer
representations play a central part. At the same time, digital tools have to become more supportive of
the perceptual and cognitive demands of creative work. Currently, traditional media such as sketches
are m
uch better at satisfying the needs of the creative processes in the conceptual phase, such as,
allowing a fluent change between activities, and a graded commitment to solutions. Computer tools
are often criticised for distracting their users from the conte
nt of their ideas. Integrating the strengths
of digital and traditional tools is therefore both a research challenge and a design challenge.



Because user needs have become an increasingly important focus in the early phases of design,
research in this su
bprogramme is closely related to program 1.3 “Product Functionality and
Experience”. The latter subprogramme focuses on WHAT knowledge the members of the design team
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Coherence with research inside and outside TU Delft

TU Delft: Aerospace Engineering, Computer Graphics (ITS), CACTUS

Netherlands: Eind
hoven University of Technology (Industrial Design, Computer Science)

Research institutes: RCA London, EDC Cambridge, Ohio State Univ., Univ. Tsukuba, KAIST

Industry: Alias!Wavefront, Hewlett
-
Packard







7

DESCRIPTION OF SUBPROGRAMME 1.1.3


1. Title research

subprogramme and subprogramme leader


Product conceptualization in collaborative virtual prototyping environment / Prof. dr. I. Horváth



2. Scientific description of the subprogramme


Central problem statement and goal

The research subprogramme devel
ops and implements computer
-
oriented theories, methods, tools and
pilot
-
systems for supporting conceptual design of products in a collaborative virtual prototyping
environment. To this end, it considers two foci of activities. On the one hand, it explores
methods and
techniques and prototypes tools for knowledge
-
intensive computer support of product
conceptualization. On the other hand, it studies the technological infrastructure, collaboration support,
information/knowledge management, and system realizati
on aspects of collaborative virtual
design/prototyping environments. The research program contributes to the scientific development of
the discipline as well as provides applicable solutions for product conceptualization and remote
collaboration in the ind
ustry.

One branch of the subprogramme is computer support of conceptual design. It requests a deeper
understanding how design concepts and solution ideas can be converted to computer internal models
and how designers can interact with incomplete, uncertain

and multitude virtual concept models. It is
also an objective to explore by which physical concept models the conceptualization process can be
made more effective and what concrete technologies can be applied in an evolutionary, in
-
process
physical model
making.

Another branch of the research subprogramme is the inquiry into architectures, technologies,
applications and development issues of collaborative virtual design environments that are considered
to be the next generation of design support systems. I
ssues such as collaborative modeling, model
sharing, multi
-
aspect conceptualization, balanced comprehension, knowledge management,
communication management will be studied. The results of the modeling oriented research will be
directly used in this part of

the research subprogramme.

Coherence with research inside and outside TU Delft

Having the intention of amplifying the influence of ICT in design, the program is an integral part of
the research of the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering. With the dev
elopment of knowledge
-
intensive product models as well as frameworks and technologies for distributed virtual prototyping
environments it supports most of the research programs in theme 1. Design Theory and Support.
Within the University, it has connection

with research programs of the ITS Faculty. In the
Netherlands, there is connection to the FROOM Project of the University Twente and with the GIVE
Centre of the University of Utrecht. The program participates in the 5th EC Framework and is also
involved i
n the setting up of 6th Framework Networks of Excellence. Concrete international
collaboration is going on with Osaka Uni., Japan, Uni. of Ljubljana, Slovenia, EPFL Lausanne,
Switzerland, TU Budapest, Hungary, HUST, China, Uni. Of Achen, Germany, and ITMS
Mexico.






8

PROGRAMME 1.2


1. Title portfolio programme


Life Cycle Engineering and Design



2. List of subprogrammes and subprogramme leaders




Personal Energy Systems / Ir. A.P. Bremer



Engineering Design with New Materials / Dr. P.V. Kandachar



Design
for Sustainability / Prof.dr. ir J.C. Brezet



3. Subprogramme members (june 2002)

Rank

title and name

Professors

prof. dr.ir J.C. Brezet

prof.dr.ir.A.L.N. Stevels

vacancy Chair Design Engineering

vacancy Chair Reliability and Durability

Associate pro
fessors


ir. A.P. Bremer

dr. P.V. Kandachar

dr.ir. J.A.M. Remmerswaal

dr.ir. S. Silvester

Assistant professors


dr. C. Boks



ir. J.C. Diehl

ir. S.F.J. Flipsen

Ir. A.J. Heidweiller

ir. A.J. Jansen

Ir. R.P. Koster

ir. M.J. Veefkind



4. Scientific summary

of the programme


Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) considers mass and material flows of the whole life cycle of products
including necessary transports and energy supply processes. Whereas classical Life Cycle Analysis
provides environmental impacts of proce
sses, LCE additionally gives hints to incurred costs and
personal costs as well as technical data about the process and physical product properties to determine
and analyze. Three dimensions characterize LCE: ecology, economy and technology. The use of the
se
three dimensions as relevant points of consideration makes it possible to compare reasonably different
technologies, make a combination with social and environmental impacts and evaluate products in
terms of an overall optimum. Particularly, the use of
alternative energy systems, opportunities based
upon new materials and the innovation of product systems for the optimization of life cycles will be
the research focus of the program.






9

DESCRIPTION OF SUBPROGRAMME 1.2.1


1. Title research subprogramme an
d subprogramme leader


Personal Energy Systems / ir. A.P. Bremer



2. Scientific description of the subprogram


Central problem statement and goal

During the last decades, electrically powered appliances have become common property of Dutch
households.
Portable appliances contribute substantially to the growth of electrically powered
appliances. In particular in the information and communication sector and in the audio sector portable
products are widely available and in use. Actually, they are the faste
st growing sectors in the booming
market of electronic and digital products. For instance in the year 2000, worldwide about 200 million
cellular phones were in use, of which about 7 million in the Netherlands. The global number is
expected to double in the

next two years. Aligned with the growth of these portable (or personal)
products there is a steady growth of primary and secondary battery sales.


Due to various drivers (economics, environmental consciousness, convenience for the user…) we can
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Technical feasibility (adapting the power consumption profile of the product to the alternative
e
n
ergy sy
s
tem)



User perception and adoption of products with alternative energy systems due to a changin
g
way of user
-
product interaction and context



Economical barriers; shift from use related costs (replacement of batteries) to production
related costs (expensive alternative energy systems)


The scientific challenge lies in understanding how the use of alt
ernative energy systems can affect the
life cycle performance of personal products. The results of research in this area can be used to develop
tools and methods to assist the d
e
signer in translating a chosen technology into a combination of
technical solu
tions that fits within the wishes of the co
n
sumer.


Coherence with research inside and outside TU Delft

BK,

TNW, TNO
-
MEP, Fraunhofer Institut, KU
-
Leuven, EET
-
KIEM, ECN,

MIT






10

DESCRIPTION OF SUBPROGRAMME 1.2.2


1. Title research subprogram and subprogram

leader


Engineering Design with New Materials / dr. P.V. Kandachar



2. Scientific description of the subprogram


Central problem statement and goal

Both reliability and durability aspects are demanding increased attention during materials selection
an
d product design. The number of innovative material concepts is also growing steadily; they offer
both the challenges of novelty and new design opportunities, which need to be explored.

Understanding the mechan
i
cal behaviour of products manufactured using
new materials is essential to
meet the requirements of the technological products in the modern society, both from the economic
and from the ecological points of view. The knowledge about the theory and practice of designing
reliable and durable products i
s, however, insufficiently developed and is not accessible for designers.
In addition, the long
-
term environmental impact of the new m
a
terials and their products is largely
unknown.


The envisaged research activity contributes towards these lacunae by bot
h experimentation and by
predictive modelling. The research focus will be on products designed in polymers and in materials
from renewable r
e
sources. The application of these new materials enables to design strong but lighter
products resulting in less mat
erial and energy consumption. Especially for transport and packaging
industries, such products are increasingly preferred. Renewable materials, aimed at replacing those of
fossil origin, in addition, are expected to co
n
tribute towards sustainability as we
ll, by reducing the
dependency on finite resources.


The scientific challenge lies in understanding the complex mechanical behaviour, implementing the
numer
i
cal models in engineering tools and predicting the long
-
term behaviour of products, while at the
sa
me time, optimising products for minimal material consumption and environmental impact. The
societal relevance is in developing methodologies to design products, which are reliable and durable,
while

both environmental impact and material consumption are m
inimized. Minimizing material usage
also means lesser energy co
n
sumption during the life c
y
cle of products.


Coherence with research inside and outside TU Delft

TUDelft
:
Industrial Design Engineering
,

Mechanical Engineering, Polymer Science & Technology,
and Aerospace Enginee
r
ing.

TUEindhoven
:

National Dutch Research School of Polymer Science and Technology (PTN)

Research Institutes
:

TNO, Eindhoven, ATO
-
DLO, Wagenigen

Europe
:
Cambridge University, UK, University of London, UK, Universidad País Vasco, Spain
,
Università degli Studi di Perugia, Italy, University of Stockholm, Sweden, Norwegian University of
Science and Tec
h
nology (NTNU)


korw慹






11

DESCRIPTION OF SUBPROGRAMME 1.2.3


1. Title research subprogram and subprogram leader


Design for Sustainabilit
y / Prof.dr. ir. J.C. Brezet



2. Scientific description of the subprogram


Central problem statement and goal

The worldwide
-
accepted need for sustainable development implies that mass consumption goods and
their functional contexts should be characteriz
ed by continuously improving environmental, economic
and social
-
cultural values. Therefore, the exploration, description, understanding and prediction of
problems and opportunities to innovate and design products and product
-
systems with superior quality
w
ith respect to sustainable development values (ecodesign) is the central question of the program.

The envisaged research activity comprises the systematic development, testing and international
diffusion of methods and tools for the design of artifacts
with superior life cycle eco
-
efficiency and

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散潮潭i挠潰cimiz慴i潮F.⁐慲ti捵larly
I

th攠ee獥ar捨cf潣畳 i猠潮潤敬i湧Ⱐ
慣tua
l 慰灬ic慴i潮⁡o搠摥d潮獴r慴i潮ofor潢ol攠ele捴r潮o挠慮搠湥w潢olity



in捬畤i湧⁡畴潭潴ive
-

灲潤畣t猬s摥灡rti湧⁦潲m⁡ 桵h慮⁣敮eer敤⁤敳ig渠灥ns灥ptiv攮e

f渠慤摩ti潮Ⱐt桥⁰ 潧r慭⁦o捵c敳渠 桥⁢h獩n敳猠慳p散t猠sf⁥ o摥dig測⁢慳e搠潮⁣畲re湴 r敡lity⁡

數灥ct敤e摥d敬潰o敮e猠i渠t桥har⁦畴ur攮⁈er攬e敮eiro湭敮e慬⁡ 灥pt猠sf⁰ 潤畣ts⁡湤⁰ 潣o獳e猠sr攠
慮aly獥搠i渠r敬慴i潮ot漠tr慤iti潮慬⁢畳u湥n猠sa捴or猠lik攠fi湡湣n慬 E潭湩灲e獥ntFⰠl敧i獬慴iv攠e敮e
-

-
lif攬e
t潸o捩tyFⰠ煵Ility
敮eir潮o敮eal⁶慬略u慮搠a
敲f潲m慮a攩⁡ 搠d慲k整i湧
捯c灥pit潲⁡ 慬y獩猬
扥湣桭慲ki湧Ⱐ捯湳畭敲⁲e獥慲捨c 慳p散t献



䙵牴h敲m潲攬⁴漠o慫攠e湴o⁡ 捯畮c t桥hf畮捴i潮olity⁡ 灥捴f⁰ o摵dt猠i渠nh敩r⁦畴ur攠畳er⁡湤 獹獴敭猠
捯湴e硴Ⱐt桥h灲oj散t i湶潬v敳⁴桥h摥d敬潰o敮ef整桯摯d潧i
敳 for⁴h攠摥獩g渠潦 r慤ac慬ⰠI敷e
獵st慩n慢a攠灲潤畣t
-
獹獴敭猠s湤ni湤畳trial⁰r潣o獳e猬

wit栠愠獵灥ri潲⁥湶ir潮o敮e慬 lif攠捹捬攠
灥pf潲m慮a攠en搠dh攠et畤u ⁴散桮hl潧y⁣潬l慢潲ative⁡ r敥m敮e猠s湤nt桥ir⁰潴敮tial⁦潲⁳畳t慩湡nl攠
灲潤畣t⁣潮捥pt畡liz慴io測

灲潤畣t⁤敶敬潰o敮eⰠ敮Ii湥nri湧⁡湤慳猠灲o摵dtio渮


q桥⁳ i敮tifi挠c桡ll敮e攠潦 t桥⁰h潧r慭⁩猠t漠o敮er慴攠e湯nl敤e攠e異u潲ti湧⁴h攠en湯n慴i潮o慮搠摥獩g渠
敮ei湥nri湧 ⁣潭灬數⁰eo摵捴s⁡湤⁰r潤o捴
-
獹獴敭猠wit栠h異urior⁥ 潮潭i挬⁥nvir潮o敮e慬⁡湤n
獯si

-
捵ctural⁣ 慲a捴eri獴i捳 敲⁴桥hr lif攠ey捬攬⁩渠捬潳o⁣ 湮散ti潮⁷it栠h桥⁤h湡ni捳 ⁳ 獴敭猠潦
livi湧ⰠIr慶敬i湧ⰠI潲ki湧ⰠIt挮c


Coherence with research inside and outside TU Delft

TU Delft
: Sustainable Building program (Faculty BK) , Energy Insti
tute, Sustainable Industrial
Processes program (OCP), TRAIL Research School

Outside TU Delft
: Energy Transition program (Dept. of Ec. Affairs), TNO, ECN, EUR, University of
Utrecht, University of Lund, IIT Delhi, IST Portugal,
Politecnico

Milan, Fra
unhofer/TU Berlin,
Georgia Institute of Technology, Stanford University, Technical University Darmstadt, TU Wien, TU
Denmark, ENSAM, Tsinghua University (Beijing), NTNU
Trondheim, UMIST Manchester.

Industry and design community:

Philips, Shell, Unilever.
KPN, DAF Trucks, Ahrend, Xerox, HP,
CEP, Nike, Syntens, Sony, Nokia, Johnson&Johnson, Motorola, Elextrolux and Sun Microsystems.






12

PROGRAMME 1.3


1. Title portfolio programme


Product Functionality and Experience



2. List of subprogrammes and subprog
ramme leaders




Usage Evaluation / drs.
H. Kanis



Product Aesthetics and Experience / prof. ir. J.J. Jacobs



Consumer Preference / prof. dr. J.P.L. Schoormans


3. Subprogramme members

Rank

title and name

Professors

prof. dr. J.W. Drukker

prof. ir. J.J. Ja
cobs

prof. P.P. Mijksenaar

prof. dr. J.P.L. Schoormans

vacancy Chair Applied Ergonomics

vacancy Chair Form Theory

Associate professors


dr. P.P.M. Hekkert

drs. H. Kanis

Assistant professors


dr. M.E.H. Creusen

ir. M.B. van Dijk

dr. R. van Egmond

dr. C.C
.M Hummels

dr. K.P.N. Morel

dr. T.R.A. de Rijk

dr. ir. M.J. Rooden

dr. H.N.J. Schifferstein

dr. P.H. Westendorp


4. Scientific summary of the programme

Designers and manufacturers are faced with deciding what kind of functionality to include in products
and what experiences to be elicited by products.

This decision is especially relevant nowadays as the
technological possibilities in products have vastly increased.


On the basis of functional and experiential demands, consumers express preferences in buyi
ng, using
and discarding products. The central question in this research programme is how design can mediate
between the large range of technological possibilities and how consumer demands in terms of
functional and experiential product benefits will be me
t. In all subprograms research will be focused
on the engagement of people with products in a dynamic and a natural context.







13

DESCRIPTION OF SUBPROGRAMME 1.3.1


1. Title research subprogramme and subprogramme leader


Usage Evaluation / drs.
H. Kanis

.



2. Scientific description of the subprogram


Central problem statement and goal

Actual usage is the arena for the success of new designs as effective, efficient and satisfactory
products in supporting, protecting, replacing and extending all kinds of
human activities. In fact,
designers are often surprised by the actual usage of newly designed products. Even worse is that in
many cases the surprise is unwelcome because unanticipated users’ operations deteriorate designed
f畮uti潮慬itie猠潲慹敡搠t漠
慣捩d敮e献sq桥h摩ffi捵lty⁦潲⁤敳ig湥n猠i猠s桡t⁡ tiviti敳 畳ur猠


攮e⸬.
t桥ir i湤nvi摵慬 灥p捥ptio湳Ⱐ捯I湩ti潮猠慮搠畳攠e捴i潮o


t敮e⁴漠扥⁨ig桬y⁵湰 敤i捴慢l攠eithi渠t桥h
扯畮摡rie猠set⁢ ⁳ n獯syⰠ扲慩渠慮搠n潴潲⁣ p慣iti敳 潦⁨畭慮⁢ai湧献


q桥⁥
vi獡g敤er敳e慲捨⁡im猠st 獵灰srti湧⁤敳ig湥n猠to⁡湴i捩灡p攠eutur攠e獡g攠e渠t桲敥⁷慹献


E
i
) More insight will be gained into the way people, as users, attribute meanings to featural and
functional characteristics of products. This insight involves ‘tellin
gs’ of products in terms of
f畮uti潮慬itie猠s湤n灯獳ible⁷慹猠潦⁵獥Ⱐ慳⁷ell 慳⁡⁢整t敲⁵湤nr獴慮ai湧 ⁵獡g攠eff散ti湧⁰ 潣os獥s
獵s栠h猠si獫⁰敲捥pti潮Ⱐ捯I湩tiv攠eix慴i潮f⁵ 敲猠sr慰灥搠批⁴桥ir 數灥rie湣n 慮a⁳ igm慴i獡ti潮⁡o⁡
獯si慬⁰r潣敳猠lea
摩湧⁴漠愠w慳t攠潦⁤敳ig湥搠n獡bility 慮搠aati獦慣ti潮⸠o


E
ii
) It is recognised that generic insights (see
i
) will never specify the situatedness of actual usage in
context. Hence, anticipative methods have to be developed that can be effectively and effi
ciently
applied during a design process. Research into these methods involves the use of early models or
prototypes in exploring future usage; the possibilities of and limitations of self
-
reports to link internal
processes (such as users’ perceptions, cogn
iti潮猠慮搠a硰敲i敮e敤⁥ffortF⁴漠oorm⁡湤⁦畮捴i潮ol
捨cr慣t敲istic猠潦⁰ 潤畣t猻 慮搠ah攠e摤iti潮慬 i湦潲m慴i潮⁴桡tig桴⁢攠摥riv敤⁦r潭⁣ r捵c獴慮aial
敶i摥湣攠捯湳isti湧 捡獵慬⁵tter慮捥猠潲 i湶潬畮t慲y⁡ tiviti敳f⁵ 敲猬⁥⹧⸠敹e
-
movem敮e献


E
i
ii
) Uncertainty about future usage (see
i

and
ii
) may be partly neutralised by transforming the actual
users’ behaviour to a source of inspiration for new product development. Exploration of this issue will
shed light on the possibilities to substantiate ‘
u獡g支be桡hi潵o
-
driven innovation’.


q桥⁳ i敮tifi挠c桡ll敮e敳 ⁴桥⁳畢灲潧r慭⁡ 攠e漠integr慴攠潢獥rv慴i潮ol r敳敡rc栠h渠摥獩g渠灲潣os獥sⰠ
扯b栠h猠s渠敦f散tiv攠en搠敦fi捩敮t⁴潯o 慳⁷ell 慳⁡整h潤潬潧y⁴桡h i猠f畬ly⁲敳p散t慢a攠i渠t敲m猠潦
獣ie湴ifi挠
cr敤ibility⸠周.猠may⁣ 敡te⁡⁦ruitf畬 li慩獯s⁢整we敮⁤e獩g渠慮搠獣i敮e攮⁔桥⁳潣o整慬
r敬敶慮a攠ef⁴h攠e湶is慧敤⁲敳e慲捨⁩猠s湳畲e搠dhr潵o栠h桥⁣潮orib畴i潮ot漠o桥himpr潶敭敮e
灲潤畣t猠f潲⁰敯 l攠i渠t敲m猠潦 f畮utio湡nityⰠ畳I扩lityⰠ獡fety⁡湤⁳慴i
獦慣ti潮.


Coherence with research inside and outside TU Delft

TU Delft
: Department of Product Innovation.

Outside TU Delft
: University of Utrecht, University of Antwerp, Loughborough University, Glasgow
University, Universität Essen, University of Valenci
a, University of Canberra.







14

DESCRIPTION OF SUBPROGRAMME 1.3.2


1. Title research subprogramme and subprogramme leader


Product Aesthetics and Experience / prof. ir. J.J. Jacobs



2. Scientific description of the subprogram

Central problem stat
ement and goal

Although the functionality a product offers has always been, and will remain, an essential precondition
for product satisfaction and market success, various developments


t散桮hl潧i捡l⁩湮潶慴i潮猬o
‘experience economy’, etc.
-

灯p湴⁡ ⁡渠n
n捲e慳i湧⁩mp潲ta湣n 潦⁰r潤畣t⁥硰xrien捥⁡ 愠a慪潲
摲ivi湧⁦潲捥f⁰ 潤畣t⁡ 煵qsiti潮⁡湤⁵n攮⁐e潤畣t⁥硰敲i敮e攠e猠s畬ti
-
摩m敮ei潮ol⁣潮獴r畣t⁴桡h
捡渠扥n潰or慴i潮慬i獥搠批⁶敲扡l⁡ 搠扥d慶i潵oal敡s畲敳 t慰灩湧⁡灰r慩獡lⰠ敭潴i潮慬 慮搠a敳t桥ti

r敡cti潮献⁉渠n桩猠灲潧r慭⁴桥⁦o捵c i猠潮st桥h慣tiv攠畳敲ⰠI湴era捴i湧⁷it栠h⁰ 潤u捴⁴桲潵o栠hll⁨i猠
獥湳n猠s湤⁷it桩渠愠灡rti捵l慲⁣ 湴e硴Ⱐ慮搠a桥h敢e⁵湤敲g潩湧⁡⁤ 湡ni挠c湤畬ti
-
l慹敲敤e
數灥ri敮捥.


q漠o湤nr獴慮搠桯眠愠灲o摵捴⁩猠s硰敲i敮捥搬湯
wle摧攠潦 t慣t畡l
t潵捨cⰠ慵摩tory
獯畮搩Ⱐ慮搠
捨cm潳o湳潲y
獭敬l⁡湤 ta獴eF⁰ r捥pti潮⁩猠s湤n獰sns慢a攬e湥nt⁴o⁴h攠灲敤潭i湡湴⁶i獵sl潤攮⁔桩猠
灲潧r慭⁥硡mi湥n⁲elati潮s桩灳⁢整we敮⁰er捥灴i潮ot桲潵o栠h慲i潵猠o敮ee猠s湤nthe⁥硰 rie湣nf
灲潤畣t⁰r
潰orti敳⸠.f⁳ 散i慬⁩湴ere獴 i猠桯眠s敲捥ptio湳⁡湤nrel慴敤⁥x灥pi敮捥猠批⁴桥h攠e敮e攠
m潤慬iti敳⁡摤⁵瀬dint敲慣t 慮搠ah慰a⁥硰散tatio湳⁡n搠t桥h敢e⁩m灲潶攬e h敲wi獥 慦f散tⰠ灲潤畣t
畮摥u獴a湤n湧⁡湤 畳ur⁥硰敲i敮e攮


偲潤畣t⁥ 灥pi敮捥猠摥灥n搠潮d
a product’s usability and context of use (i.e. cultural and social
i湦l略u捥sFⰠI猠睥sl⁡猠潮sit猠sym扯bi挠煵clitie猠s攮e⸠扲慮搬⁴y灩c慬 畳ur猬敭潲i敳F⁢ 慲i湧⁴漠愠
user’s personal and social identity. Interactions between these factors and product att
ri扵b敳⁡r攠ef
獰sci慬⁩nter敳t⸠䙩湡nlyⰠ慣tiv敬y⁤敡li湧⁷it栠hr潤o捴s 捯畬搠le慤⁴漠愠or潡搠r慮a攠潦⁨畭慮a
數灥ri敮捥猬⁶慲yi湧⁦r潭⁦敥li湧猠潦⁡tt慣桭敮e⁡湤⁥湲ic桭敮e⁴漠慬l⁴y灥pf⁥m潴i潮献⁒敳敡r捨⁩猠
摩re捴敤⁴潷慲d猠sd敮eifyingⰠ捬慳sifyi湧ⰠI
湤⁤敳ig湩ng⁲敬敶慮a⁥硰xrie湣ns⁡湤 r敬慴i湧⁴桥h⁴漠
灲潤畣t⁡湤⁩nter慣ti潮⁰oo灥ptie献s


q桥⁡ m ⁴桩s⁲e獥ar捨ri敮eati潮⁩猠s漠捯ctri扵t攠e漠數灥ri敮捥⁣敮er敤e摥dig渮⁌敡摩湧
i湴敲湡ti潮ol⁣潭灡湩e猠s散潧湩z攠灲潤畣t⁥硰敲i敮捥 慳⁡敹⁩獳略⁩渠
d敳ig測⁷桩捨⁨慳⁲敳ult敤⁩渠
r敬慴e搠do捩 慰灥慲i湧⁡ ⁰ 潭i湥湴⁵湩v敲獩ti敳ⰠI畣栠a猠s桥⁁ff散tiv攠䍯e灵pi湧⁧r潵瀠慴 䵉q
䵥摩慌慢⸠a異灬敭敮ei湧⁴桥ir t散h湯n潧ic慬 潲i敮t慴i潮Ⱐ潵o f潣o猠s猠桵s慮
-
捥湴r敤Ⱐi⹥⸠
畮摥u獴a湤n湧⁴h攠灲潣o獳e猠畮摥rlyi湧⁰
潤o捴 數灥ri敮e敳Ⱐ慮搠I敳ig渠摲iv敮Ⱐey⁦潣畳i湧⁴h攠e湤n
g潡o猠潦 r敳敡r捨⁰roj散t猠s渠n桥hreti捡l潤敬猬⁴潯o猬s潲整桯摳ht桡t⁣ 渠扥⁤iscl潳od⁴漠t桥h
i湤畳trial⁤ 獩g渠捯nm畮uty⸠.漠oh慴 latter⁥ 搬⁴h攠灲ogr慭⁩猠sl潳oly⁲敬慴敤⁴o⁰ 潧r慭m攠ㄮㄠ
‘Met
hodology, Tools and Techniques’.


Coherence with research inside and outside TU Delft

Research institutes: University of Toronto, Carnegie Mellon University, MIT MediaLab (Cambridge
and Dublin), NTNU Trondheim, Brunel University, Loughborough University, T
U Eindhoven,
Universiteit Wageningen, Vrije Universiteit, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen

Industry and design community: Mitsubishi Motors, Philips Design, Proctor & Gamble, Gispen,
Fabrique, KVD, Senta.







15

DESCRIPTION OF SUBPROGRAMME 1.3.3


1. Title r
esearch subprogramme and subprogramme leader


Consumer Preference / prof. dr. J.P.L. Schoormans



2. Scientific description of the subprogram


Central problem statement and goal

Consumer preference for new products is an issue in buying, using as well a
s in non
-
using/discarding
of products. Knowledge about consumer preference can enhance the quality of product development.
Until recently, consumers linked product preferences mainly to product functionality. Nowadays,
preferences are believed to be linked

to product experience/emotions as well: in addition to functional
demands, products must fit consumer demands such as emotions and individuality of persons. In
addition, designers/manufacturers are not only confronted with the wider scope of consumer
pref
erences but also with the increased technological possibilities that can be used to include new
functionalities in products. In many cases these new functionalities are not or only partly expressed
through product form.


Consumers' product preferences are

based on expectations about the functional and experiential
benefits of a new product. It is important that consumers form realistic (new) product expectations.
However, consumers have limited knowledge and experience with new products what in many cases
leads to unrealistic expectations. Unrealistic product expectations may lead to product dissatisfaction
and to premature product disposal, or to rejecting the product (concept) in the first place. In the case of
new products the
-
often unrealistic
-

expect
ations are based mainly on what the product itself "tells"
the consumer. Therefore, an important research question is how new products may trigger realistic
consumer expectations. In this programme we focus on the product expectations that consumers form
w
hen they are confronted with new products or product concepts. Questions will be addressed about
the specific relation between new product expectations and the functional and form aspects of the new
product, and about the relation between new product expec
tations and preference. Attention will also
be given to the development of product preferences during the process of new product use.


The challenge of the subprogram is to enhance the knowledge about expectations and preferences of
consumers during the pr
ocess of buying and using a new product. This knowledge may be used to
design products that can mediate between technological possibilities and increasing consumer
demands, and to develop tools to assess realistic consumer expectations about new products.



Coherence with research inside and outside TU Delft

T
UDelft: Department Industrial Design OCP

Outside TUDelft: Nijenrode University, Telematica Institute. Philips DAP, Tilburg University,

Rensselaer Polytechnic, University of Michigan.






16

THEME 2


1. Ti
tle portfolio theme and director


Design of Future Products

Prof. dr. H. de Ridder



2. List of programmes




Product Intelligence



Design for All



3. Scientific summary of the theme


Motivation

This research theme is directed at the development of fut
ure products using state
-
of
-
the
-
art and new
technologies. The aim of this theme is to evaluate these technologies by developing new innovative
products and solutions for existing problems and wishes of users. Special attention is paid to the
inclusion of s
pecific user groups with their own problems, wishes and preferences, taking into account
the growing diversity reflected in current demographic changes. This theme forms the complement of
the research theme Design Theory and Support. Whereas in the last
-
me
ntioned theme the focus is on
the enhancement of present design theory and its related fields of knowledge, this theme aims at
bringing new knowledge into new product designs. The use of “research through design”, preferably
i渠愠n慴ural⁣潮t數tⰠi猠潮攠o
f⁴h攠es獥n捥猠sf t桩猠sh敭攮


qw漠or潧r慭猠sr攠e敦i湥nW


Product intelligence.
This research program is concerned with communicating product functionality to
the user, and in turn how the user can communicate needs and wishes to the product. The research
focuses on the perceptual aspects of the human
-
product interaction as well as on what information
should be processed by the product so as to further reduce the users’ mental load in interacting with
捯c灬數⁰e潤畣u献⁁摤itio湡nlyⰠI桥⁲敳e慲c栠摥hl猠sit栠
t桥⁧敮eral⁰ o扬敭 ⁨ w慲k整i湧⁡湤
t散桮潬潧y⁩湮潶慴潲猠sa渠捯cm畮u捡t攠慮搠av慬u慴攠湥眠灲潤n捴 f畮捴i潮olity⁢慳敤渠灲敤e捴or猠
慮搠aor捥猠s渠nh攠e慲k整⁤整敲mi湩湧⁴桥h獵sc敳猠潲 f慩l畲攠ef敷 i湴敬lig敮e 灲潤u捴献⁉t⁩猠潢oi潵猠
t桡tⰠI桩l攠f潣
u獩湧渠 桥hr敬慴i潮獨i瀠p整we敮⁡⁰r潤畣u⁡湤⁩t猠s獥rⰠIh攠潰灯rtu湩ti敳 潦f敲敤⁢e
灲潤畣t i湴敬lig敮ee⁨慶攠e渠nm灡pt渠t桥h畳ug攠e湤ni湴敲慣ti潮⁷it桩渠畳ur⁧r潵灳Ⱐp⹧⸠桯畳.桯h摳Ⱐ
潦fi捥猠st挮cqhi猠s慹⁣ m灬i捡t攠t桥⁵獥r
-
灲潤畣t⁩湴er慣ti潮or敳ul
ti湧⁩渠n硴r愠摥m慮摳渠 桥⁰r潤o捴
摥dig渮⁈敮e攬⁷桥e敶敲⁡灰p潰riat攬ethi猠s潮獥煵敮q攠潦 im灬敭敮ei湧⁩湴敬lige湣n⁩渠灲o摵dt猠睩ll
扥⁴慫敮ei湴漠慣捯畮t⁩渠t桥⁲敳e慲捨⁰coje捴献


Design for all.
The main focus of this program is on the way quantitat
ive data concerning dynamic
aspects of product use are collected and subsequently translated into (computerized) design
-
relevant
guidelines and concepts. Data collection is primarily initiated by both a biomechanical approach
focusing on how the musculo
-
sk
eletal system and skin behave during product use as well as an
anthropometrical approach focusing on product dimensions in relation to dynamic user dimensions.
However, such data on physical aspects of product use cannot be translated into design
-
relevant
guidelines without taking into account perceptual and cognitive aspects of product usage.


Duration

The duration of the projects within this theme will be 5
-
6 years.






17

Relevance of the theme

Scientific challenges

The main challenge of the research carried

out within this theme is to contribute to the knowledge
about and creation of new products that fit the needs and wishes of the user. The focus is on the
individual without excluding specific users. New technological possibilities are combined with new
in
sights into the human being and his environment. The scientific trends resulting from the ARTD
study

are well substantiated by this theme. One of these trends, i.e. “The designing of systems in
which the complexity and built
-
in intelligence represents the
state
-
of
-
the
-
art”, holds true for the
products to be developed in this theme. It should be realized that this statement also holds true for the
designer tools that are required for creating and evaluating such products. As products become more
complex, so
must the tools used to create them. This implies an additional challenge in finding new,
often computerized ways of designing products whereby the concern for the possible negative impact
of automation and computer
-
enhancement has to be taken into account
to insure that the tool is an aid
to the process and not a hindrance.


The creation of new products and product concepts through developed tools and techniques is a
fundamental part of another trend mentioned in the ARTD study, namely “The knowledge and
m
anagement of the materialization”. It can be said that advances in the tools will lead to
improvements in the products made with those tools. This holds true for not only the manufacturing
aspects of a product but the formative, idea
-
generation phases of t
he process as well. The focus of this
theme is to show how the application of new tools, techniques and theory can be applied to create new
innovative products.


Contribution to the mission of the faculty and the university

Whereas in the theme Design The
ory and Support the focus is on the enhancement of present design
theory and its related fields of knowledge, this theme aims at using this new knowledge into new
product designs. In this way it contributes directly to the mission of Industrial Design, nam
ely to
“create products for people”. The implications of the research within this theme are far
-
reaching for
other disciplines. The methods, techniques and tools for Architecture, Shipbuilding and Engineering
are not substantially different, especially whe
n innovative and creative results are expected. This fact
should provide the means for cooperation between the Design of Future Products theme and other
Departments of the faculty OCP or other Faculties within the University.


Links to the faculties of Ar
chitecture and Computer Science (ITS, Mediamatics theme) have been
made, especially in the area of new media. This is substantiated by a collaboration within the
externally funded research program CACTUS (Context Aware Communication: Terminal and User).
Pa
rticipation in various DIOC's exists for some projects (DIOC Smart Product Systems
-
EVO Project
and DIOC Minimally invasive surgery and intervention techniques
-
MISIT) and STW
-
funded 2nd
stream research in cooperation with Medical Engineering and others, is
quite possible in the near
future.


Societal relevance

The most significant trend from the ARTD study

that relates to this theme is that it contributes to “the
innovation process of Dutch and European companies”. To maintain a cutting edge, companies mus
t
stay in the forefront of technology and design. Technology alone will not solve the problems of new
products without a high user acceptance, as can be seen in the overabundance of complicated products
with too many functions. The results of this theme in

the form of research output and new products
designs will also show and provide solutions for existing and emerging user problems both at the
individual and societal level.






18

PROGRAMME 2.1


1. Title portfolio programme


Product Intelligence



2. Lis
t of subprogrammes and subprogramme leaders




Transparent Interfaces / Prof. Dr. H. de Ridder



Intelligence in Products / dr. D.V. Keyson



Product Advantage and Market Acceptance of Intelligent Products / Prof. dr. E.J. Hultink



3. Subprogramme members

Ra
nk

title and name

Professors

prof. dr. J. Aasman

prof. dr. E.J. Hultink

prof. dr. W.M. Oppedijk van Veen

prof. dr. H. de Ridder

vacancy Chair Applied New Media Technology

Associate professors


dr. A.J. Koenderink
-
van Doorn

dr. D.V. Keyson

Assistant pro
fessors


dr. Th. Boersema

dr. ir. A. Freudenthal

dr. ir. S.C. Mooij

dr. H.M.J.J. Snelders

drs. E.C.M. van Steenbergen

ir. A.P.O.S. Vermeeren


4. Scientific summary of the programme

Present
-
day technological advances foreshadow a world where a large varie
ty of consumer and

(semi
-
) professional products will contain powerful intelligent hardware, inter
-
device communication
via intelligent telecommunication networks and advanced user
-
input and display technologies. These
upcoming products will be capable of

processing information relating to the user’s desired tasks and
t桥⁥湶ir潮o敮e⁩渠n桩c栠h桥⁰ho摵dt⁩s⁢ i湧⁵獥搮⁁猠s潭灵pi湧ov敳⁡睡 ⁦r潭⁴桥⁤h獫t潰⁡o搠
i湴漠灲潤畣u猠湥w 捨clle湧敳⁡ is攠eor⁤ 獩g渮n
From a marketing perspective, the product’s
f畮
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灥p獰散tiv攬⁢e潡搠o桡湮敬s ⁣潭m畮u捡tio渠扥tw敥n⁴桥⁵獥r⁡湤⁰r潤o捴⁷ill⁢攠湥敤敤⁴漠捯湶敹
慮搠anter慣t⁷it栠愠h敡lt栠hf⁩nf潲m慴i潮⁷桩捨慹⁢攠 v慩
l慢l攠e湬i湥n慮搠i渠ni硥搠潲潢ol攠
獩t畡ui潮献

ft⁩猠s湶i獡g敤⁴h慴⁵獥r猠睩ll i湴敲a捴⁷it栠獵sh⁰ 潤畣t猠s渠慮ni湴畩tiv攠睡e⸠.湥n潦⁴h攠e摶慮a慧敳
im灬敭敮ei湧⁩湴ellig敮e攠i渠灲潤o捴猠ss⁴h攠灯e獩bility ⁡ 慰ai湧⁰ 潤o捴猠s漠t桥敥摳d慮搠睩獨s猠
潦⁵ 敲猬st桵猠sll潷i湧⁦潲 灥p獯湡niz慴i潮f⁰ 潤畣t献⁓畣栠湥眠f敡t畲敳⁡r攠愠ah慬l敮e攠eor
m慲k整i湧⁩湴敬lig敮e⁰ 潤o捴献⁈潷⁣慮at桥h攠湥w f敡t畲敳 扥⁥x灬oit敤⁴漠on捲e慳攠灲潤畣u 慤a慮a慧攠
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tim攬⁴桥hi湴r潤o捴i潮 敷 t散h湯n潧ie猠
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捡渠n湴er慣t ly⁩湤ire捴ly⁴桲潵o栠慮hint敲fa捥⸠.猠愠a潮獥煵敮e攬⁵獥r猠sft敮⁳tr畧ul攠睩eh⁴h攠
捯c灬數ety
t桥hint敲fa捥 i湳t敡搠潦 i湴敲a捴i湧⁷it栠t桥⁣潮t敮t⸠.敮e攬⁴桥⁣敮er慬⁰r潢o敭 ⁴桥h
r敳e慲捨⁰c潧r慭渠灲潤o捴⁩湴ellig敮e攠i猠t漠o整ermi湥⁷慹猠潦⁩m灲潶i湧⁰ 潤畣u⁵獥⁡ 搠
敮桡湣i湧⁴桥hint敲慣ti潮⁥硰敲i敮e攠e湤⁴漠fin搠d慹猠潦慲k整i湧⁴桥h慤a慮
t慧e猠潦⁰r潤o捴
i湴敬lig敮e攮





19

DESCRIPTION OF SUBPROGRAMME 2.1.1


1. Title research subprogramme and subprogramme leader


Transparent Interfaces / prof. dr.
H. de Ridder



2. Scientific description of the subprogram


Central problem statement and goa
l

The introduction of new technologies has led to a range of consumer products with complex and
embedded functionality. Increasingly products are being designed to handle a number of complex
tasks and offer growing amounts of information streams to the use
r. Such products, in particular
(mobile) ICE (information, communication, and entertainment) appliances, incorporate an increasing
number of functionalities with which the user can interact only indirectly through an interface. As a
consequence, users ofte
n struggle with the complexity of the interface instead of interacting with the
content. Ideally, the interface should be transparent, thus becoming invisible. That is, the focus should
be on interacting
through
an interface at the task level instead of
wi
th

an interface.


The focus of this subprogram is on finding ways to make the user interface as transparent or
un
obtrusive as possible to enable the user to engage in the task or content at hand rather than be
bothered by how to control or interact with th
e product. Direct issues relating to transparency include
how users interact with products, extracting user intentions, tracking eye movements during product
use and ways of presenting (multimodal) information to the user. The main assumption is that
trans
parency may be improved by providing products with mechanisms to collect information about
what the user is doing or looking at and to adapt itself on the basis of this information to the needs and
wishes of the user.
T
he research on how products may incre
ase transparency, in particular by reducing
unwanted ambiguity, will focus on the following:


1.

Identify features of human behavior that may help a product to guess and track user intentions
successfully. This part of research includes investigations into u
nderstanding cognitive processing
through eye
-
movement registrations during product use and user modelling.

2.

Identify ways functionalities should be presented, preferably knowing the intentions of the user.
This part of research focuses on the integration o
f multimodal streams of information so as to
reduce cognitive load in information intensive environments, and on the relation between
(flexible) forms and perceived product meaning.


The research will provide insight into the way interface mechanisms may
become more transparent for
the user, as the user begins to interact more at the product
-
content and task level rather than at the user
interface feature or “button” level. This should result in guidelines for designing transparent
mechanisms, thus providi
ng tools for increasing the possibilities for designing successful user
-
content
interaction. Next to guidelines, results will be in the form of product prototypes, design methods and
tools for developing intelligent communication designs, and journal artic
les based on empirical
studies.


Coherence with research inside and outside TU Delft

TU Delft, ITS Telecommunication and Remote Sensing Technology, Mediamatics, TNW, Utrecht
University, KPN Research Human Factors, TNO Human Factors.







20

DESCRIPTION OF SUB
PROGRAMME 2.1.2


1. Title research subprogramme and subprogramme leader


Intelligence in Products / dr. D.V. Keyson



2. Scientific description of the subprogram


Central problem statement and goal

The possibilities of products equipped with connectivit
y, data storage, wireless communication,
sensors, and information processing techniques create new opportunities for industrial designers.
Many appliances will have adaptive visual displays showing icons and symbols depicting functions
and procedures. Mult
imodal channels of user
-
product communication such as graphics combined with
gesture input, speech driven dialogues and auditory feedback are envisioned. Given such technological
developments, designers need new design techniques and interaction design con
cepts, leading to
products that recognize needs and empower the user. In short, knowledge is needed on how to
translate everyday human
-
human and human
-
physical world interaction experiences into expressive
and efficient forms of user
-
product communication.

Designing intelligence in products focuses on the
communication flow between user and product and on how user
-
product interaction is managed such
that the user feels in control and yet is willing to delegate certain routine or mundane tasks to the
product
. With intelligence in products, user
-
product communication can go beyond the interface
control of an appliance and move towards enabling the user to simply invoke a number of desired
product actions.


Developing a sense of what the user, individually or
within a group, may want to do requires
knowledge on how users typically perform certain tasks as well as the development and interpretation
of an individual user interaction history. Furthermore, the user may communicate with the product via
multiple moda
lities of interaction either explicitly, for example using speech or gestures or implicitly,
for example by communicating emotions to the product. The user may also indirectly control a product
via actions performed through a remote product. Given prior kn
owledge and an interaction history, the
product can learn about preferred states of interaction and offer suggestions. Ultimately, user
-
product
communication will be dependent upon trust, such that the user will be willing to engage the product
over time,
enabling the user and product to learn about each other. Particularly in the latter case, the
impact of a user group cannot be neglected and will be an included in the research program.


The research program will focus on (1)
multimodal interaction design
,

i.e.
on concrete and abstract
multimodal representations of information and input, including tangible icons, gestures and non
-
speech sound, to enable rich and expressive input control and information representations; (2)
user
and task modelling
, i.e. mode
lling of the users preferred and assumed state of interaction based on
common practices or profiles, real
-
time events, and system learning by user provided examples, and
guiding the user in interacting with a product via embedded knowledge of how users may

approach
tasks (i.e., recipes) coupled with the product being able to guess user intentions based on user actions,
utterances and explicit requests, (3) user
-
product collaborative dialogue design, i.e. the design of
mixed user
-
product initiative and turn
taking as well as the integration of collaborative dialogue with
visual
-
manual interaction; (4) trust and agent personality design, including trustworthy visual design,
dialogue design aspects, progressive disclosure of system functionality, and establishi
ng as sense of
mutual user
-
product learning.


Coherence with research inside and outside TU Delft

TU Delft, ITS, Stanford University, Persuasive Computing Group, Free University Department of
Computer Sciences, MIT Media Lab Europe, Well Being Group, Techn
ion University, Brighton
University, Department of Computer Science, Philips Research, Intelligent User Interface Cluster,
KPN Research Human Factors, TNO, Human Factors, Mitsubishi Electronic Research Labs, Boston.
Brabant University, Department of Comput
ational Linguistics. Technical University of Eindhoven.




21

DESCRIPTION OF SUBPROGRAMME 2.1.3


1. Title research subprogramme and subprogramme leader


Product Advantage and Market Acceptance of Intelligent Products / Prof. dr. E.J. Hultink



2. Scientific
description of the subprogram


Central problem statement and goal

T
his subprogram examines the phenomenon of intelligent products that have recently become en
vogue within the marketplace. These intelligent products deliver a whole new range of capabiliti
es that
cannot be found in other products. For example, many of these products are autonomous and reactive
or they can co
-
operate with other products. Examples of such products are car navigation systems,
autonomous lawnmowers, smart thermostats and Sony’s

Ai扯⸠blt桯畧栠h湴敬lig敮t⁰ o摵dt猠s慹
獥敭⁡ tr慣tiv攠eo⁣潮獵s敲猠s渠nh慴 t桥h⁡ 攠e潲攠effi捩敮t⁡ 搠敦fe捴iv攠e敲獩潮s ⁴h敩r
灲敤e捥s獯s猬⁩t⁩猠湯t⁣l敡r w桥h桥r⁰ 潤畣t⁩湴ellig敮e攠e潮tri扵b敳 t漠捯湳畭敲⁡捣数t慮a攠e湤敷
灲潤畣t⁳畣ue獳⸠䙯r

數慭灬攬⁣o湳畭敲猠s慹⁰敲捥ive⁩湴敬lig敮e 灲潤畣u猠ss⁣潭灬數e慮搠a桥⁵獥f
獵s栠hr潤畣t猠ri獫y⸠f渠慤摩ti潮o⁣潮獵s敲猠s慮湯n 敡sily⁤敲iv攠eh攠扥湥nit猠潦 愠a敷⁩湴敬lig敮e
灲潤畣t fr潭⁩湳灥捴i湧⁴桥⁰ 潤o捴 f潲mⰠ慳潳o⁢敮efit猠sr攠e潦tw慲e
-
r敬慴
e搮⁍慲k整i湧
捯cm畮u捡ti潮猠or攠t桥refor攠湥捥s獡ry⁴漠敤畣慴攠eh攠m慲k整⁳漠 桡t⁣潮獵s敲猠sill⁣潭灲敨en搠慮搠
慰灲e捩慴攠t桥獥⁢敮efit献


q桥⁰ oje捴猠i渠t桩猠s畢灲ogr慭⁤敡l⁷it栠t桥hrel慴i潮s桩灳p慭潮o⁴桥⁣潮捥pt猠sf⁰ 潤o捴
i湴敬lig敮e攬敷⁰r潤畣t

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灬慹⁡⁣敮tr慬 rol攠e渠nhi猠獵扰b潧r慭⁴漠o湣re慳攠e畲⁵湤敲st慮摩湧 t桥慲k整 慣捥pt慮捥f
i湴敬lig敮e 灲潤o捴献sqhi猠sr潤畣o 慤a慮a慧攠e潭灲i獥猠t桥⁤敧r敥f⁵湩煵攠q敮efit猠湯
t⁰r敶i潵oly
available, the extent to which customer needs are better satisfied, the product’s relative quality and
i湮潶慴iv敮e獳Ⱐ慮搠t桥⁥硴敮e t漠o桩捨⁡敷⁰牯摵dt 獯sv敳⁣ 獴潭敲⁰r潢o敭猠扥tt敲⸠qh攠潢j散tiv敳
潦⁴h攠e畢灲潧r慭⁡ 攠t漠扥tter⁵湤敲s
ta湤⁨潷⁰r潤畣t⁤敶敬潰敲猠s慮a摥dig渠n湴ellig敮e⁰ 潤畣t猠t桡t
捯湳畭敲猠sn搠潴桥h慲k整⁰ rti捩灡pt猠s畣栠u猠s整ailer猠sn搠dh攠eal敳for捥⁷ill⁡ 灲散iat攮⁓畢
-
煵敳ti潮猠sh慴⁷ill⁢攠慤are獳敤e慲攬efor⁥硡m灬eW
NF⁨潷⁩猠sr潤畣t i湴敬lig敮e攠r敬at敤eto

湥眠
灲潤畣t⁡摶慮a慧攠e湤慲k整⁡ 捥pt慮捥?
OF⁈潷⁣ 渠捯n灡湩敳⁤敶敬潰oi湴敬lig敮e⁰ 潤o捴猠睩s栠
桩g栠灲潤o捴⁡摶慮a慧攠e渠a慲k整
-
潲i敮e慴e搠d慮湥r?
㌩⁈潷⁳桯畬搠捯d灡湩es⁣潭m畮u捡t攠湥眠
i湴敬lig敮e f畮uti潮oliti敳 to⁴桥慲k整⁰ 慣攠獯st桡t⁰ t
敮tial⁣ 湳畭敲猠s慳ily⁵ 摥dst慮a⁴h攠
扥湥fit献


Coherence with research inside and outside TU Delft

Living Tomorrow, Amsterdam; University of Illinois, Urbana
-
Champaign, USA, Erasmus
Universiteit, Rotterdam, Nijenrode Universiteit, City University of Hon
g Kong, University of Namen,
Straithclyde University, Scotland.







22

PROGRAMME 2.2


1. Title portfolio programme


Design for All



2. List of subprogrammes and subprogramme leaders




Design for Healthy Environments / dr. ir. R.H.M. Goossens



Dynamic Ant
hropometry / dr. ir. J.F.M. Molenbroek



3. Subprogramme members

Rank

title and name

Professors

prof. dr. ir. C.J. Snijders

prof. dr. P. Vink

Associate professors


dr. ir. R.H.M. Goossens

dr. ir. J.F.M. Molenbroek

Assistant professors


ir. M.C. Dekker

ir. P.N. Hoekstra

ir. I. Ruiter


4. Scientific summary of the programme


In order to create products for large groups of users that can vary from new
-
borns to the elderly, from
sportsman to handicapped, ergonomic data has to be collected for all of thos
e groups. And although it
seems that these groups are different from each other, they still have, from an ergonomic point of
view, many aspects in common. Therefore, Design for All strives to map relevant human
characteristics for the design of everyday pr
oducts.

The Design for All program has a focus on understanding human
-
product interaction during

product
use. In the past effort was put in describing human characteristics in static situations (static
anthropometrics, static force exertion in product use)
. In the current program dynamic aspects of
product use play an important role. This topic is approached from a biomechanical point of view as
well as from an anthropometric point of view. The biomechanical approach has a focus on the way
the musculo
-
skel
etal system and skin behave
during
product use. The anthropometric approach
focuses on product
-
dimensions in relation to dynamic user dimensions.

The goal of this programme is twofold: first, a scientific analysis of these dynamic aspects during use;
seco
nd, develop ways of providing these data to the designer of everyday products. An example of this
approach can be found in the research project on Gerontechnology. The Education Network in Europe
(Genie) aimed at optimal functioning of older people in dail
y life by improving gerontechnology
curricula (technology in relation to ageing) in higher education through Europe. Another example is
the research project with Erasmus MC and Catharina Hospital Eindhoven in which together with the
surgeons a new design v
ision for minimally invasive surgery products is formulated.






23

DESCRIPTION OF SUBPROGRAMME 2.2.1


1. Title research subprogramme and subprogramme leader


Design of Healthy Environments / dr. ir. R.H.M. Goossens



2. Scientific description of the subpro
gram


Central problem statement and goal

The main objective of the Design of Healthy Environments subprogramme is to reduce the strain on
the human body during professional product use. In this subprogramme the emphasis is on the
musculo
-
skeletal system a
nd skin. The approach entails mathematical modelling, verification
experiments on anatomical specimens as well as healthy subjects and patients. The goal is to generate
design requirements for products so that the products do not cause complaints on the m
usculo
-
skeletal
system of the users. The requirements should anticipate the implementation of these products on a
large scale and in every day activities.


The applied research has two main areas:


Healthy office/travel/home
-

(Prevention):
The goal for thi
s research is to obtain insight in problems for
the user such as pressure sores, RSI, low backpain, discomfort and lipoatrophia semicircularis.
Understanding the underlying medical aspects of these complaints and the anatomical deviations of
the different
users form the basis for biomechanical modelling. The modelling includes bone, joints,
collagenous tissue and muscle. Verification experiments in real life situations help to improve the
dynamic model of the human
-
product interaction and lead to design gui
delines for new products that
prevent musculoskeletal complaints. The design guidelines in their turn are evaluated in real life
situations by the design and evaluation of prototypes.


Operation room


(Care and Cure):
The medical science is concerned wit
h the quality of life of
patients. A major concern is the improvement of the quality of surgery. There are several factors that
influence the quality of surgery, like human error, team performance and product use. In minimally
invasive surgery (MIS) a lot
of products (e.g. small camera’s, monitors, insufflators, manipulation
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Coherence with research inside and outside TU Delft

Delft University of Technology, department of Medical Technology and Mechanics, Erasmus MC,
Rotterdam, Lowland Institute for Surgical Anatomy (LISA), Rotterdam, Catharina hospital,
Eindhoven, d
epartment of Surgery, Bayer International, DFC Tempur, Dräger Medical, Fitform,
Huntleigh Nesbit Evans, L
iquiCell, USA,
G.M. Medical Bracing, Linido B.V, Philips Medical
Systems, Philips Design, Pie Medical Equipment B.V.,
Stöpler Instrumenten & Apparaten
B.V.,
Surgical Innovations, Leeds, UK,

Ahrend,
BMA Ergonomics, Consumentenbond, Enraf Nonius/Delft
Instruments,
Eromes, Grahl, Hoogstad Architecten, KLM, Northwest Airlines, Inc., USA,
Schell
Industries, Stichting Goed Zitten op Kantoor.







24

DESCRIPTION O
F SUBPROGRAMME 2.2.2


1. Title research subprogramme and subprogramme leader


Dynamic Anthropometry / dr. ir. J.F.M. Molenbroek



2. Scientific description of the subprogram


Central problem statement and goal

This subprogram has a focus on understandin
g human
-
product interaction during

product use starting
from an anthropometric point of view emphasizing the wide variance in the population of users. There
is no exclusion of target groups or lifestyles: dependent living elderly and students with RSI are
examples of recently studied populations. In many cases understanding and describing the interaction
between man and product cannot be in physical terms only but require cognitive and perceptual
aspects too. This certainly holds when the dynamics of produc
t usage is the focus of research. The
goal of this subprogramme is twofold: first, an analysis of these dynamic aspects during use; second,
development of tools to provide these data to the designer of everyday products.


Dynamic aspects during use

The o
bjective of this research is to determine the impact of anthropometric boundary conditions on the
actual actions of users in context such as their manipulations, their movements, and the postures they
adopt in practice. Frequently problems with product usa
ge are caused by a combination of the
anthropometric boundary conditions and non
-
physical human characteristics. An example is the
phenomenon of Repetitive Strain Injury or Cumulative Trauma Disorder where workload and
psychosocial stress are known causes.

The outcome of this research will be a model of dynamic
product usage for various user groups including for example the elderly. This leads to new design
-
relevant guidelines.


Development of tools

In the past the emphasis was more on data collection; nowa
days the focus is more on the usage and
usability of the available data and tools as well as on the development of new tools in (dynamic)
anthropometry. Technological innovations allow for a change from one
-
dimensional to three
-
dimensional anthropometry re
sulting in data sets that are much more realistic for the world of the
designer. Our research will contribute to this expanding field of 3D engineering anthropometry, for
example by investigating stereophotogrammetry, a method that could be more efficient
in data
collecting than laser scanning.


Coherence with research inside and outside TU Delft

National:
Ministry of Social Affairs, Erasmus University, Faculty of Medicine, Free University,
Faculty of Movement Science, University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen Insti
tute for Cognition and
Information, KBOH for Quality and Usability of aids for elderly and handicapped, SKH for
certification of school furniture, NNI Standardization on School furniture, NNI Standardization of
Anthropometry, Consumer Safety Institute, Ins
pectorate for Health Protection and Veterinary Public
Health, TNO.

International:
CEN

Standardization Committee on School furniture, ISO Standardization on
Anthropometry, EU
-
project

GENIE

on gerontechnology, EU
-
project

FRR network
,
Wear

World
Engineering,
Anthropometry Resources,

Society for Physiological Anthropology, Human Factors and
Ergonomics Society.