Wireless Sensor Networks: Energy- Efficient Clustering under the Joint Routing

eggplantcinnabarMobile - Wireless

Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Wireless Sensor Networks: Energy
-
Efficient Clustering under the Joint
Routing


Abstract:


Minimizing energy dissipation and maximizing network lifetime
are important issues in the design of applications and protocols for
sensor networks. Energy
-
efficient s
ensor state planning consists in
finding an optimal assignment of states to sensors in order to
maximize network lifetime. For example, in area surveillance
applications, only an optimal subset of sensors that fully covers the
monitored area can be switche
d on while the other sensors are
turned off, we address the optimal planning of sensors' states in
cluster
-
based sensor networks. Typically, any sensor can be turned
on, turned off, or promoted cluster head, and a different power
consumption level is assoc
iated with each of these states. We seek
an energy
-
optimal topology that maximizes network lifetime while
ensuring simultaneously full area coverage and sensor connectivity
to cluster heads, which are constrained to form a spanning tree
used as a routing t
opology.


Algorithm / Technique used:



Tabu
-
RCC Algorithm.


Algorithm Description:



1. Initial solution: the Tabu algorithm starts with a configuration
where all sensors are activated as cluster heads. This configuration
is obviously admissible.

2. Admis
sible configuration: a configuration S is defined by the
states of its sensors (Sleep, Active, or CH). Only feasible
configurations (i.e., satisfying model constraints (1b) to (1i)) are
considered.

3. Score function: a configuration is evaluated using the
score
function given by (1a).

4. Neighborhood investigation: a search movement M < I; u; v >
consists in changing the state (Sleep, Active, or CH) of a single
sensor i from state u to state v such that the model constraints (1b)
to (1i) are satisfied;

5. A
spiration criterion: Tabu movements are allowed when the
score of the resulting configuration is lower than the score of the
best solution s_ found so far over the whole search process.

6. Stop criterion: The search algorithm stops after a predefined
numb
er of iterations.


Existing System:



A critical aspect of applications with wireless sensor networks is
network lifetime. Power
-
constrained wireless sensor networks are
usable as long as they can communicate sensed data to a
processing node. Sensing and c
ommunications consume energy,
therefore judicious power management and sensor scheduling can
effectively extend network lifetime. To cover a set of targets with
known locations when ground access in the remote area is
prohibited, one solution is to deploy
the sensors remotely, from an
aircraft. The lack of precise sensor placement is compensated by a
large sensor population deployed in the drop zone that would
improve the probability of target coverage. The data collected from
the sensors is sent to a centr
al node (e.g. cluster head) for
processing.


Proposed System:



First, we formulate this problem as an Integer Linear
Programming model that we prove NP
-
Complete. Then, we
implement a Tabu search heuristic to tackle the exponentially
increasing computatio
n time of the exact resolution. Experimental
results show that the proposed heuristic provides near
-
optimal
network lifetime values within low computation times, which is, in
practice, suitable for large
-
sized sensor networks.



Hardware Requirements



SYSTE
M


: Pentium IV 2.4 GHz



HARD DISK

: 40 GB



FLOPPY DRIVE

: 1.44 MB



MONITOR

: 15 VGA colour



MOUSE


: Logitech.



RAM


: 256 MB



KEYBOARD

: 110 keys enhanced.


Software Requirements



Operating system
:
-

Windows XP Professional



Fron
t End
:
-

Microsoft Visual Stu
dio .Net 2005



Coding Language

:
-

C# 2.0