Beyond the Smart Home, Tatsuya Yamazaki

eggplantcinnabarMobile - Wireless

Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Senior Research Paper


Literature Review

Sensors and Actuator Network Based Architectures and Protocols for Smart Homes



Beyond the Smart Home,
Tatsuya Yamazaki


The article addresses the future of smart home technology and points out the flaws in
previo
us home automation technologies and how to improve upon the research that has
been conducted. The author points out several key facts in the development of smart
homes from the users’ standpoint. Their needs to be improvement in the development of
interf
ace technologies between humans and systems for detection of humans’ intensions,
feelings and situations.


The introduction of home automation (HA) in the 1970s failed to improve the lifestyles
of users for several reasons. Firstly, determining economic b
enefits of HA technologies
is difficult. The costs of implementing smart home technology must be justified by the
effects brought about by their installation. There is a need for HA technologies to be cost
effective, easy to install and flexible with man
y network infrastructures and appliances.


The article briefly surveys the research accomplished in the past decade. It highlights the
importance of building smart home environments in which users can be monitored while
testing and research is accomplis
hed. A trend in each of the projects described is the use
of sensors and actuators that intelligently acts upon the environment through controllers.

The smart home that is described in this article was constructed using cameras and
microphones installed
in the ceilings as well as floor pressure sensors and infrared sensor
to track the movement. The home is highly networked and autonomously controls
appliances on the home network based on sensor information.


An Integrated Wireless Sensing and Mobile Pr
ocessing Architecture for Assisted
Living and Healthcare Applications.



This article presents a wireless solution for monitoring people in need of medical
assistance. The application relies on the use of cell phones and inexpensive sensors and
is best su
ited for the elderly and home
-
bound people. The main functions of the project
is to collect signals through a wireless sensor network using protocols like ZigBee and
Bluetooth and the analysis for data through an adaptive architecture that produces real
-
t
ime heath
-
monitoring system to improve medical support for people in their homes and
in assisted living environments.


The article highlights a general architecture framework that consists of three major parts.
Firstly, medical data is collected from sens
ors and transmitted to mobile devices through
a wireless sensor network. Secondly, collected data is processed by a J2ME application
running on mobile devices. Finally, the data collected and combined with data from
other sensors to decide on an appropria
te action.


The advantages of this approach are that it does not require costly equipment, specialized
infrastructure or a challenging learning curve. It can be deployed in a short period of
time at a very low cost.



Sensor/Actuator Networks in Smart
Homes for Supporting Elderly and
Handicapped People


This article describes the challenge regarding smart homes, especially for supporting the
elderly and handicapped, is to compensate for handicaps and support the individual in
order to give them a more i
ndependent life for as long as possible. This paper covers a
common architecture for smart home environments is developed, mapped to an
experimental setup, and finally evaluated.


A set of objectives is outlined

that are of particular concern to an elde
rly or handicapped
person. The higher level goal is to compensate any limitations in any part of his life as
far as possible and to enable the patient to live a more independent life as long as
possible. The first objective outlined is the development of

a sensing and monitoring
system, which takes over for the subjects senses and if necessary maintaining the capacity
to remember. The purposed architecture takes care of domestic systems such as air
conditioning, lights and heating as well as the basic fu
nctions of home entertainment and
security systems. Lastly, the need to interact with physicians and to get the vital signs
and values checked in a mobile manner, and if necessary, make emergency calls.

This
technology must be transparent and easy to use
.


Several sub
-
networks were used in the implementation which includes Bluetooth,
Wireless LAN, Radio Frequency ID (RFID), Internet (TPC/IP) and the telephone
network. A Bluetooth network is used to interconnect the nodes and to transport sensor
data over

the network. The RFID system provides the possibility to transmit data from
the RFID tags that are recording occupancy locations.


The messages being transmitted are broken down into 3 specific categories and assigned
priorities. The first describes E
mergency messages

that are provided by temperature,
light and motion sensors. Second is command messages used for re
-
calibration of
sensors. The third message is data that is transmitted to and from the sensors and
actuators.


The gateway used, which a
cts as the bridge between the in
-
home network and the outside
world was an apache web server. This was used to gather the data produced by the
sensor network to make it available from outside the smart home.
Their approach sends
messages via Bluetooth us
ing the available Bluetooth module on the nodes. This means
no further hardware is required and additionally no further costs arise.