bioprocess control and automation - MS Ramaiah Institute of ...

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1


M. S. RAMAIAH INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

BANGALORE

(Autonomous Institute, Affiliated to VTU)















SYLLABUS

(For the Academic year 201
1



201
2
)




VII & VIII Semester BE.




BIOTECHNOLOGY




2



BIOPROCESS CONTROL AND AUTOMATION


Sub Code : BT 7
0
1

Credits : 3:1:1




CIE : 50 Marks

SEE : 50 Marks


UNIT
-
1

Systems and Process Dynamics
:
Laplace
transforms
,

inversion by partial fractions,
properti
es of transforms.
Process characteristics, I order system
-
examples, mercury in
glass thermometer, level
, mixing.

Linearization
, I order system in series, interacting and
non
-
interacting systems. Second order system
s and its application in process control,

Numericals
.


UNIT
-
2

Closed loop control systems:

Development of Block diagram,
Controllers and Final
Control Elements
,

positioners, valve body, valve plugs, Valve characteristics, final
control elements. Transfer functions for controllers and final contro
l element,
proportional, derivative, integral control;

proportional
r
eset
(integral) (PI); proportional
rate
derivative (PD); propo
r
tional

reset

&
ra
te controller (PID), actuators
, numerical.


UNIT
-
3

Transient Response
and stability
of Closed Loop Systems
: Block diagram reduction

for servo and regulator problem
, Transient response of I and II order processes for set
point changes and load changes with proportional, PI, PD and PID controllers
,
numerical,
Concepts of stability, stability criteria, Routh test

for stability, Root
-
locus
method, Bode plots and stability criteria, tuning of controllers, numericals.


UNIT
-
4

Process instrumentation:

Principles of measurements and classification of process
control instruments, measurements of temperature, pressure,
fluid flow, liquid weight
and weight flow rate, viscosity and consistency, ph, concentration, electrical

and thermal
conductivity, humidity of gases, composition by physical and chemical properties.


UNIT
-
5

Bioprocess Instrument
ation:

Monitoring and contro
l of bioreactors, Biochemical
Reactor Instrumentation, physical, chemica
l and bio
-
chemical parameters
,

Introduction to flow, pressure, temperature, pH, foam, DO, redox and level
measurements, sensors for medium and gases. Online and offline
monitoring.


LABORATORY


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1.

Characteristics of Transducers (Temperature, Pressure, Flow)

2.

Dynamics of First order

Thermometer
-

system for step input

3.

Dynamics of First order
-
Liquid level system
-

for step input

4.

Dynamics of first order systems
-
Liqu
id level
-

for impulse input

5.

Dynamics of first order systems
-
thermometer
-

for pulse input

6.

Dynamics of second order system ( Manometer)

7.

Non
-
interacting systems

8.

Interacting systems

9.

Control of temperature in a bioprocess.

10.

Control of pH in a bioprocess.

11.

Control

of Pressure in a bioprocess.

12.

Control of Flow rates in a bioprocess.

13.

Control of level

14.

Study of Valve characteristics


Note:
Any 1
2

experiments must be performed


Text Books:

1.

Donald R. Coughanowr (1991)
,

Proces
s Systems Analysis and Control
, Mcgraw
-
Hill, 2
nd

ed.,

2.

Eckman, D.P (1978)

Industrial Instrumentation
.

Wiley.

3.

Shuler and Kargi (1992),
Bioprocess engineering. Prentice Hall.


References
:

1.

Bailey and Ollis (1986)
,

Biochemical engineering fundamentals
.

McGraw Hill (2
nd

Ed)

2.

Tarun K Ghosh (1984) (ed.)
Bio
technology and bioprocess engineering
:
Proceedings,
VII international biotechnology symposium. Delhi
.

3.

Wankat PC (1990)
Rate controlled separations
.

Elsevier.

4.

George Stephanopoulous (1999) Chemical process control, Prentice Hall of India.





DOWNSTREAM PR
OCESS TECHNOLOGY &
BIOSEPARATION TECHNIQUES

Sub Code : BT 7
0
2

Credits : 3:1:1


CIE : 50 Marks

SEE : 50 Marks


UNIT
-
1

Role of downstream processing in biotechnology
:
Role and importance of
downstream processing in biotechnological processes. Problems and

requirements of
bioproduct purification. Economics and downstream processing in Biotechnology. Cost
cutting strategies,
characteristics

of biological mixtures, process design criteria for

3

various classes of bioproducts (high volume, low value products an
d low volume, high
value products), physicochemical basi
s of bio separation processes.

UNIT
-
2

Primary separation and recovery process
:
Cell disruption methods for intracellular
products, removal of insolubles, biomass (and particulate debris) separation te
chniques;
flocculation and sedimentation, centrifugation and filtration methods.

UNIT
-
3

Enrichment operations
:
Membrane


based separations (Micro
-

and
Ultra
-
filtration)
theory; design and configuration of membrane separation equipment; applications;
preci
pitation methods with salts, organic sol
vents, and polymers, extractive

separations.
Aqueous two
-
phase extraction
, supercritical extraction; In
situ product
removal/integrated bio processing.

UNIT
-
4

Membrane science and technology
:
Use of membrane diffusio
n as a tool for
separating and characterizing naturally occurring polymers; solute polarization and cake
formation in membrane ultra filtration


causes, consequences and control techniques;
enzyme processing using ultra filtration membranes; separation b
y solvent membranes;
ultra filtration and reverse osmosis.

UNIT
-
5

Product resolution/fractionation
:
Adsorptive chromatographic separation processes,
electrophoretic separations (all electrophoresis techniques including capillary
electrophoresis), hybrid se
paration technologies (membrane chromatography,
electrochromotagraphy etc.), Gel Permeation Chromatography, Dialysis; Crystallization,
HPLC and GC.




LABORATORY


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1.

Cell disruption techniques.

2.

Solid
-
liquid separation methods: F
iltration, Sedimentation, Centrifugation

3.

Product enrichment operations: Precipitation


(NH
4
)
2

SO
4

fractionation of a
protein.

4.

Product enrichment operations: Two


phase aqueous extraction.

5.

Methods for Cell biomass estimation (Packed cell volu
me (PCV), Dry weight & wet
weight of biomass)

6.

Separation of Amino acids / Carbohydrates by TLC.

7.

SDS polyacrylamide gel

electrophoreS
sis

8.

DNA separation by Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

9
.

Characterization of protein by Western blotting

1
0
.

Col
umn Chromatography

1
1
.

Estimation of % of ethanol from fermented broth.

1
2
.

Estimation of Citric acid from fermented broth.

1
3
.

Separation of proteins by molecular sieving.

1
4
.

Analysis of biomolecules by HPLC / GC.


Note:
Any 1
2

experiments must be

performed


Text Books:

1.

Scopes R.K

(1993)
Protein Purification
,
IRL Press,.

2.

Upadhyay, Upadhyay, and Nath (2003) Biophysical Chemistry Principles and
techniques, Himalaya Publishing House,

3.

B. Sivasankar (2005) Bioseparations, Principles and Techniques, Ea
stern Economy
Edition,


References
:


1.

Wankat PC

(1990
)

Rate controlled separations
Elsevier

2.

Belter PA and Cussier E

(1985
)
Bioseparations
,

Wiley

3.

Product Recovery in Bioproc
ess Technology
-

BIOTOL
Series, VCH, 1990

4.

Asenjo J. and Dekker M(1993),
Separation p
rocesses in

Biotechnology



5.

Basic Separation Techniques in Biochemistry

( 2002 ) Okotore RO
, New age
publishing Co.

6.

Robert K. Scopes (2004) (ed.) Protein purification principles and practice, Springer
International

7.

Simon Roe (

2006

) Protein purification
Techniques (2
nd

Edn) Oxford University
Press.


8.

Asenjo J and Dekker M (1993) Separation Processes in Biotechnology.




GENOMICS AND PROTEOMICS


Sub Code : BT7
0
3

Credits : 3:1:0




CIE : 50 Marks

SEE : 50 Marks


UNIT
-
1

DNA

Sequencing & Genome Projects:
Methods of preparing genomic DNA

for
sequencing.
DNA

sequencing methods:
Sanger dideoxy method, thermal cycling
method, fluorescence

method, automated sequencing.
BAC

& YAC vectors. Shotgun
approaches.
Sequence fragment assembly. Clone contig approach. Gen
ome sequencing
projects of
E.

coli
, Yeast,
Drosophila & Humans.


UNIT
-
2

Genome Databases & Gene Prediction:
Genomic sequence databases:

GOLD,
human genome sequence database, Arabidopsis genome res
ource,
E. coli

genome
database. Genome sequence analysis.

Pr
inciple, salient features & drawbacks of methods
of gene prediction / gene modelin
g: GRAIL, GENEMARK, GLIMMER.
Promot
er
prediction methods.


4


UNIT
-
3

Structural

Genomics:
Structural genomics:

Introduction, Structural genomics initiative,
high throughput stru
cture determination. Principle, salient features & drawbacks of
methods of prediction o
f protein secondary structure:
Chou
-
Fasman, GOR, PSI
-
PRED
,
PROF, PHD.
Principle, salient features & drawbacks of methods of prediction of
t
ertiary structure of proteins:

Comparative protein modeling, threading & ab initio
structure prediction.


UNIT
-
4

Functional & Comparative Genomics
:
Introduction, computational methods of
prediction

of function of gene products.
Expressed sequence tags, construction &
screening of cDNA
libraries, differential display using RT
-
PCR, microarrays in
functional genomics.

Comparative
genomics:
Introduction, Principle, salient features &
drawbacks of

methods of genome comparison:
MUMMER, significance
of comparative
genomics.


UNIT
-
5

Proteomics:

Methods of protein isolation,

purification, quantification.
Analysis of
proteins, high throughput screening, two hybrid interaction screens, 2D electrophoresis,
Mass spectrometry, peptide fingerprinting, MALDI
-
TOF, protein


protein interaction
maps, post
-
translational modification analysis, protein chips, proteomics databas
es &
analysis.

Metabolomics, Metabolic pathway databases: KEGG
.


Text Books:

1.

T A Brown (2003)
,
Genomes,

John Wiley & Sons Publis
hers.

2.

Daniel C Liebler

(2001)
,
Introduction to proteomic
s: Tools for the new biology


References
:

1.

Benjamin Lewin

(2004),

Genes VIII,
Pearson Educational Publishers.

2.

Nucleic Acids Research Database issue
,

journal papers of genome sequences
,
Oxford Universities Press
.

3.

Channarayappa (2010) Cell Biology: Univer
sities Press (India) Pvt Ltd.




PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

Sub Code:


Credits:


BT704


3:0:0


CIE:50 Marks


SEE: 50 Marks



UNIT
-
1

Introduction

to Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
: scope, Development of drugs and
pharmaceutical industry
-
organic therapeu
tic agent’s uses and economics, regulatory
bodies, introduction to drugs and cosmetics act, overview and important schedule C and
C1, schedule M, Schedule Y.


UNIT
-
2

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
: Introduction to pharmacokinetics and
pharmacodynami
cs, Drug metabolism
-

half
-
life of drugs, physico chemical principles,
Biotransformation/pharmacokinetic studies, elimination and distribution of protein
therapeutics, pharmacodynamics principles.


UNIT
-
3

Recent Advances in Pharmaceutical Biotechnology:
Int
roduction to nutraceuticals,
edible vaccines, Introduction to Health Bioinformatics, pharmacogenomics.
Commercially available important diagnostic kits, diagnostic kits for detection of blood
sugar, HIV, Malaria etc, recent advances in diagnostic kits.


U
NIT
-
4

Manufacturing Principles
: Manufacturing facilities, Clean room concept introduction
to recombinant DNA technology and production of important therapeutic
biopharmaceutical like haemopoietic growth factors (interleukins, erythropoietin’s),
therapeutic

hormones (insulin, human growth factor) and blood products.


UNIT
-
5

Formulations of Biopharmaceutical, Analysis and Control
: Manufacturing facilities,
excipients used in parental formulations, shelf life of protein based pharmaceuticals,
delivery of prote
in ( rate controlled, target specific, site specific, soluble carrier system
etc) Analytical methods for the tests for various drugs and pharmaceuticals, different
packaging techniques, quality control, bioassays for vitamins and antibiotics.


Textbooks
:


1.

Industrial Pharmaceutical Biotechnology by Heinrich Klefenz, Wiley
-
VCH
edition.,1995


References
:

1.

Gregory Bock, Dalia Cohen, Jamie Goode, Novartis and J. Craig Venter ()
From Genome to Therapy: Integrating New Technologies with Drug
Development
-

No. 229
.

2.

Susanna Wu
-
Pong, Yongyut Rojanasakul, and Joseph Robinson ()
Biopharmaceutical Drug Design and Development.

3.

Gary Walsh () Biopharmaceuticals: Biochemistry and Biotechnology.

4.

Herbert A Kirst, Wu
-
Kuang Yeh, Milton J () Enzyme technologies for
pharmaceutica
l and biotechnological applications.

5.

Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences () Mark Publishing and Co.


5

6.

Daan J A crommelin () Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: An introduction for
pharmacist and pharmaceutical sciences, 2
nd

edition, Routledge.




PROJECT SEMINAR


Sub Code : BT
705

Credits : 0
:0:
1






As per the Institutional
and D
epartment of Biotechnology, MSRIT guidelines




ADVANCED PROGRAMMING USING CAD & MATLAB


Sub Code : BT
PE10

Credits :
3
:0:0




CIE : 50 Marks

SEE : 50 Marks


UNIT
-
1

Introduction to
A
spen:
Basics of Aspen software’s,

Graphic user interphase, defining
properties, NRTL,

model libraries, flow sheet drawing and process parameters
estimation using ASPEN software

s


UNIT
-
2

Properties Estimation:
Introduction to Aspen properties
,

Physical p
roperties of
compounds, Thermodynamic properties of gases and binary mixtures, Viscosity, Vapour
pressure

and

K
-
values
.


UNIT
-
3

Basic
Design

Concepts
:

P
r
ocess
design of reactors
, various batch reactors, plug flow
and mixed flow reactors, d
istillation colum
ns
and
heat
exchangers
,

Case studies


UNIT
-
4

Matlab:
Introduction to MATLAB Environment, Defining Matrices, Matrix
Manipulation, Data Structures, 2D Graphics, 3D Graphics, Editor/Debugger window,
Creating MATLAB functions, Improving code p
erformance, Erro
r Correction.


UNIT
-
5

Applications:
How do mathematical problems arise in biology? Prevalence of
differential equations, a practical approach to biological mathematics, Models in biology,
Types of models
-

deterministic, stochastic, mixed. Uses for models
-

heuristic,
predictive, mixed. How are models, the physical world, and biology related? When and
why should we build models? How should we treat models that exist already?,
Mathematical modeling of biochemical and biotechnological systems using the
MATLAB

scientific computing environment. Estimation & plotting in MATLAB
.


Text Books:

1.

Aspen and Hysys (2007) Manual, AspenTech, Inc.

2.

Arnold / Wiley (1999)
Essential MATLAB for Scientists and Engineers,
NY

3.

Rudra Pratap

(1999)
Getting Started with MATLAB,


Refe
rence
s
:

1.

Andrew Knight

(
1999
)

Basics of MATLAB and Beyond,

Chapman & Hall/CRC

2.

Jay B. Brockman (2009)

Introduction to Engineering: Modeling and Problem
Solving,

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



TISSUE ENGINEERING

Sub Code : BT
PE11

Credits :
3
:0:0


CIE : 50 Marks

SEE : 50 Marks


UNIT
-
1

Cell and Tissue Biology:
Introduction to cell


biology and biochemistry. Tissue
development and organization. Stem cells (embryonic), Stem cells (adult). Introduction
to cell adhesion, Adhesion Receptors in Tissue Structures, Cell

Adhesion to
Biomaterials, Measurement of Cell Adhesion, Effect of Biomaterial on Physiological
Behavior. Introduction to cell migration, Characteristics of Mammalian Cell Migration,
Regulation of Cell Movement, Cell Migration Assays, Mathematical Models f
or Cell
Migra
tion and Tissue Growth.


UNIT
-
2

Extracellular Matrix:
Introduction, ECM and Functional Integration of Implanted
Materials, Basement Membranes and

Focal Adhesions, Focal Adhesions as Signaling
Complexes, ECM and Skeletal Tissues, Sources of ECM

for Tissue Engineering
Applications, Properties of ECM , Mining the ECM for Functional Motifs, Summary of
Functions of ECM Molecules, Polymeric Materials and their Surface Modification,
Formation of Gradient Structures, Delivery of Growth Factors.


UNIT
-
3

Biomaterials & Drug Delivery Systems:
Introduction to synthetic polymers,
Biodegradable materials vs permanent materials, Natural biopolymers and hydrogels,
Mechanical properties of biomaterials, Surface modification and characterization of
polymers, Imm
une res
ponse to biomaterials, In vitro
assessment/biocompatibility/protein adsorption. Polymeric scaffolds for tis
sue
engineering applications.
Drug delivery, Mechanisms of Drug Delivery, Protein
-
Drug

6

Properties, Drug Delivery in Tissue Engineering, Introd
uction to growth factors,
Polymer scaffold delivery systems, Polymer hydrogel delivery systems, P
olymer
microsphere technology.


UNIT
-
4

Tissue Engineering Bioreactors
-

Design and Fabrication:
Introduction, Most
common Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering, Ce
ll Seeding in Bioreactors, Bioreactor
Applications in Functional Tissues, Design Considerations, Challenges in Bioreactor
\

Technologies. Tissue Biomechanics, Scaffold design and fabrication, Natural Polymers
for Scaffold Fabrication, Synthetic Polymers for

Scaffold Fabrication, Scaffold Design
Properties.


UNIT
-
5

Clinical & Regulatory Aspects of Engineered Tissues:
Tissue Engineering of Skin,
Bone Tissue Engineering, Cartilage Tissue Engineering, Neuronal
,
Tissue Engineering,
Cardiovascular Tissue Engineer
ing, Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering
,
(tendon/ligament/muscle), Adip
ose Tissue Engineering.
Introduction, FDA Regulation,
Regulation of Pharmaceutical / Medical Human Tissue Products

in Europe, Regulation
of Pharmaceutical / Medical Human Tissue Product
s in Japan, Other

considerations
Releva
nt to Engineered Tissues.


Text Books:

1

John P. Fisher, A
G Mikos & Joseph D. Bronzino

(2007)

Tissue Engineering
CRC
Press
.

2.

Anthony Atala & P Lanza

(2006)

Methods of Tissue Engineering,
Academic Press
Elsevier

3.


Drioli, Taylor & Francis

(2005)
,
Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor



References:

1.

Channarayappa (2010) Cell Biology: Universities Press (India) Pvt Ltd.

2.

Patri
ck CW, Mikos AG, McIntire LV

(
1998
) Frontiers in Tissue Engineering
,
Pergamon Press.

3.

Bernha
rd O Palss
on, Sangeeta N Bhatia

(2003)

Tissue Engineering,
Pearson
Prentice Hall
.





MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

Sub Code : BT
PE12

Credits :
4
:0:0


CIE : 50 Marks

SEE : 50 Marks


UNIT
-
1

Introduction & Stem Cells in Health Care:
Introduction to Medial Biotechnology,
scope and applications, List of disease causing microbes and detection
.
Mammalian
embryonic stem cells


Definition, formation and properties of embryonic stem cells
.
F
ormation of differentiated cells from stem cells. Differentiated progeny, epidermal
stem cells in basal layer
,

differentiating epidermal cells, synthesis of differentiating

epidermal stem cells
-

a subset of basal cells, basal cell proliferation, secretory cells in the
epidermis.


UNIT
-
2

Hemopoeitic Stem Cell Disorder:

Classification and m
anifestations of Hemopoeitic
stem cell disorders, a plastic Hemopoeitic stem cell disorders, clinical applications of
colony stems, complications of germ therapy, replacement therapy and bone marrow
transplantation, immunological principles, preservation
and clinical use of blood and
blood components.


UNIT
-
3

Vaccine Technology:
Definition, history, classification of vaccines, preparation and
standardization of vaccines, cancer vaccine, birth control vaccines, AIDS vaccine,
Pneumococcal vaccine, measles
vaccines, Future development and scope of vaccines.


UNIT
-
4

Diagnostics:
PCR bases diagnosis, Southern blot
-
based diagnosis DNA sequencing of
representative clones to detect mutation(s), PCR
-
SSCP to detect SNP analysis for
known SNPs, PAGE: Immunod
iagnostics, DNA fingerprinting.


UNIT
-
5

Gene Therapy:
General introduction, potential target diseases for gene therapy, gene
transfer methods, and their applications, clinical studies, pharmaceutical production and
regulation.



Text Books:

1.

Daan Cromm
elin, Robert D sindelar

(1998)
:

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology An
Introduction for

pharmacists and
pharmaceutical scientists,
2
nd

edition.

2.

Willam irving, Time Boswell, Dlawar

(1995)
, Inst
ant notes, Medical Microbiology

3.

Sambamurthy

(
1994
)

Text book of

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
, 3
rd

ed
n.


Reference
s
:

1.

Judit Pongracz, Mary Keen

(2009)

Medical Biotechnology,
A Churchill Livingstone
publication
.

2.

Albert Sasson
,
(2006)

Medical Biotechnology, Brookings Institution Press
.




7


PRINCIPLES OF FOOD PROCESSING
& PRESERVATION

Sub Code : BTOE0
3

Credits : 3:0:0


CIE : 50 Marks

SEE : 50 Marks


U
NIT
-

1

Basic consideration:
Aim and objectives of preservation and processing of foods,
characteristics of tissue and non
-
tissue foods, primary sources of microorganisms f
ound
in foods
,

deterioration of food quality, causes of quality deterioration and spoilage of
perishable foods, spoilage in canned foods.


UNIT
-
2

Low temperature Preservation of foods: Chilling temperatures:
Considerations
relating to storage of foods at
chilling temperatures, low temperature applications in
food preservation, controlled and modified atmosphere storage of foods.



Freezing temperature:
Preparation of foods for freezing,
freezing process, slow and
fast freezing of foods and its consequences
, storage stability of frozen foods, effect of
fr
eezing on microorganisms.


UNIT
-
3

High temperature preservation of foods:
Basic concepts in thermal destruction of
microorganisms
-
D, Z, F, values
,

Heat resistance and thermophilisms in micro
-
organisms. Cooki
ng, blanching, pasteurization and sterilization of foods. Assessing
adequacy of thermal processing of foods, general process of canning of foods.


UNIT
-

4

Preservation by Dehydration:

Principles, technological aspects and applications of
drying and dehydr
ation of foods.

Principles, technological aspects and applications of
evaporative concentration processes, freeze concentration and membrane processes for
food concentrations.



UNIT
-
5

Other techniques in preservation:
Principles, technological aspects

and applications
of sugar and salt, anti
-
microbial agents, non
-
ionizing and ionizing radiations in
preservations of foods, Fermented foods.


Text Books:

1.

Norman N. Potter and Joseph H. Hotchkiss (2006) Food Science, 5
th

edition,
CBS
publishers and Distrib
utors

2.

B. Sivasankar (2005) Food processing and preservation, Eastern economy edition,

Prentice
-
Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.

3.

James M Jay (2005) Modern food microbiology, 4
th

edition, CBS publishers and

Distributors
.


Reference
s:

1.

Shakuntala N.
Manay and M. Sh
adaksharamurthy (2008)
Foods: Facts and
Principles
, 3rd edition,
New

Age International



2.

Rick Parker (2001) Introduction to Food Science, 3
rd

edition, Cengage learning

3.

Subbulakshmi
G
and Shobha A. Udupi (2006)
Food Processing and

Preservation,
1
st

e
dition
,
New

Age International



4.

John M DeMan (1999)
Principles of Food Chemistry,

3
rd

Edition, Springer


Verlag



BIOEXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES


Sub Code : BTOE0
4

Credits : 3:0:0




CIE : 50 Marks

SEE : 50 Marks


UNIT
-
1

Basic laboratory Instruments:
Pri
nciple and working of pH meter, Laminar
-
air flow.
Centrifugation: Types of centrifuge machines, preparative and analytical centrifuges,
differential centrifugation,

sedimentation velocity, sedimentation equilibrium, density gradient methods

and their appli
cations; Dialysis, Ultra filtration


UNIT
-
2

Microscopic Examination & Microbial Techniques
:
Basic principles of Microscopy,
Bright
-
Field Microscopy, Dark
-
Field Microscopy, Phase
-
Contrast Microscopy,
Fluorescence Microscopy, Electron Microscopy


SEM, TEM.
Pure culture Techniques
(streak
-
plate, spread plate, pour plate), Cultural characteristics, staining of
Microorganisms (Simple staining, differential staining), types of stains, theories of
staining, Enumeration of Microorganisms (Direct Microscopic Count,

by Pour plate
technique, Streak plate, membrane filtration
.


UNIT
-
3

Electrophoretic techniques:
Basic principles of electrophoresis, theory and application
of paper, starch gel, Agarose gel electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
(native and S
DSPAGE)
,

isoelectric focusing.


UNIT
-
4

Chromatographic techniques and Spectroscopy:
Theory, principles and applications
of paper, thin layer, gel filtration, ion exchange,

affinity, gas liquid, high pressure/
performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),
g
el p
ermeation chromatography.
Spectroscopic techniques
-

theory and applications of UV, Visible, IR,

NMR,
Fluorescence, Atomic Absorption, Mass spectroscopy
.


8


UNIT
-
5

Radioisotopic techniques:
Use of radioisotopes in life sciences, radioactive labeling,
princip
le and application of tracer techniques, detection and measurement of
radioactivity, Geiger
-

Muller and Scintillation counters, autoradiography and its
applications.


Text Books:

1.

Keith W and John W (1995); Practical Biochemistry


Principles & Technique
s, 5
th

Edn., Cambridge University Press, USA.

2.

Avinash U, Kakoll U & Nirmalendu N (1996); Biophysical Chemistry


Principles
& Techniques, , Himalaya Pulbishing House., Delhi, India.


Reference
s:

1.

Campbell I.D. and Durek R.A (1984); Biological Spectros
copy, 1
st

Edn., Benjamin
-
Cummings Publishing Company, USA.

2.

John Kenkel (1994); Analytical chemistry for technicians, Lewis publishers, Boca.

3.

Sharma B.K
(2007),

Instrumental methods of chemical analysis, Goel Publishing
Company, India
.

4.

Channarayapp
a

(2006) Molecular Biotechnology
:
Principles and Practices.

University Press (India) Pvt. Ltd.,
Worldwide

CRC Press.

5

Channarayappa (2010) Cell Biology: Universities Press (India) Pvt Ltd.


BIOETHICS & BIOSAFETY


Sub Code : BT801

Credits : 3:0:0




CIE

: 50 Marks

SEE : 50 Marks


UNIT
-
1

Introducction to Bioethics and Biosaftey:

Needs and definition of Bioethics, Ethical
issues in biotechnology. Application of bioethics, the expanding scope of ethics from
biomedical practice to biotechnology. Social and
ethical issues in Biotechnology,
Introduction to Biosaftey, needs and definition of biosaftey, application and levels of
biosaftey. Hazards related to Biosafety at work place, development of biotech products.
Examples and case studies.


UNIT
-
2

Ethical Issu
es:
Ethical issues in genetically modified organisms (foods and crops);
bioethics in biodiversity and resource management. Animal cloning and human cloning
and their ethical aspects. Testing of drugs on human volunteers, organ transplantation
and ethical i
ssues; Xenotransplantion and its ethical and social issues. Human Genome
project.


UNIT
-
3

Biosafety regulations in transgenic research:
National and international guidelines
on rDNA protocols. MOEF guidelines evolution, Good laboratory practice, Good
m
anufacturing practice and FDA regulations Pharmacopia standards Regulations for
recombinant DNA research and manufacturing process Public perception. National
Institute of health (NIH) guideline, guidelines for research in transgenic organisms.
Experiment
s with microorganisms.
Canadian Council on Animal Care
(CCAC)
Guidelines On Transgenic Animals


UNIT
-
4

Case studies in transgenic research:
Case studies of GEAC approved projects.
Drafting of application to IBSC and procedure. BT cotton, golden Rice, genet
ic
manipulation and ethical considerations. Genetic studies in ethnic races. Recombinnt
DNA


Advisory Committee

Advisory Committee (RDAC)


UNIT
-
5

Bioethics and biosafety in biotechnology:
Ethical issues related to biotech products,
Challenges to Indian Bio
tech Industries and research institutes, Biological weapons
CARTAGENA protocol highlights. Examples of Monarch butterfly, HIV vaccine,
Starlink maize.


Text Books:

1.

Traynor PL (2000) Biosafety Management, Virginia polytechnic Institute
Publication.

2.

Sateesh

M.K (2008) Bioethics & Biosafety, IK Publishers.


References
:

1.

Sassaon A. (1988) Biotechnologies and development. UNESCO Publications.

2.

Sasson A. (1993) Biotechnologies in developing countries present and future,
UNESCO Publishers.

3.

Rao MB(2003), WTO and In
ternational Trade, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

4.

Erbisch F H and Maredia K M(2003), Intellectual Property Rights in Agricultural
Biotechnology, Orient Longman Ltd.

5.

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, January 2000.

6.

Dano MR (1994) Biological Warfare in the
21st century, by, Brassies London.

7.

Safety Considerations for Biotechnology (1992 and latest publications), OECD
Paris.



PLANT DESIGN,

ECONOMICS AND
ENTREPRENEURSHIP


Sub Code : BT
802

Credits : 3:1
:0




CIE : 50 Marks

SEE : 50 Marks


9


UNIT
-

1

Process Design Development & General Design Considerations:
Process design
an
d development, flow diagrams,
marketability of the product, availability of technology,
raw materials, equipment design
-
specification and manufacturing/procurement, huma
n
resources, land and utilities, site characteristics, waste disposal, government regulations
and other legal restrictions, community factors and other factors affecting investment
and production costs.
.
Depreciation & interest and investment cost
:
Time v
a
lue of
Money,

Types of Interests, Nominal and effective interest rates, Continuous interest,
annuities, Perpetuities, Depreciation, Types of depreciation, Methods for estimating
depreciation
.


UNIT
-

2

Cost Estimation:
Capital Investments: Fixed capital inv
estments including land,
building, equipment and utilities, installation costs, working capital investment.
Cost
indius
.
Manufacturing costs: Direct production costs (including raw materials, human
resources, maintenance and repair, operating supplies, pow
er and other utilities,
royalties, etc.,), fixed charges, Plant Overhead cost: Administration, safety and other
auxiliary services, payroll overhead, warehouse and storage facilities.

Numericals.


UNIT
-

3

Profita
bility, Alternative Investments and Replacem
ents:
Profitability, basis for
evaluating project profitability, Methods for profitability evaluation, Alternative
investments, Replacements
.
meaning and importance of Break
-
even point, Break
-
even
chart and analysis.


UNIT
-

4

Ent
rep
reneurship:
Meaning and
importance, concepts of entrepreneurship,
characteristics of successful entrepreneurs, classification of entrepreneurs, myths of
entrepreneurship, evolution of entrepreneurship, development of entrepreneurship,
stages in entrepreneurial process, role of en
trepreneurs in the economic development ,
entrepreneurship development in India, barriers for entrepreneurship, profiles of
successful entrepreneurs.

Identification of business opportunities, market, technical,
financial and social feasibility studies.


P
reparation Report: meaning of the project, project identification, project selection,
project report, need and significance of report, formulation and guidance by Planning
Commission for project Report, network analysis, errors of project report, project
a
ppraisal.


UNIT
-

5

Small scale Industries: Definition, characteristics, need, rationale objectives, scope for
SSIs. Role of SSI in economic development, advantages of SSI, Steps to start SSI, Govt.
policies and support for SSI (during 5 year plans), Impact

of liberalization, globalization
of SSI, Effect of WTO/GATT,
IPR and small Business enterprises,
supporting agencies
of Govt. for SSI


nature of support, objectives, types of help, Brief definitions and
description of ancillary and tiny industry.

IPR and

small business tnerprises.


Institutions supporting SSIs and SBEs


central and state level institutions


Women entrepreneurs: definition, environment, challenges, for women entrepreneurs,
strategies for development of women entrepreneurs self help group
s, Institutions and
women’s organization supporting women entrepreneurs, profiles of successful women
entrepreneurs.


Text Books:

1.

Peters and Timmerhaus (1989) Plant Design and Economics for Chemical
Engineers, 4
th

edn., McGraw Hill.

2.

Rudd and Watson (1987)
Strategy of Process Engineering, Wiley.

3.

Poornima M C (2006) Entrepreneurship Development and Small Business
Enterprises”, Pearson education.


References

1.

Vasanth Desai (
2007
) Dynamics of Entrepreneurial Development & Management”,
Himalaya Publishing House
.

2.

Khanka SS (2004) Entrepreneurship Development, S Chand & Co.

3.

Thomas W. Zimmer, Norman M. Scarborough.(2007), Essentials of
Entrepreneurship and small Business Management




PROJECT WORK


Sub Code : BT
805

Credits : 0
:0:
14







As per the Institutiona
l
and D
epartment of Biotechnology, MSRIT guidelines



INSILICO DRUG DESIGN


Sub Code : BTPE13

Credits :
4
:0:0




CIE : 50 Marks

SEE : 50 Marks


UNIT
-
1

Introduction to Drug Designing: Absorption, Membrane permeability and drug
physicochemical properties
, Absorption from the oral cavity, Distribution, Elimination,

10

Phase I metabolism & Phase II metabolism in drug elimination, Drug Formulation
Aims, Oral Drug Delivery, Factors influencing the stereoselectivity of drug action and
disposition in man.


UNIT
-
2

Molecular Graphics, Intermolecular Forces and Molecular Modeling tools: Components
of Molecular Graphic Hardware, Software components of Molecular Graphics and
Modeling Systems, Tutorials using SPDBV, Electrostatic interactions, the hydrogen
bond, van der
Waals interactions, Exchange repulsion, Free energies of interaction


gas phase and solution, Intramolecular forces and conformation.


UNIT
-
3

Computer
-
Assisted New Lead Design: Basic Concepts, Docking Problems and
Methods, Experimental Techniques like X
-
R
ay crystallography, NMR, Three
dimensional structure databases
-

PDB, MMDB, Development of QSAR,
Hydrophobicity descriptors, Electronic descriptors, Steric descriptors, 3
-
D descriptors,
Topological descriptors, Statistical Analysis, Limitations and Pitfall
s of QSAR, QSAR
softwares.


UNIT
-
4

Modeling Drug Receptor Interactions: Receptors, introduction and definitions, Zinc
Enzymes as Drug Targets, Receptors fitting, ligand binding interactions, Case studies:
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and activators, Wnt s
ignaling pathway and Glycogen
synthase kinase inhibitors, Cyclooxygenase pathway and NSAID inhibitors.


UNIT
-
5

Drug Discovery and development: Drug development process, Microfluidics for drug
discovery and development, Clinical biomarkers in drug discover
y and development,
Computer Aided Drug Design (CADD), Limitations and proposals for maximizing
CADD technologies.


Text Books:

1.

Smith and Williams (2006). Drug design, principle and action, 4
th

edition,
CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, NW.

2.

Claudiu T. Supu
ran and Jean
-
Yves Winum (2009). Drug Design of Zinc
-
Enzyme Inhibitors, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.

3.

Cohen NC (1996): A Guide Book on Molecular Modeling in Drug Design,
Academic Press, Inc., USA, First, Edition.

References:

1.

Povl Krogsgaard

Larsen, Tommy Liljefors, Ulf Madsen, (2004), Textbook of Drug
Design & Discovery Taylor & Francis Group, USA,.

2.

Pandeya S N, Dimmock (2009): Introduction To Drug Design, New Age
International Pvt. Ltd, India,

3.

Lifeng Kang, Bong Geun Chung, Robert Langer an
d Ali Khademhosseini.
Microfluidics for drug discovery and development: From target selection to product
lifecycle management, Drug Discovery Today Volume 13, Numbers 1/2 , 2008.



NANO
-
BIOTECHNOLOGY


Sub Code : BTPE14

Credits :
4
:0:0





CIE : 50 Marks


SEE : 50 Marks


UNIT
-
1

Introduction:
A Brief History of the Super Small; Definition of Nano
bio
technology.
Discussions on nanofabrication, Bottom
-
Up versus Top
-
Down, Nanolithography,
Microelectronic fabrication, Structure
-
property relationships in materials, biomolecule
-
surface interactions, Fabrication in Hard Materials, Silicon and glass materials,
Hydrogels/PDMS/other polymers and base materials for nano
-
and microfabricated
devices
, Valuing Nanobiotechnology.


UNIT
-
2

Nano Materials and their Characterization:
Buckyballs, Nanotubes,
Nanobiotechnology, materials characterization techniques, scanning tunneling and
atomic force microscopy, DNA microarrays, quantum dots, and hybrid
biolo
gical/inorganic devices. Scanning tunneling microscopy and Atomic force
microscopy. Nanobiomaterials: Function and application of DNA based nanostructures.



UNIT
-
3

Nanodiagnostics:
Diagnostics and Sensors, Rapid
Ex
-
Vivo
Diagnostics, Nanosensors
as Diagno
stics, Nanotherapeutics. Nanofabricated devices to separate and interrogate
DNA, Interrogation of immune and neuronal cell activities through micro
-
and
nanotechnology based tools and devices.


UNIT
-
4

Drug Discov
e
ry and Drug Delivery:
Drug Discovery Using N
anocrystals, Drug
Discovery Using Resonance Light Scattering (RLS) technology, Benefits of Nano
-
Imaging Agents, Drug Delivery using Nanobiosensors, Drug Delivery Applications,
Bioavailability, Sustained and targeted release, Nanorobots, Benefits of Nano
-
D
rug
Delivery, Drug Delivery, Health Risks, and Challenges, Targeting, Drug Delivery
Revenues, use of micro
-
needles and Nanoparticles for highly controlled drug delivery.


UNIT
-
5

Microfluids:
Laminar flow, Hagen


Pouiselle equ
ation
, basic fluid ideas, Spec
ial
considerations of flow in small channels, mixing, microvalves & micropumps,

11

Approaches toward combining living cells, microfluids and ‘the body’ on a chip,
Chemotaxis, Case studies in Microfluidic devices. BioMEMS: Introduction and
Overview, Biosignal
Transduction Mechanisms: Electromagnetic Transducers
Mechanical Transducers, Chemical Transducers, Optical Transducers

Sensig and
Actuating mechanisms (for all types).

Ultimate Limits of Fabrication and Measurement,
Recent Developments in BioMEMS
.


Text B
ooks:

1.

Stephen Lee and Lynn M Savage (1998) Biological molecules in Nanotechnology

2.

Rosenthal, Sandra J and Wright, David W (2005) Nanobiotechnology Protocols,
Humana Press.


References
:

1.

Richard Booker and Earl Boysen (2005)

Nanotechnology,

Wiely dreamtech e
dition

2.

Chapman & Hall (2002)

Nanobiotechnology


Basic Science & Emerging
Technologies ,CRC

3.

Gregory Timp (1998)

Nanotechnology, (Ed) Spring.

4.

Nanotechnology
(2002)
by Mark Ratner and Daniel Ratner

5.

Ratner (2005) Pearson Education

6.

Transducers and instrtument
ation, D.V.S Murthy

(2008)
, Prentice Hall of India

7.

Principles of Applied Biomedical Instrumentation
(1989),

Ed. 3., Geddes (L.A) &
Baker (L.E)

8.

Biochip Technology, Jing C
hung & Larry J. Kricka
H
arwood academic publishers,
2001







OPERATION RESEARCH & MAN
AGEMENT


Sub Code

: BTPE15

Credits :
4
:0:0



CIE : 50 Marks

SEE : 50 Marks


UNIT
-
1

Introduction:
Operations research model, solving the operation research model,
Queuing and simulation models, Art of modeling, Phases of operation research study.

Linear
Programming
: Two variable L
-
P model, Graphic
al linear
programming solution,
Analysis of selected linear programming models.

UNIT
-
2

The Simplex Method:
Linear Programming solution space, Graphical to algebraic
solution. The simplex method. Artificial starti
ng solution, Special cases in simplex
method applications.


UNIT
-
3

Transportation Model and Iot
a
s Variants:
Definition of transportation model. Non
-
traditional transportation models, Transportation algorithms, assignment model.


UNIT
-
4

Network Models:
Netw
ork definitions, Minimal spanning tree algorithm, CPM and
PERT.


UNIT
-
5

Introduction to engineering management:
Engineering and Management, Historical
Development of Engineering Management.

Functions o
f Technology Management
: Planning and Forecasting,
Deci
sion
Making, Organizing, Mo
tivating and Leading Technical People, Controlling.

Managing Projects
: Project Planning and Acquisition, Project Org
a
nization,
Leadership and Control.


Text Books:

1.

Hamdy H Taha

(2002): Operation Research


An Introduction, 7e
, Person
Education/PHI
-

2.

Babcock & Morse

(2004): Managing Engineering and Technology, Person
Education,


References
:

1.

Hellriegel,

Jackson
,

Slocum

(2003)

Management


A competency based approach
,
Thomson South Western,

2.

Koontz Weir rich

(1988): M
anagement, McGraw Hill,

3.

Wayne L Winston

(2003):Operations Research


Applications and Algorithms
,
Thomson Learning




FORENSIC SCIENCE


Sub Code : BTOE05

Credits : 3:0:0




CIE : 50 Marks

SEE : 50 Marks


UNIT
-
1


I
ntroduction
:
Introduction, Definition and Scope, History and Development of
Forensic science, Legal procedures and use of court.


UNIT
-
2


12

C
rime

lab
:
Organization of crime Laboratory services of th
e crime laboratory, Basic
services provided by full service crime laboratories, Physical Science unit, Biological
unit, Firearms unit, Document Examination unit


Function and duties performs by
each unit and lab


UNIT

3

FORENSIC
BIOLOGY
:
Analysis of Physi
cal evidence, Expert unit men, specially
trained evidence collection technician, Analytical techniques.
Forensic Pathology: Rigor
mortis, Lovor mortis, Algor mortis. Forensic Anthropology, Forensic Entomology,
Forensic Psychiatry, Forensic Odontology,
Fore
nsics

Engineering, DNA Analysis,
Dactyloscopy, Finger prints : Classification and patterns.


UNIT
-

4

FORENSIC
ETHICS
:
The importance of professional ethics to science practitioners,
Development of a code of conduct and code of ethics for forensic science,
Application
of codes and e
thics, How ethical requirement
impact the daily work of a forensic
scientist, ethical dilemmas and their resolution.


UNIT
-
5


FORENSIC DIGITAL IMAGING:
Introduction, Digital cameras and forensic
imaging, Uses of digital imaging,
m
aintaining

chain of control with digital images, digital
videos, scanners, presenting pictures in courtroom, Detecting compression and forgeries
and Maintaining Records.


Text Books:

1.

Richard Saperstein
(
2001
):

Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Sc
ience

Prentice Hall,.

2.

Max M. Houck

(
2007
):
Forensic Science: Modern methods of solving problems
,
Praeger West Port London,

3.

Jami J. St Clair
(
2002
):

Crime Laboratory Management
-

Academic Press.


References
:

1.

Ayn Embar
-
Seddon, Allan D. Pals (2009): For
ensic Science, Salem Press, Inc.
Paradena, California
.

2.

David Ellen

(2003)
:

The Scientific Examination of Documents Methods and
Techniques
-
,

Taylor and Francis
.

3.

Jay Siegal, Geoffrey Knuper, Pekku Saukko (2000): Enyclopedia of Forensic
Sciences, Three
-
volume

SET1
-
3, Elsvier book publication.




BIOREMEDIATION


Sub Code
: BTOE06

Credits : 3:0:0




CIE : 50 Marks

SEE : 50 Marks


UNIT
-
1.

Introduction to
Environment:
Our Environment: Geological Consideration;
Atmosphere; Hydrosphere; Lithosphere; Structure of
ecosystem; Strata of an ecosystem;
Types of ecosystem; Energy transfer in an ecosystem; Food chain, food web; Energy
budget; Production and decomposition in a system;


UNIT
-
2.

Fundamental Aspects of Environmental Microbiology:
Structure and Functions of
P
rocaryotic Cells: Structure and Functions of Eucaryotic Cells: Taxonomy of
Microorganisms: Bacteria, Algae, Fungi and Protozoa. Environmental Significance of
Bacteria, Fungi, and Algae. Microbial Metabolism: Growth and Biokinetics. Microbial
Nutrition and
Metabolism. Microbial Growth and Energy. Effect of Environment on
microbial growth. Aerobic respirations, diversity of aerobic metabolism, fermentation,
anaerobic respirations, anaerobic food chains, autotrophy, regulation of activity
Role of
microorganism
s in natural system and artificial system; Influence of Microbes on the
Earth’s. Environment and Inhabitants; Ecological impacts of microbes; Symbiosis
(Nitrogen fixation and ruminant symbiosis); Microbes and Nutrient cycles; Microbial
communication system
; Quorum sensing; Microbial fuel cells; Prebiotics and Probiotics;
Vaccines


UNIT
-
3
.

Toxic chemicals in the environment:
Xenobiotic compounds: Surceases, Properties,
tocicity and types of toxicity, classification of toxicants in environment; Atmospheric
to
xicants; Toxic heavy metals; Radionuclides; Pesticides and pesticide residues; Solvents
and other organic chemicals; Petroleum and other related compounds; Mutagenesis;
Teratogenesis; Carcinogens; Hellucinogens; Phytotoxins and animal toxins; Toxic
respons
e of different body system likes respiratory, gastro
-
intestinal tract, liver, kidney,
immune system and reproductive system; Toxicants types; Factors affecting toxicity;
Absorption and distribution of toxicants in animal body; toxicants uptake, Bio
-
transfo
rmation of toxicants; Bio
-
accumulation.Factors affecting bioaccumulation,
measurement of bioaccumulation


UNIT
-
4
.

Bioremediation
Conventional remediation:

Thermal Processes and
Chemical/Physical Processes

Bioremediation; process: Classification:
In situ
an
d
Ex situ
bioremediation; Constrains
and priorities of bioremediation; Evaluating Bioremediation; Bioremediation of soil;
Factors affecting process of bioremediation,

advantages and limitations
; Methods in
determining biodegradability; Contaminant availabi
lity for biodegradation.


13

Effects of Co
-
substrates on Microorganisms

Impact of biotechnology on

Bioremediation and
Global Application of Bioremediation
Technologies; Application and Case Studies


UNIT
-
5
.

Emerging Environmental Biotechnologies:
Bioleaching:

Microbes in Bioleaching,
Classification, Metal Recovery, Bioleaching of Cu, microbial extraction of petroleum,

Bio sorption:
Sources of heavy metal pollution; Microbial interactions with inorganic
pollutants Microbial metal resistance; Microbial transform
ation; Accumulation and
concentration of metals; Biosorption
-

Biotechnology and heavy metal pollution;

Phytoremediation Phytoremediation, Mechanism of phytoremediation, Advantages of
bioremediation and Phytoremediation: Biomonitoring: Biomembrane Reactors

Impact of biotechnology on Bioleaching, bio
-
sorption and phyto
-
remediation


Text book

1.


Verma PS and Agarwal VK (2005) Cell biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology
Evolution and Ecology S Chand publication, New Delhi

2.


Shrinivas T (2008) Environmental Biotech
nology
New Age International (P) Limited,
Publishers
4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi

References
:

1.

Stanier RY
et. al
. (1989) General Microbiology, McMillan Publications
.


2.

Foster CF and John Ware DA (1987) Environmental Biotechnology, Ellis
Horwoo
d Ltd.

3.

Karrely D
et. al
. (1989) Biotechnology and Biodegradation, Advances in Applied
Bitoechnology Series, Vol 4, Gulf Publications Co. London
.


4.

John T. Cookson Jr (1995) Bioremediation engineering; design and application, Mc
graw Hill, Inc.

5.

Chatterjee A
K (
2007)

Envionmental Biotechnology,
PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.,
Eastern Economy Edition
.


6.

Jogdand SN (2011) Environmental Biotechnology by Himalaya Publishing.