Module6 - CLSU Open University

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MODULE 6


TERTIARY EDUCATION AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT










109

Introduction


As per EDCOM Report (Making Education Work, 1992) the present
system of Philippine Education is inefficient, poor in quality, lack of
access, equity, leadership and planning. Al
though it has contributed to
the development of the country in all fields… political leadership, agro
-
industrial development and commercial and industrial ventures; and in
terms of intellectual, moral, social and cultural development of Filipino
people, th
e education system needs system changes and innovations that
will hopefully propel the Philippines towards becoming/newly
industrialized country in the near future and restore its image as a well
known educational center in this part of the world as soon a
s possible.


The seriousness of the present educational system as pointed out
by EDCOM Report was translated into the enactment of RA 7722;
creating the CHED (Commission on Higher Education), in 1995, to
supervise the tertiary degree programs. This change
was hopefully could
turn out excellent and globally competitive graduates who can help
improve the quality of life of the people via skills training, technology
transfer and innovative research.


Thus, this module lesson discusses the concept and state of
higher
education in the Philippine, its philosophy, vision, mission, goals and
objective.


Further discussion engulfs the higher education program thrusts,
curriculum, implementation strategies and its implication for
development.




This module lesson se
eks to make students:

1.

familiar with the concept and state of higher education in the
Philippines;

2.

explain the philosophy, vision, mission, goals and objectives
of higher education in the Philippines;

Objectives
:


110

3.

identify the program thrusts and program curriculum; and

4.

spell out the implementation strategies and the higher
education implication to development.





Discussions in this module based in existing literature(s) were
gleaned from several sources which are listed in the section for
references used. While some
ideas were directly lifted from these sources,
this writer added his personal insight about the topics as he sees them
fitted and relevant based on his experience, observation and cognition.


Concept of Higher Education


The 1987 Philippine Construction cl
early provides that the “state
shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture and
sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress
and total liberation and development” (Nolledo, 1997)


The Education Act of 1
982 declares that “Higher Education will be
geared towards the provision of quality education. The main thrust of
higher education is to achieve equity, efficiency and high quality in the
institutions of higher learning in both public and private so that t
ogether
they will provide a complete set of program offerings that meet national
and regional development needs.


State of Higher Education in the Philippines


The present state of education in the Philippines has been
painstakingly assessed by EDCOM, a co
ngressional commission created
in the 1990 Joint Congressional Resolution signed by them Senate
President Jovito Salonga and House Speaker Ramon Mitra.


The EDCOM Report revealed that i) the quality of the Philippine
education is continuously declaiming; i
i) elementary and high schools are
Suggested Time Frame:


6 hours


111

failing to teach the competence an average citizen needs to become
responsible, productive and self
-
fulfilling; iii) colleges and technical
-
vocational schools are not producing the manpower needed to develop
the economy;
and iv) graduate education is mediocre and does not
generate research based knowledge needed to create more jobs and raise
the value of production.


The state of higher education in micro setting can be characterized
as i) the politically motivated prolife
ration of institution of higher
learning; ii) the gradual increase of annual enrolment in courses not
necessarily directed for national development, but in traditional degree
programs such commerce, teacher education, arts and sciences and
health sciences;

iii) performance in licensure examination of graduates,
except in medicine, an indicator of sub standard curricular program, and
poor and inefficient implementation of policies and standards; iv)
moratorium regarding offering of new curriculum and creatin
g of new
HEI’s; v) voluntary accreditation, a mechanism being adopted to ensure
quality in higher education; vi) existing double standard of governance in
public and private HEI’s; vii) weak supervision and regulations of HEI’s
remain a challenge with rega
rd to effective management; viii) inequitable
distribution of funds or resources among public HEI’s has been an
important problem; ix) inadequate budget for research and extension for
HEI’s; x) inadequate qualified faculty members to teach courses offered
by HEI’s; xi) limited fundings for scholarship/grants/loan caused limited
educational opportunities for poor but deserving and qualified youth
belonging to the indigent families.


In addition, EDCOM Report cited problems why quality education
is not attain
ed, viz:

i.

Lack of budget, meaning the government is simply not
investing enough in education system;

ii.

Poor management of educational institution or the fly
-
by
-
night private institution which can operate with sub
-

112

standard facilities, ill
-
prepared teachers and

administrators;
and

iii.

Prohibitive cost of education or the sky
-
high tuition and
other schools fees of high quality schools prohibits the poor
but deserving students to remain in school.


The Higher Education’s Philosophy, Vision, Mission

Goals and Objective
s

P
hilosophy


The higher education philosophy states that in the environment of
freedom, excellence and relevance it seeks to harness, develop and
catalyze the constructive and productive use of the full potential and
capabilities of Filipino man and woman

into becoming creative, decisive,
competitive, critically thinking and acting individuals who contribute to i)
the realization of Filipino identity and strong sense of national pride; ii)
the cultivation and inculcation of moral and spiritual foundation;
iii) the
attainment of political maturity, economic stability and equitable social
progress; and iv) the preservation and enrichment of the historical and
cultural heritage of the Filipinos, as a people and a nation.


Vision


Higher education would have pr
ovided and expanded opportunities
for the technically useful knowledge and skills development of Filipinos
and would have constructively advanced the capabilities of Filipinos in
society. It would have produce in the Filipinos the ability to think
critical
ly, create act positively and contribute to the full development of
the family, community and the larger society.


Mission


Higher education shall be geared toward the pursuit of better
quality of life for all Filipinos by emphasizing the acquisition of

113

kn
owledge and formation of those skills necessary to make the individual
a productive member of society. It shall accelerate the development of
high levels professional who will search for new knowledge, provide
leadership in various disciplines required by
a dynamic and self
-
sustaining economy. Higher education shall likewise be used to harness
the productive capacity of the country’s human resource base towards
international competitiveness.


Goals


The goals of higher education is ensuring the attainment o
f
empowered and globally competitive Filipinos via i) quality and
excellence; ii) relevance and responsiveness; iii) access and equity; and
efficiency and effectiveness.


In terms of quality and excellence, this goal calls for provision of
undergraduate an
d graduate education which meet international
standards of quality and excellence; relevance and responsiveness
require generation and diffusion of knowledge in the broad range of
disciplines relevant and responsive to dynamically changing domestic
and int
ernational environment; access and equity or broadening the
access of deserving and qualified Filipinos to higher education
opportunities; and efficiency and effectiveness will optimize social,
institutional and individual returns and benefits derived from

the
utilization of higher education resources.


Program Thrusts of Higher Education


In accordance with the goals of the higher education that are cited

in the preceding
, CHED come up with development programs that are
implementable with specific activity

thrusts.





114

Quality and Excellence


Quality and excellence can be achieved via the development of:

i)

center of excellence in different disciplines;

ii)

policies, institutional and academic standard;

iii)

higher education information system, communication
highway, ne
tworking and internet linkages;

iv)

regional capabilities in science and technology education;

v)

academic exchanges between and among local and
international HEI’s, scholarship grants and international
convention, etc.


This program thrust delves on strengthenin
g the human resources
capabilities of HEI’s and CHED and optimize foreign assistance in critical
areas like agricultural technology education, environmental and
maritime education.


Efficiency and Effectiveness


This program in higher education calls for t
he development of a
rational resource generation and allocation scheme for HEI’s;
establishment of baseline date of the location, program mapping and
categorization of HEI’s and formulation of higher education code.


Rele
vance and Responsiveness


The progr
am will undertake studies regarding sectoral manpower
supply and demand studies; sectoral tracer studies of graduates; policy
studies research and development for the improvement of the quality of
higher education; and conduct of researches in priority dis
cipline and
key areas in higher education.


Access and Equity


To make higher education available even to low income groups of
family, CHED will expand the grants for scholarship, assistance and

115

other student services; come
-
up with a voucher system for sch
olarships,
grants and other student services; develop policy and program regarding
distance education, and review the policy regarding accreditation and
strengthen the accreditation system


The Curriculum for Higher Education as per the 1987 Philippine
Con
stitution provides guidance in formulating the curriculum for Higher
Education. Atty. Jose Nolledo (1995) in his book
The Education
Acts of
the Philippines. Annotated, comments thus:


“Aside from the provisions on religious instruction and the
teaching of
the Constitution as well as usual curricula on science,
language, math, etc., the curricula of schools and colleges, according to
the New Constitution, sh
all

teach, inculcate or foster.

i.

Patriotism and Nationalism

ii.

Love of humanity

iii.

Respect for human rights

iv.

A
ppreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical
development of the country

v.

Ethical and Spiritual values

vi.

Rights and duties of citizenship

vii.

Moral character

viii.

Personal discipline

ix.

Critical and creative thinking

x.

Scientific and technological knowledge

xi.

Vocational efficiency


In line with this Constitutional provision, the CHED Memorandum
Order (CMO) No. 59, Series of 1996 was issued providing basic
requirements for baccalaureate degree programs. The said CMO
enumerates that the new general education curr
iculum as the basic
CHED requirement. This was issued in accordance with the provision in
the Republic Act 7722, called “Higher Education Act of 1994”.


116


“The minimum requirements for the mandatory general education
curriculum (GEC) of tertiary courses of s
tudy leading to an initial
bachelor’s degree covering four (4) curriculum years shall henceforth be
sixty
-
three (63) units distributed as follows:

The Minimum Requirements for

the

New General Education Curriculum (GEC)


Language and Literature






24 un
its


English





9 units


Filipino





9 units


Literature





6 units


Mathematics and Natural Science





15 units


Mathematics




6 units


Natural Sciences




6 units


Science Elective




3 units


Humanities and Social Sciences





18 units


Humanities





6 units


Arts and Philosophy


Social Sciences




12 units



Basic Economic (with taxation and Agrarian Reform)



General Psychology



Politics and Governance (with Philippine Constitution)



Society and Culture (with Family Pla
nning)



Mandated Subjects







6 units


Life and Works of Rizal



3 units


Philippine History




3 units

__________________







Total




63 units


The curriculum for the academic master’s degree shall contain a
minimum total of 36 units distributed a
s follows:

Basic Courses







9 units


Research Methodology 1



3 units


Statistics/Research/



3 units


Methodology II / Thesis Seminar



Foundation Courses



3 units



(Any foundation course in the



discipline)

Major Field of Concentration





15 units

Cognates








6 units

Thesis or project Paper






6

units








Total


36 units


117


The doctoral program a minimum 48 academic units, excluding
the dissertation and master’s units, distributed as follows:

Philosophy Courses






9 units

Ma
jor Fields of Concentration





30 units

Cognates








9 units

Dissertation








12 units










Total


60 units


Strategies and Implementing Mechanism


The magnitude of implementing the CHED program thrusts
depends on the appropriateness of the s
trategies that will be employed
with respect to the activities to be pursued under each program in terms
of:

i)

networking among HEI’s, industry, government officers, non
-
government organizations, international organizations or
institutions, the CHED regional

offices with central offices as
the local link;

ii)

strengthen the managerial leadership both at the national
regional and institutional levels to guide effectively the efforts
of all concerned sectors and individuals in achieving the goals
of the plans;

iii)

inst
all and make management information system operational
at all administrative levels to make sure that adequate,
accurate and reliable information are available as basis in
assessing the performance of the higher education system;

iv)

institutionalize managemen
t assessment functions of CHED
and HEI’s to identify areas for improvement and possible
interventions;

v)

conduct massive training programs for decision makers and
implementers to meet their diverse training needs and improve
their implementing capacities by
equipping them with current
trends in the planning, implementation, monitoring and
evaluation of development programs and projects;


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vi)

make available adequate human, material and financial
resources to ensure that programs and other interventions are
implemen
ted as planned; and

vii)

observe decentralization and delegation of responsibilities to
various administrative levels to allow greater participation and
involvement of all stockholders.


Impli
cation to Philippine Development


Higher education makes up the backb
one of any human resource
development plan. National development depends on higher education
for high level manpower. Higher education institutions are looked up as
sources of the manpower requirements to spur socio
-
economic growth of
the country.


To subs
tantiate the preceding statements, the output of HEI’s are
circulated into the economy as educated manpower which serves as
catalysts of the development and innovation. Graduates who are
professionals and/or technicians are prime movers of productive
activ
ities to turn the economic machinery moving. Equipped with
managerial skills, research capabilities and instructional talents, they
can provide leadership, advancement and application of new knowledge
to improve the quality of human life.


In this light, i
t is necessary that the goals and objective of higher
education be attuned to the needs of national development in terms of
meeting the economy’s manpower needs; produce the right quality of
graduates who are trained with the right skills that can fill the

requirements of the labor market; and that these HEI’s tools of learning
are also of high quality to meet the situations prevailing in the
environment.





119

Self Activity 6 (SA6)

1.

Read the EDCOM Report (Making Education Work, 1992) and
identify those importa
nt inadequacies (problems) of the Philippine
Education System that are not cited in this module.

2.

After having identified these problems, cite the interventions the
Philippine government has taken to meet adequately these
problems

3.

Are public HEI’s adequatel
y proving to be the government
interventions to attain its higher education program thrusts in
terms of quality and excellence, efficiency and effectiveness,
relevance and responsiveness and access and equity? Please
support your answers by citing the acti
ons taken by the
government with respect to public HEI’s in the country.

4.

As per you observation, in what ways public HEI’s can contribute
to national development effort considering that most of them are
inadequate in terms of manpower, facilities curricula
r program and
budget?


Self Quiz 6 (SQ6)

1.

What is the concept of higher education as spelled out in
Education Act of 1982?

2.

Generally speaking, what are the most important finding of
EDCOM (Making Education Work, 1992)?

3.

What are the program thrusts of higher

education in the
Philippines?

4.

How are these programs thrusts implemented by the government?

5.

What contribution can the HEI’s extend to national development
effort of the government?





120

Answers to Self Quiz 6 (ASQ6)

1.

The Educational Act of 1982 declares that

“Higher Education will
be geared towards the quality education, equity and efficiency of
institution of higher learning both public and private so that they
can complete set of program offerings that meet national and
regional development needs.”

2.

EDCOM Re
port generalized its findings by coming out with these
problems, viz… i) that the quality of Philippine Education is
continuously declining; ii) elementary and high schools are failing
to teach the competence an average citizen needs to become
responsible,

productive and self
-
fulfilling; iii) colleges and technical
vocational schools are not producing the manpower needed to
develop the economy; and iv) graduate research
-
based knowledge
needed to create more job and raise the value of production.

3.

Basically i
n accordance with the recommendation put forward in
the EDCOM Report, CHED put a program designed to achieve i)
quality and excellence; ii) relevance and responsiveness; iii) access
and equity; and iv) efficiency and effectiveness. These goals are
envision
ed to ensure the attainment of empowered and globally
competitive Filipino.

4.

These goals are hopefully achieved by employing strategies and
combination of strategies that are appropriate and implementable
to each of them, namely… i) formulating policies tha
t can
operationalize these goals; ii) networking among HEI’s, industry,
GO’s and NGO’s and CHED’s regional and national offices; iii)
strengthening the leadership capabilities of all concerned agencies
down to institutional levels; iv) installing and opera
ting
management information system; v) massive training for decision
makers and implementers; vi) providing adequate human, material
resources and funding support; vii) decentralization of CHED

121

functions; and viii) an institutionalize monitoring and evalua
tion
system.

5.

As sources of trained manpower (professional and technicians)
HEI’s have to upgrade their learning tools via improving their
programs (research, extension and production) facilities,
manpower and graduates. Their graduates acting as catalysts
are
prime movers of productive activities to turn the economic
machinery moving. As professionals, they can provide leadership,
advancement and application of new knowledge improve the
quality of human life.




This module lesson primarily focus its discu
ssion on tertiary
education, its problems, present state, philosophy, vision, mission, goals,
program thrust, mechanism for implementation and its contribution to
national development effort.


The basic findings of EDCOM (Making Education Works, 1992) in
t
erms of the continuous decline of the Philippine education system, the
inability of the basic education to teach the basic competencies needed
by average citizens to participate in the affairs of the society they belong,
the poor quality of graduates turn
-
out by HEI’s and the mediocre
graduate education, were included in the discussion.


Perusing the recommendation of EDCOM, CHED designed a
program so that higher education can produce empowered and globally
competitive graduates. This program was focused on

strengthening
human resources via higher education thrusts with quality and
excellence, relevance and responsiveness, access and quality and
efficiency and effectiveness.


At present the higher education can be described as lacking of
budget; poorly manag
ed; private and public institutions mostly are
operating with sub
-
standard facilities; and ill
-
prepared teachers; and
Summary


122

administrators; and prohibitive cost of education and other school fees of
quality schools.


The higher education program was being implem
ented by
employing strategies in terms of formulating policies that are higher
education friendly, networking between and among HEI’s, GO’s, NGO’s
and CHED national and regional offices, massive training for decision
-
makers and teachers, adequate funding s
upport, decentralization of
CHED function and on national monitoring and evaluation system.


The HEI’s as sources of trained professionals and technicians are
serving as catalysts or prime movers of productive activities by providing
leadership, advancemen
t and application of new knowledge to enhance
the quality of human life.






















123

References Cited


__________ 1991. EDCOM Report. Agenda For Educational Reform.


__________ 1991. EDCOM Report. Making Education Work. Volume 2,
December, 1991.


G
uerrero, J. S. 1989. Educational Technologies, Philippine Education:
Visions and Perspective. Metro Manila: National Bookstore,
Inc.


__________ 1994. Long Term Higher Education Development Plan, 1996
-
2005. Metro Manila: CHED, Office of the President Repub
lic
of the Philippines.


Muhi, E. T. et al., 1986. Dynamics of Development: The Philippine
Experience. Metro Manila: National Bookstore, Inc.


__________ 1965. Manpower and Education: Country Studies in
Economic Development. New York: Mc Graw
-
Hill Co.


Nol
ledo, J. N. 1995. Education Acts of the Philippines, An Annotation,
Metro Manila: National Bookstore, Inc.


Ordoñez, V. M. 1984. Panorama of Reforms in Higher Education. Metro
Manila: National Bookstore, Inc.


Quisumbing, L. R. 1989. Education For Unity, P
eace and Progress.
Philippine Education: Visions and Perspective. Metro Manila:
National Bookstore, Inc.


Quisumbing, L. R. 1989. Education in the Philippines: State of Practice,
Visions and Perspective, Metro Manila: National Bookstore,
Inc.


Rosas, N. 19
89. Redirection In Higher Education. Philippine Education:
Visions and Perspective. Metro Manila: National Bookstore,
Inc.


Sta. Maria, F. C. ed. 1994. Higher Education Reform: Now or Never.
Metro Manila: Congressional Oversight Committee on
Education (COC
ED)


Sutaria. M. C. et al. 1989. Philippine Education: Visions and Perspective.
Metro Manila: National Bookstore, Inc.


124

Tendero, A. P. et al., 1984. Philippine Development Issues: An Inquiry.
Metro Manila: National Bookstore, Inc.