Alteris-LEL-Jail-Suicide-Course-2011 - Argo Group

eatablesurveyorInternet and Web Development

Dec 14, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

370 views


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



ALTERIS

RISK POINTS: OPERATIONAL POLICIES & PROCEDURES


Suicide Detection and Prevention in Jails


This Instructor Guide is designed to assist the instructor in developing an appropriate lesson
plan or plans to teach the learning objectives and content o
utline, which are required as
minimum content of this course.


Abstract of Course:

This course is designed to provide the county corrections officer with an
understanding of suicidal behavior as it relates to facility environment. Most experts agree that
with
sufficient training, jail personnel can not only thwart a suicide, but avoid the serious repercussions that
follow. Suicide prevention begins at the point of arrest. Although research shows that the majority of
suicides occur within the first 24 hours

of incarceration, many suicides occur after this time period. Finally,
issue of intake screening, custodial care, supervision, and other liability concerns, as well as their
relationship to jail suicides, are presented. Experience has demonstrated that ma
ny jail suicides "can be
averted with implementation of a prevention program that includes staff training, intake screening,
communication between staff, and human interaction between staff and inmates. The key to prevention
remains a capable and properly
trained staff, the backbone ingredient of a facility."


Target Population:
Jail Personnel


Pre
-
requisites:
Employment in a jail


Length of Time for Course:


8
-

12 hours


Material Requirements:

Overhead projector, chalkboard and/or flip charts, handouts,

Texas
Commission on Jail Standards
Minimum Jail Standards
, VCR, video tape (Sam Houston State University.
Jail Suicide Prevention
, March 1992) and Lesson Plans. Instructors should use National Academy of
Corrections,
Training Curriculum on Suicide Detecti
on and Prevention in Jails and Lockups
. (Order from
the Correctional Training Network, NIC Information Center, 1860 Industrial Circle, Suite A, Longmont,
Colorado 80501)


Instructor qualifications:

Very

knowledgeable about human behavior and correctional
i
ssues. Section XVI should be taught by a person qualified to teach first aid.


Evaluation Processes and Procedures:
A short end
-
of
-
class test is recommended, as
well as class participation and discussion.


Reference Materials:

See the bibliography at the e
nd of course. Also, note that much of this
material was developed by the National Institute of Corrections in the following citation. National Academy
of Corrections,
Training Curriculum on Suicide Detection and Prevention in Jails and Lockups
. (Order
from

the Correctional Training Network, NIC Information Center, 1860 Industrial Circle, Suite A,
Longmont, Colorado 80501)



Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



PARTICIPANT LEARNING OBJECTIVES:



At the completion of the training session, participants will be able to:

1.01 • Explain the extent
of the suicide problem nationally in jails and lockups.

1.02 • Identify at least four factors in a proactive stance to neutralize litigation.

1.03 • Name at least four segments of the criminal justice field that can benefit from the use of suicide
preventi
on.

2.01 • List at least five characteristics in a "typical profile" of inmates who committed suicide as
documented in a National Study of jail Suicides by the National Center on Institutions and
Alternatives (NCIA).

2.02 • Explain the correct purpose of a

suicide victim profile

2.03 • Name at least two formal phases of the criminal justice process which may be at least, if not more
important than the victim profile in detecting potential suicide.

2.04 • Describe the benefit(s) of locally/regionally develop
ed suicide victim profiles.

2.05 • Cite at least two differences in characteristics between the typical jail inmate and NCIA's jail suicide
victim profile.

2.06 • List at least seven demographic characteristics of the suicide victim in NCIA's most recent j
ail
suicide study.

3.01 • Describe at least four factors in the jail environment that have an impact on suicide.

4.01 • Identify at least four pre
-
disposing factors in jail suicides.

5.01 • List at least six periods of high risk for suicides occurring in j
ails.

6.01 • Name at least ten signs and symptoms of potential suicides.

6.02 • Identify at least eight signs and symptoms of depression.

6.03 • Outline at least three symptoms of agitation.

6.04 • List at least two symptoms of psychotic behavior which can

influence a suicide attempt.

7.01 • Name at least four situational factors which can have an impact on jail suicides.

8 .01 • Identify at least four current or recent stress factors which can influence jail suicides.

9.01 • Give at least two reasons why l
aw enforcement officers working the streets need training in the
signs and symptoms of suicide.

9.02 • Name the two most effective approaches for training law enforcement officers in suicide prevention.

10.01 • Cite at least six conditions for which medica
l and mental health clearance should be requested
prior to admitting an arrestee to the jail.

10.02 • Name at least three reasons why the confinement of intoxicated persons in jails may be risky.

10.03 • Outline the three aspects of intake screening.

10.04

• List at least four benefits of intake screening.

10.05 • Describe at least four conditions which screeners can observe about the arrestee at booking.

10.06 • Name at least four elements of a successful intake screening interview.

10.07 • List at least e
ight observational factors and interview questions pertaining to suicide screening.

10.08 • Identify at least four factors and principles in assessing suicidal behavior.

10.09 • Explain recommended system for housing a high risk suicidal or acutely disturb
ed inmate.

10.10 • Describe the best approach for housing lower risk suicidal and chronic mentally ill inmates.

11.01 • Name at least ten "Do's and Don'ts" of good discipline and mental health in jails which can have
an impact on suicide prevention.

11.02
• Identify at least five special aspects of managing mentally ill inmates.

11.03 • List at least three key points or approaches in handling a suicidal inmate.

12.01 • Identify at least three factors which describe the role of the correctional officer in su
icide
prevention.

12.02 • Describe briefly the mind
-
set of the officer which has the most impact on preventing jail suicides.

13.01 • Outline at least five myths and accompanying facts about suicide.

14.01 • Define the three levels of negligent performance
s for which personnel can be found liable in a jail
suicide.

15.01 • Outline the differences between direct and remote supervision jails and their impact on suicide
prevention.

15.02 • Identify at least ten aspects of jail architecture which help make a fa
cility
-
resistant or protrusion
-
free.


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



16.01 • Describe at least three immediate steps in the proper handling of an inmate who is found hanging.

16.02 • Outline at least four aspects of first aid for a hanging victim.

16.03 • Explain the rationale for the p
sychological autopsy.

16.04 • Name at least two components of a psychological autopsy.

16.05 • Describe conditions which exist in some jails which prevent psychological autopsies.

17.01 • List at least five controversial issues in suicide prevention.

17.02

• Explain the pros and cons of at least five controversial issues.

18.01 • Outline the three key factors in jail suicide prevention.

18.02 • List at least five aspects of a written plan for jail suicide detection and prevention.
























Alt
eris

Insurance Services provides the above program information in order to reduce the risk

of insurance loss and claims.
The
information provided is not intended to include all potential controls or address any insured specifically.
Alteris

also does not
warrant that all loss and/or claims will be avoided if the program information is followed. By providing this information,
Alteris

in no
way intends to relieve the insured of its own duties and obligations, nor is
Alteris

undertaking, on behalf of or for
the benefit of the
insured or others, that the insured’s property or operations are safe, healthful, or in compliance w
ith any law, rule or regulation
.
Insureds remain responsible for their own efforts to reduce risks and should consult their own legal co
unsel for appropriate
guidance.


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



Suicide Detection and Prevention in Jails


I. Introduction


A.

Suicide
-

Number one Cause of Death in Jails/Lockups




National surveys
-

jail suicides:



a.

1979



419



b.

1985



453



c.

1986



401




Numbers stable
but lawsuits mounting



Pro
-
active

stance neutralizes liability



A.

Written policies/procedures



B.

Capable/properly trained staff



C.

Screening at booking



D.

Classification system



E.

Increased monitoring



F.

Compliance
-

state and national standar
ds



G.

"State
-
of
-
the
-
art" knowledge



"old school," do
-
nothing approach breeds lawsuits


II. Prior and Current Jail Suicide Research


A.

And Darkness Closes In...A National Study of Jail Suicides



1.

First National Study of Problem




By National Center
on Institutions and Alternatives




For National Institute of Corrections (U.S. Justice Dept.)



Completed in 1981 on suicides occurring in jails and police lockups in 1979



Demographic data collected on 344 of 419 suicides


2.

Profile
: victim would most
likely:




Have been 22 years old, white, single



Have been arrested for public intoxication/under influence upon incarceration



Had insignificant or
no

arrest history



Have been taken to urban county jail and isolated for own protection



Be dead with
in three hours from hanging with bedding


3.

Detailed profile data:



74 percent of victims charged with non
-
violent crimes



60 percent were under influence at incarceration



68 percent who committed suicide held in isolation



Over 50 percent of victim
s

were dead within 24 hours

27 percent within three hours


B.

Cautions about quick
-
fixes and panaceas



1.

Be cautions regarding quick
-
fix suicide prevention solutions:






Television monitors

• Tear away blankets and gown



2.

More energy needs

to be devoted to;



Staff awareness training



Receiving screening



Classification



Counseling/referral


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10




Supervision/monitoring



3.

Profiles important but not end
-
alls



Signs and symptoms picked up at arrest very important



Behavior at booking also
very significant



Victim profile important as supportive instrument/assessment aid



4.

Profiles intended to sensitize jail personnel to most common victim characteristics and



supplement existing warning signs and behavior


5.

Whi
le some variables mirror typical jail inmate


age, sex, marital status


significant


differences exist:



White inmates comprise 58 percent of jail population; but account for 67 percent of the


suicides



53 percent of inmates ar
e detainees; yet 91 percent of suicide victims are detainees



28 percent of inmates are intoxicated at arrest; almost 60 percent of suicide victims are


intoxicated



Average length of stay in jail is approximately 6 to 11 days; yet over 50 pe
rcent of all


suicide victims are dead within first 24 hours of incarceration, with 27 percent dead in first


three hours


6.

Local/regional profiles are encouraged. They may be a more accurate tool than the


national pr
ofile for your facility.


C.

National study seven years later

1986 Data


1.

Demographic data collected on 339 of 401 suicides


2.

Findings strikingly similar to 1979 data


3.

Highlights of 1986 survey:



72 percent of victims were white



94 percent of vic
tims were male



The average age was 30



52 percent of victims were single



75 percent were detained on non
-
violent charges



46 percent of holding facility victims held on alcohol/drug related charges



89 percent of victims were confined as detainees



78 percent of victims had prior charges, yet only 10 percent were held on violent/personal


charges



60 percent of victims were under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs at incarceration



82 percent of holding facility victims were intoxic
ated at time of incarceration



30 percent of suicides occurred during six hour period of midnight and 6 A.M.



94 percent of suicides were by hanging; 48 percent used bedding



two out of three victims were in isolation



51 percent of suicides occurred w
ithin the first 24 hours of incarceration; 29 percent


occurred within the first three hours



64 percent of holding facility victims died within the first three hours



69 percent of suicides were in county
-
run facilities; 66 percent occurred i
n urban jails



89 percent of victims were not screened for potential suicidal behavior at booking


III.

Why Jail and Criminal Justice Environments Influence Suicidal Behavior


A.

Authoritarian environment

regimentation


B.

No apparent control over future,

including fear and uncertainty over legal process


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



C.

Isolation from family, friends and community


D.

The shame of incarceration


E.

Dehumanizing aspects of incarceration

viewed from inmate's perspective


F.

Fears

based on TV and movie stereotypes


G.

Officer

insensitivity to arrest and incarceration phenomenon; "Victim of Environment"




Unless arrested and incarcerated, difficult to empathize



Caution
: Longer the jail officer's career, often the greater the insensitivity. Is that true?



Jail personnel

vict
ims of the jail environment



Trauma of arrest often inversely proportionate to offense: Three
-
quarters of suicide


victims charged with non
-
violent crimes



"Pillars of Community" high
-
risk suicide candidates



Textbook knowledge of jail opera
tions insufficient for full understanding of emotional


environment: On
-
job cross
-
training needed by mental health personnel


IV.

Potential Suicide Pre
-
Disposing Factors


A.

Recent, excessive drinking and/or use of drugs


B.

Recent loss of stabi
lizing resources:




Wife/loved one; for young offender it could be a peer



Job/
or expulsion from school



Home or farm



Finances


C.

Severe guilt or shame over the offense


D.

Same
-
sex rape or threats of it

E.

Current mental illness


F.

Poor health or t
erminal illness


G.

Any other unbearable situation, or any combination of events


V.

High Risk Suicide Periods


A.

First 24 hours of confinement


B.

Intoxication and when sobering up


C.

Waiting for trial


D.

Sentencing


E.

Impending release


F.

Holidays


G.

Darkness


H.

Decreased staff supervision


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



I.

Band news of any kind


VI

Signs and Symptoms of Suicidal Behavior


A.

Key times to observe signs and symptoms



At arrest



During transportation



At booking


B.

Warning signs and symptoms:




Current depres
sion or paranoia



Expresses or evidences strong guilt and/or shame over offenses



Talks about or threatens suicide



Under influence of alcohol or drugs



Previous suicide attempts and/or history of mental illness



Severe agitation or aggressiveness



P
rojects hopelessness/helplessness

No sense of future



Expresses
unusual
or
great

concern over what will happen to him/her



Noticeable behavior changes



May act very calm once decision is made to kill self



Speaks unrealistically about getting out of ja
il



Has increasing difficulty relating to others



Does not effectively deal with present

pre
-
occupied with past



Begins packing belongings



Starts giving away possessions



May try to hurt self: "Attention
-
getting" gestures



Paranoid delusions or hall
ucinations


C.

Depression

The single best suicide indicator




Feelings of inability to go on

hopelessness or helplessness



Extreme sadness and crying



Withdrawal or silence



Loss of increase of appetite and/or weight



Pessimistic attitudes about futur
e



Insomnia or awakening early; excessive sleeping



Mood variations



Tenseness



Lethargy

slowing of movements or non
-
reactive



Loss of self
-
esteem



Loss of interest in people, appearance, or activities



Excessive self
-
blaming



Strong guilt feelings



Difficulty concentrating or thinking


D.

Agitation

frequently precedes suicide

its symptoms are:




High level of tension



Extreme anxiety



Strong emotions:



Guilt



Rage



Wish for revenge



Suicide

may follow agitation as means of relieving tension

or pressure


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



E.

Psychotic conditions influence on suicides





Delusions: Persecution, being controlled, grandeur



Hallucinations: Audio and/or visual


VII

Suicide Situational Risk Factors


A.

First
-
time arrestee or insignificant arrest

B.

Young offende
r (Anyone under 18, whether or not in adult court)

C.

Persons with high status in community

D.

Prior suicide by close family member or loved one

E.

Previously imprisoned/facing new, serious charges and long prison term

F.

Prior jail suicide or recent attem
pt

a "copycat"

G.

Harsh, condemning, rejecting attitudes of officers

H.

Prior experience with pain/suffering of alcohol/drug withdrawal


VIII

Current and Recent Stress Situations


A.

Each of us has "breaking point"

B.

An hour, day, week, month later withou
t one or more stress situations

many suicides would


never occur:




Loss of loved one



Recent job loss or failure



Recent or pending divorce, separation, or break
-
up



Rejection by peers

especially true of young offenders



Serious business
or financial loss



Discovery of major health problem



Victim of same
-
sex rape or seriously threatened



Committed heinous crime or one of passion or a revolting sex crime


IX

Arresting and Investigative Officers and Suicide Prevention


A.

Law enforcemen
t is a professional service with primary goals of protecting lives and protection


rights

B .

Arresting officer first official to observe suicide signs and symptoms and may refer to available


crisis intervention services

C.

Many o
fficers help prevent jail suicides and some are named in lawsuits for failing in "duty of


care"


X

Assessing Suicidal Risk: Special Aspects of Health Clearance and Receiving Screening


A.

Properly trained correctional officers can effectively
assess most potentially suicidal inmates at


booking

B.

Many others detected while officers supervise inmates in general population

C.

Many jails report reductions in suicides following awareness training of officers in suicide


sym
ptoms and implementation of sound practices

D.

Refusal at admission or requiring written health clearance




Refusals at admission for suspected cases of mental illness, including suicide, should be


pursued



Prisoners who seem very confused or d
isoriented



Caution should be exercised with known cases of depression, paranoid schizophrenia or


"persecution complex" and manic depressive illness, who may be high risk suicide


candidates



Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10





Inmates with unattended medical prob
lems are greater suicide risks. Appropriate medical


attention reduces anxieties and is a suicide prevention factor.


E. Various conditions requiring medical clearance



1.

Prisoners who are unconscious or semi
-
conscious

2.

Prisoners with any s
ignificant external bleeding

3.

Prisoners with any obvious fractures (broken bones)

4.

Prisoners with any signs of head injury

5.

Prisoners who may have neck or spine injury

6.

Prisoners with any other sort of severe injury

7.

Prisoners who cannot walk und
er their own power

8.

Prisoners displaying any signs or symptoms of possible internal bleeding

9.

Prisoners with severe abdominal pain

10.

Prisoners displaying signs of significant drug or alcohol abuse, e.g., a blood alcohol level


of .275 and

more





If detained, must be observed more
closely
.





Reasons for not detaining intoxicated persons:





Inmates choke on own vomit



Aspiration pneumonia has approximately one
-
third casualty rate



Injuries to intoxicated inmates and victimization ar
e constant problems



High risk candidates for suicide

11.

Pregnant women in labor

12.

Pregnant women with other, serious problems

13.

Prisoners who claim that they need certain types of medication but who do not have


medication with them


B.

A
dmission Receiving Screening: What? When? By Whom?


1.

Receiving screening most important aspect of health care

most suicidal inmates can be


detected at intake

2.

What is receiving screening?



Observation

of signs and symptoms by arresting/tr
ansportation or booking/intake


personnel.



Appropriate forms or questionnaires can aide by providing a variety of medical,


Mental health, and suicide prevention screening questions to be asked by


examin
er



Provides disposition and referral guidelines and documentation of observations


crucial for effective follow
-
up services and law suit protection.

3.

When done?

Immediately upon arrival at jail otherwise, deaths and lawsuits can occur



and communicable diseases spread

4.

By Whom?



Trained booking or corrections officers



Nurses or paramedical personnel


C.

Values and benefits of receiving screening


1.

Potential suicidal persons are identified

2.

Traumas, possible illnesses an
d infectious diseases detected

3.

Possible drug and alcohol abuse and withdrawal assessed

4.

Early evaluation and treatment of chronic and acute mental illnesses effected

5.

Medication use determined

6.

Legal liability protection



Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



D.

How receiving screen
ing operates


1.

Observation

by officer while conducting the booking:



Notes behavior, speech, actions, attitudes and state of mind



Scars from previous suicide attempts



Traumas or bruises, color and condition of skin



Visible signs of drug or alcohol

use and withdrawal



Medication use determined

2.

Questionnaire

serves as a beginning: follow
-
up questions encouraged

a.

Effective interview can produce over 90 percent honest answers



Explain rationale for process: This reduces paranoia and feelings of
being


"picked on"



Asking questions in common
-
sense manner, as privately as possible



Speaking in normal, quiet, matter of
-
fact tone



Using language inmate can understand



Not being pushy, abrupt or sarcastic



If not understood, repeat qu
estion slowly and clearly

b.

Effective

interview impresses inmate that "somebody cares"


E.

Suicidal Aspect of Receiving Screening


1.

Modified American Medical Association Guidelines



Appears to be under the influence of alcohol or drugs?



Are there vis
ible signs of alcohol and/or drug withdrawal?



Does arrestee appear to be despondent/depressed?



Appears to be irrational/mentally ill?



Is this the first time... arrested or detained?



Had any previous mental or emotional problems for which you were t
reated?



Ever hospitalized for any mental or emotional problems?



Is there anything special that we should know about you for your welfare or


protection?

2.

New York State suicide prevention screening guidelines



Arresting or transporting o
fficer believes that detainee may be a suicide risk



Detainee lacks close family or friends in the community



Detainee has experienced a significant loss within the last six months



Detainee is very worried about major problems other than legal situatio
n



Detainee's family or significant other has attempted or committed suicide



Detainee has psychiatric history



Detainee has history of drug or alcohol abuse



Detainee holds position of respect in community and/or alleged crime is shocking



in nature.



Detainee is thinking about killing himself



Detainee has made previous suicide attempt



Detainee feels that there is nothing to look forward to in the future



Detainee shows signs of depression



Detainee appears overly anxious, afraid, or

angry



Detainee appears to feel unusually embarrassed or ashamed



Detainee is acting and/or talking in a strange manner

intoxication, incoherent,


etc.



Disposition



Any clear "yes" answers require attention:
Potential Suicide
.

5.

State Scree
ning Standards/Guidelines



Using the Form in the NY State Guide or one used in its place in the department

and have the students complete a form based upon a scenario or videotape.
Discuss and critique the students’ answers as a class or in small groups.


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



4.

Assessment Factors and Principles in Screening




During arrest, transportation, booking and supervision of inmates, officers need


to assess suicidal risk.

a.

All suicide threats must be taken seriously; "manipulation" is f
irst real threat

b.

Gauge intensity of stress and depression

c.

Determine impulsiveness; the younger the inmate, generally the greater the


impulsivity

d.

Explore situation as far as possible:



ask direct questions



explore plan for degree of

risk



the more specific the plan, the greater the risk

e.

Determine means available to carry out suicidal act if access to implementing


plan, risk is high.

f.

Assess resources available to help prevent the act



procedures should include ref
erral to mental health services



should be seriously considered in high
-
risk cases


G.

Housing High
-
risk suicidal and acutely disturbed inmates


1. Remove belts, ties, shoelaces, and suspenders

2.

Place is suicide
-
resistant, protrusion
-
free cell/
room or in a treatment unit under constant


supervision



constant supervision by jail/nursing staff or volunteers



unit near booking area or nursing station



walls and doors that permit clear vision



CCTV may support "eyeball" supervision
with two
-
minute checks by personnel

3.


If none of these conditions is possible, place in cell with two or more selected, "trained"


inmates as supplement to staff supervision



inmates exercise no control over subject



they report any cr
isis/danger signals to staff



cell should be as suicide
-
resistant as possible



observation by personnel at least every 10 minutes


H.

Housing Lower
-
Risk suicidal and chronic mentally ill inmates:


1.

Best left in general inmate population

2.

Checked by s
taff at least every 10 to 15 minutes

3.

Not assigned to any high
-
risk position

4.

Case reviewed closely at shift change

5.

If isolation necessary (Due to medical reasons):



Observation by personnel at least every 4 minutes



CCTV may supplement observatio
n by personnel


XI

Managing Potentially Suicidal Inmates


A.

General Principles


1.

Humane interaction
by officers who follow golden rule is best suicide prevention

2.

"Do's and don’ts" of good discipline and mental health will result in:



good inmate man
agement and discipline



positive atmosphere and climate



minimizing of inmate special incidents



more effective management of suicidal and mentally ill inmates

3

"Do's and don’ts" of good discipline and mental health are:

a.

Exhibits Fairness


Number o
ne among all officer traits

b.

Shows No Favoritism


Because it is not fair


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



c.

Kept Promises


Broken promises are lies to inmates

d.

Uses Authority and Power Constructively


Officers with self
-
respect have no


wish for "power"

e.

Admitted M
istakes


In admitting mistakes, we
elevate

ourselves

f.

No Put
-
Downs, or Is Not Condescending


Self
-
confident, self respecting
officers


don't put people down

g.

No Washing of Dirty Linen


No open criticism of staff


devastating, non
-
team



practice

h.

Answered Questions


A reasonable answer promotes communications and


respect for others

i.

Asked, Not Always Ordered to Do Something


Asking brings better results. You


can always
order later
.

j.

Consistenc
y


Used reasoning


Everyone likes consistency

k.

Talked With Us


Getting an inmate to talk, a key factor in suicide prevention,


requires officer involvement and shows respect

l.

We Looked Up to Them


Officers who are
positive

role models a
re more likely


to deter suicides

m.

Were Team Workers


"
T
eam
E
fforts
A
ccomplish
M
uch"

n.

Self
-
Confident, Not Arrogant


Self
-
Respect produces self confidence

o.

Demonstrates Sincerity and Honesty


These two are foundation of other



positive traits

p.

Gave Credit When Credit Was Due


Emphasis on positives produces more


positives


Direly needed in our field

q.

Accept Constructive Criticism, Are Not Defensive


The better worker grows by


accepting/benefit
ing from honest criticism

r.

The Had Open Minds


Without it, learning stops

s.

Didn't Keep Threatening


Or you will never earn respect

t.

Leave Personal Problems at Home

u.

No Yelling or Swearing


Positive role model officers don't do it

v.

The Did More

Than Was Expected of Them


The two percent extra effort can


make 100 percent difference

w.

They Were Patient


Patience reflects self
-
confidence and respect for others

x.

Didn't Give Up Easily


When we give up, their last hope in life may f
ade

y.

Didn't Preach


Positive example accomplishes more than preaching

z.

They Cared


Caring officer who
show

it can save lives

4.

Officers who follow "Do's and Don’ts" will be more effective agent of change in


inmates' lives


B.

Managing M
entally Ill Inmates, Some of Whom May Be Suicidal


1.

Try to calm individual and relieve anxiety by being calm, confident, firm, fair, and


reasonable yourself.

2.

Explain:



How you see the problem



What is being done



What outcome will be

3
.

Say that crisis is just
temporary



things can be worked out


as generally happens

4.

Encourage

inmate to:



speak freely,



express feelings,



relate to you

5.

Remove

other persons from scene of crisis, as there may be psychological contagion

6.

Av
oid

arguing

7.

Help inmate structure experience so that it is not so chaotic, and it does not appear


unusual.


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10


8.

Do
Not



Be sarcastic



Lie



Make promises that can't be kept

9.

Capable staff can make the difference



Best way to get others
to respect you is to respect them first



Coveying this attitude leads to more accurate assessment information and


Possible suicide prevention



Trust own judgment. If you believe someone is in danger of suicide, act on your


belie
fs.



Stay with suicidal person. Don't leave alone if immediate danger



Maintain contact and conversation: Express concerns about person



Listen patiently. Encourage suicidal person to talk and express feelings



If you keep individual talking or involve
d, he probably will not kill himself



Mental health service should be sought for suicidal arrestee/inmate


XII

Role of the Corrections Officer in Suicide Prevention


A.

Most important factor in suicide prevention


Well
-
trained corrections officer



Aware
ness training to detect signs/symptoms



Thorough documentation crucial



Referral for counseling or medical services is important

B.

Basic Factors Stressing Role of Officer

1.

Be Aware of symptoms ordinarily displayed by inmate prior to a suicide attempt.

2.

Be Tuned In to obvious and sometimes subtle signals which every inmate sends


out.

3.

Daily Contact: By noticing any sudden behavioral changes, you may be able to


save a life

4.

Be Empathetic: Don't be judgmental. State law req
uires a "Duty of Care"

5.

Don't Give Up: A positive role model officer may be what saves a life

6.

"Non
-
rejecting staff save lives


'Hard", rejecting staff can foster suicides"



If only one person cares


and shows it


suicide may be prevented



The bus
y, uncaring officer may be "the last straw"


XIII.

Review: Facts and Fiction of Jail Suicides


A.

Myth: People who make suicidal statements or threaten suicide don't commit suicide.


Fact: Most people who commit suicide have made either direct or indirect
statements


indicating their suicidal intentions.

B.

Myth: Suicide happens suddenly and without warning.

Fact: Most suicidal acts represent a carefully thought out strategy for coping with various personal

problems.

C. Myt
h: People who attempt suicide have gotten it out of their systems and won't attempt it again.


Fact: Four out of five persons who kill themselves have made at least one prior attempt.

D.

Myth: Suicidal people are intent on dying.

E.

Fact: Most suicidal people ha
ve mixed feelings about killing themselves. They are


ambivalent about living, not intent on dying.

E.

Myth: You can't stop someone who is really intent on committing suicide


Fact: Most suicidal persons want to be rescued.

F.


Myth: Asking a
bout and probing the inmate about suicidal thoughts or actions will cause


him to kill himself.

Fact: You cannot make someone suicidal when you show your interest in his welfare by

discussing the possibility of suicide.

G.

Myth: All suicidal in
dividuals are mentally ill.


Fact: Although the suicidal person is extremely unhappy, he is not necessarily mentally ill.

H.

Myth: Suicide happens less frequently in a jail setting.


Fact: Jail suicides occur several times more often than in the general po
pulation.


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



XIV

Jail Suicide Litigation


A.

Litigation Can Be A Key Factor In Jail Suicide Prevention



Jail law suits over suicides were unusual until the last few years. Now it is unusual for a


lawsuit not to be filed.



Courts making it mor
e difficult to hold defendants liable. Courts now require a higher


standard to operate a constitutional jail.

B.

Title 42, United States Code, Section 1983:



Protection to citizen regarding deprivation of rights, privileges and immunities gu
aranteed


by constitution



Liability for persons who violate these guaranteed rights

C.

Rights most commonly identified are:



Freedom from false arrest and/or imprisonment, cruel and unusual punishment, and


excessive use of force



Due process



Equal protection

D.

Negligence, or "simple negligence" is required in many state courts for liability in death by


suicide



A reasonable probability that what you do or don't do will cause harm to the inmate

E.

Federal courts req
uire "gross negligence" or "deliberate indifference" for liability



A strong probability that what you do or don't do will cause harm



Actions which are "shocking to the conscience"



Where there is a pattern of negligence or simple negligence

F.

Prior s
uicides and failure to meet state and national standards are used by plaintiffs to

show a pattern of misconduct.

G.

Gross negligence and deliberate indifference are also based on formal policy or custom

and practice.

H. Plaintiffs must show existe
nce of a policy or custom and practice in proving failure to

correct unconstitutional conditions, e.g.:



No screening for possible suicidal behavior



Grossly inadequate monitoring of suicidal inmate



No training of officers in signs/symptoms of suicide

I.

Plaintiffs must also prove that the suicide was a reasonably foreseeable consequence of

the inaction or action of personnel involved.

J.

Jail suicide litigation centers mainly around:



Insufficient staff



Inadequate training and supervision



Deficien
t jail conditions



Lack of policies and procedures for screening and monitoring potentially suicidal inmates



Overcrowding

K.

Suicide prevention programs only as good as the staff who supports them

L.

Essential elements of a good suicide prevention progr
am?



Capable staff



Positive human interaction

M.

One Team


Essential for suicide prevention



Pro
-
active administration



Efficient supervisors



Capable line staff


XV.

The Impact of Jail Design on Inmate Management and Suicide Prevention


A.

Jail Des
ign

1.

Poor jail design and layout influence suicide and affect monitoring and supervision.

2.

Officers must be stationed in or immediately adjacent to housing areas.


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



3.

Officer must respond within four minutes to emergencies.

4.

Cells laid out on linear

basis down long hallways much more difficult to monitor

5.

With an officer inside the cells in a pod or module, there is better interaction and


communications with behavior changes picked up quicker and suicide prevention more


l
ikely

6

Direct supervision jail concept clearly supports not only better suicide prevention but


alleviates many other jail problems

7.

Proper jail design is good insurance for alleviating liability, especially with all too often


i
nadequate jail staffing and overcrowding.

B.

Protrusion
-
Free Architecture And Environment

1.

Protrusions which give easy access for anchoring nooses in jail cells can be virtually



eliminated:



bars, air grilles, clothes hooks, towel racks, beds
, sprinklers, shelves, door hinges,


handles and knobs, water faucet lip projection, and toilet paper holders and soap trays

2.

Avoid isolation

3.

Special management units, cells (for potentially suicidal and mentally ill inmates),



administrative segregation, and holding cells. See Texas Commission on Jail Standards


Rules regarding this.


XVI.

First Aid for Hanging Attempts


A.

Disposition following a hanging attempt:

1.

Hanging may affect any or all neck structures:



Airway



Spinal Cord



Blood vessels

2.

Cut victim down
immediately



One person holds body up



Other cuts noose with readily available tool



Deaths occur due to no cutting tool

3.

Have someone call ambulance now

4.

Give basic first aid

B.

First aid:

1.

Monitor and maintain open airway

a.

If unconscious, look, listen, feel for breathing

b.

Maintain airway, if necessary, using
modified jaw thrust



do not

tilt the head


back



Place fingers behind angles of lower jaw



Forcefully bring jaw for
ward



Use thumbs to pull lower lip down to allow breathing through mouth and nose

c.

Give artificial respiration, if necessary, while continuing maintenance of airway


through jaw thrust

2.

If no pulse, give cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

NOTE
:

Only

physician or other qualified professional designated by state law can pronounce


individual dead. Until such time, start and continue first aid and CPR.

3.

Assume spinal cord injury, and treat appropriately:

a.

Place victim flat on floor with h
ead held stable

b.

Do not let victim or anyone else lift or twist head

c.

Give him nothing to eat or drink and no medications

4.

If swelling or discoloration, apply ice bag to area

5.

Do not leave victim alone

C.

Referral
: Suicidal inmate should receive ps
ychological help. Arrange for such help when

able to receive it.

D.

Remember
: Suicide attempt is serious matter. Regardless of how you feel about his

crime or suicide attempt, do not belittle him or make sarcastic remarks. Such comments

will worsen his emo
tional state.


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



E.

Psychological Autopsy and Follow
-
up Support for Jail Staff: A jail suicide should be

followed by a "psychological autopsy"

1.

Evaluation of facts and circumstances

2.

Goal: to prevent suicides in the future

3.

All staff concerned with su
icide is involved to discuss signs/symptoms which were


overlooked

4.

Staff should be encouraged to discuss feelings



Recognizing feelings and discussion may ward off after
-
effects



Professional counseling services for severe guilt cases

5.

Suic
ides can occur without staff negligence, although it is common for staff to blame
selves for 'not having done better'.


XVII.

Controversial Issues in Suicide Prevention


A.

Contracts Not to Commit Suicide, with Promise that Treatment Will Be Provided

1.

Contractors report good success with concept

2.

Danger is, not all promises for service delivery are kept, or inmate misinterprets intent of


contract; namely, when treatment ends, so does commitment.

B.

Stripping Potential Suiciders Naked

1.

Practice is degrading and can worsen depression

2.

More suitable measures recommended are:



Constant or close supervision by staff and/or volunteers



Suicide
-
Resistant cell



Place with two or more selected and trained inmates who can alert staff to a
ny crises, yet


have not control over suicidal inmate

3.

U.S. District Court in Oregon prohibited stripping and ordered two
-
minute checks

C.

Using closed circuit television (CCTV) As Major Monitoring Instrument

1.

CCTV a supplement to human mon
itoring

2.

Various inmates commit suicide "on camera"

3.

"Camera hypnosis" claimed by officers

4.

Various jails rotate officers on camera watch every few hours

5.

CCTV often broken down or fuzzy

6.

Dispatching and other distractions impair use

7.

Some say
putting suicidal inmate on camera violates right to privacy

8.

24
-
hour monitoring of suicidal inmate on CCTV
not

violation of privacy rights

9.

Lack

of CCTV cited in lawsuits as liability factor

D.

Rating Scales

1.

Various suicide experts disagree with use

of rating scale on lethality because "no one
can be that exact or skillful"

2.

"All threats must be taken seriously" disavows ratings



Ninth "wolf cry" must be handled as first suicide threat



There is no "manipulation" in jail suicide

E.

Suicide Profil
es: The "Typical" Suicide


Does It Exist?

1.

Profiles meant to "sensitize" jail personnel to common characteristics

2.

Caution is necessary in use of paper profiles

3.

What happens at arrest, transportation, and booking is most important

4.

Local/Regional

jail suicide profiles more appropriate


Awareness training in


signs/symptoms encourages use of profile factors in suicide assessment

5.

No typical suicide. Each case is a unique combination of factors

F.

Policy on "never enter a cell without
backup"

1.

Flexible policy advocated



Officer must be allowed to make judgment decisions



Proper training supports this

2.

Some jails have one dispatcher
-
jailer on duty, deaths occur due to "never enter" policy

3.

Workable approaches:



Assess: "is he re
ally hanging?"


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10





Push warning button and lock down inmate population



Use one or two selected inmates to assist



Life
-
Safety and duty of care demand "cut down" action and CPR within four minutes from


start of hanging

G.

Protecting the Scene

of the Crime

1.

Some jails found liable when officers stand by and let inmate hang


to protect scene

2.

Preserving life clearly over rides "protecting scene"

H.

When no vital signs exist, do not presume death has occurred

1.

Jails found liable for not st
arting CPR when no vital signs

2.

"Dead" people are alive today due to CPR Instructor should provide examples

I.

"Don't talk with inmates" policy prohibits good communications with inmates


a key


factor in suicide prevention

J.

Using citizen

volunteers and inmates for suicide watch:

1.

Trained volunteers lauded by some jail officials

2.

Neighborhood crime watch group provides suicide watchers

3

Excuses for not using:



They are hard to recruit



You can't always count on them



"We're afraid
of the liability issue>"

4.

Above excuses disappear when staff support volunteers

5.

Respected citizen groups key recruitment vehicle

6.

Lawsuits don't result from using volunteers

7.

Inmate watchers:



Properly selected/trained inmates serving as suicide
watchers in many jails all over the


country



Inmates assist staff: Have no control over suicidal inmates



Watchers stationed in front, across, or next to cell



Dormitory setting safe environment for suicidal inmate



Don't place in isolatio
n except under special circumstances


XVIII.

Conclusions Proven by Experience in the Field

A.

Some suicides in jails could have been prevented had recognized standards and

practices been followed

B.

Key suicide prevention factor is capable, properly traine
d correctional staff

C.

Also important: Capable pro
-
active administrators and effective supervisors

D.

Jail Standards (see the Appendix), Practices, Courts require written suicide prevention

plan:

1.

Intake screening

2.

Training of personnel

3.

Policy on
housing

potentially suicidal inmates

4.

Policy on
monitoring

inmates assessed as suicidal

5.

Procedures for
referring

to mental health/crisis intervention service

6.

Communication

requirements and procedures for sharing need
-
to
-
know information

7.

Interve
ntion

techniques and procedures

8.

Documentation

procedures for all aspects of suicide detection, prevention, and incidents

E.

Proper Notification Of Officials And Family Required

F.

Medical And Administrative Reviews And "Psychological Autopsy"

G.

Adminis
trators Liable For Failure To Implement
System

H.

Officers

Liable For Failing To Follow Policies And Procedures

I.

Supervisors Liable For Failure To Train And Properly Supervise Officers

J.

"One Suicide Demands Measures To Prevent The Next One"


Suicide
A
ttempts

Demand Measures To Prevent First Actual Suicide

K.

The Success Formula:

1.

Following recognized standards and practices

2.

Effecting human interaction by good officers, with awareness training

3.

Practicing
the Golden Rule


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10




Instructors should show

and discuss the video tape (Sam Houston State University.
Jail Suicide
Prevention
, March 1992). It can be shown at the beginning of the course, during the course, or at the end
of the course at the discretion of the instructor.

Instructors should go throu
gh and provide as a handout the "Guide for Development of Suicide
Prevention Plans" developed by the Texas Commission on Jail Standards contained in the Appendix and
relevant jail standards. Student should bring with them or be provided with a copy of thei
r agency's
suicide prevention plan. A discussion of the plans and their legal responsibilities and liabilities of not
adhering to their agency's plan should be conducted.



BIBLIOGRAPHY: JAIL SUICIDE LITERATURE REVIEW



The following bibliography is a comp
rehensive history of publications and videotapes regarding jail
suicide research, prevention and training. Included within this bibliography is a listing of all documents
utilized and produced by the Jail Suicide Prevention Information Task Force.


Adelson
, L., R.W. Huntington, and D.T. Reay. "A Prisoner Is Dead."
Police
,
13, 1968, pp. 49
-
58.

Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations.
Jails: Intergovernmental Dimensions of a
Local Problem.

Washington, D.C.: May, 1984.

Albanese, J.S. "Preventing Inm
ate Suicides

A Case Study."
Federal Probation, 46
(2), June,
1983, pp. 65
-
69.

American Association of Suicidology.
Suicide Prevention Training Manual
,
West Point,
Pennsylvania: 1981.

American Correctional Association.
Standards for Adult Local Detention Fac
ilities, Second
Edition
.
College Park, Maryland: April, 1981.

American Health Care Consultants, Inc.
Receiving Screening for Medical Emergencies and
Potential Suicides in District Lockups

A Training Program for the Chicago Police Department
.
Chicago, Illin
ois: 1982.

American Medical Association.
Standards for Health Services in Jails
.
Chicago, Illinois:
September, 1981.




.
Recognition of Jail Inmates with Mental Illness, Their Special Problems
and Needs for Care
.
Chicago, Illinois: September, 1977.

Americ
an Medical Association (in cooperation with the Department of Governmental Affairs,
University of Wisconsin).
Training of Jailers in Receiving Screening and Health Education
.
Chicago, Illinois: March, 1978.

Anno, B.J.
Analysis of Jail Pre
-
Profile Data
.
Was
hington, D.C.: Blackstone Associates, June,
1977.

Anson, R.H. "Inmate Ethnicity and the Suicide Connection/A Note on Aggregate Trends."
Prison
Journal, 63
(1), Spring/Summer, 1983, pp. 91
-
99.

Atlas, R.
Guidelines for Reducing the Liability for Inmate Suicid
e.

Miami, Florida: Atlas and
Associates, 1987.

Austin, W.T. and C.M. Unrovic. "Prison Suicide."
Criminal Justice Review, 2
(1), 1977, pp. 103
-
106.

Avery, M. and D. Rudovsky.
Police Misconduct: Law and Mitigation.

New
York, New York: Clark
Boardman, 1987.

B
eigel, A. and H.E. Russell. "Suicide Attempts in Jail: Prognostic Consideration."
Hospital and
Community Psychiatry, 23
(12), 1972, pp. 361
-
363.

Bernheim, J.
Suicides Inside Detention Centers
.
Text of a conference given at the 10th
International Congress on

the Prevention of Suicide and Crisis Intervention, June 19, 1979.

Burks, D.N. and N.D. DeHerr "Jail Suicide Prevention."
Corrections Today
, February, 1986, pp.
53
-
88.

Burtch, B. and R.V. Erickson.
The Silent System: An Inquiry Into Prisoners Who Suicide a
nd
Annotated Bibliography
.
Canada: Centre of Criminology, University of Toronto, 1979.


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



Caffrey, T.
New York MCC (Metropolitan Correctional Center) Suicide Prevention Project

Revised Final Report
.
New York, New York: Metropolitan Correctional Center, 1979
.

California Department of the Youth Authority.
Suicide Prevention in Juvenile Facilities
.
Sacramento, California: 1982.

Centers for Disease Control.
Suicide Surveillance, 1970
-
1980.

Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services, April, 19
85.



.
Youth Suicide in the United States, 1970
-
1980
.

Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services, November, 1986.

Charle, S. "Suicide in the Cellblocks."
Corrections Magazine, 7
(4), August, 1981, pp. 6
-
16.

Christianson, S. "In Prison:
Contagion of Suicide."
Nation, 219
, 1974, pp. 243
-
244.

Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies.
Standards for Law Enforcement
Agencies
.
Fairfax, Virginia: May, 1987.

Correctional Service of Canada.
The Prevention of Suicide in Prison


Inst
ructor's Manual.

Ottawa, Canada: Communications Branch for Medical and Health Care Services, January, 1981.





The Prevention of Suicide in Prison


Student's Handbook
.
Ottawa,
Canada: Communications Branch for Medical and Health Care Services, January, 1
981.

Cooper, H.H.A. "Suicide in Prison: The Only Way Out for Some."
Chitty's Law Journal,
24
(2),1976, pp. 58
-
64.

Cox, V.C., P.B. Paulus, and G. McCain. "Prison Crowding Research

The Relevance for Prison
Housing Standards and a General Approach Regarding Cr
owding Phenomena."
American
Psychologist, 39
(10), October, 1984, pp. 1148
-
1160.

Criminal Justice Training Council.
Suicide Prevention, Intervention and Detection While in
Massachusetts Lockups
.
Boston, Massachusetts: July, 1985.

Danto, B.
Crisis Behind Bar
s

The Suicidal Inmate

A Book for Police and Correctional Officers.

Warren, Michigan: The Dale Corporation, 1981.




.
Jail House Blues
.
Orchard Lake, Michigan: Epic Publications, 1973.

Danto, B., J. Eubank, and D. Walter.
Suicide in Jail and Its Prevention
.
Madison, Wisconsin:
University of Wisconsin, 1980.

DeHeer, D.H. and H.S. Schweitzer. "Suicide in Jail: A Comparison of Two Groups of Suicidal
Inmates to Jail Suicide Victims."
Corrective and Social Psychiatry and Journal of Behavioral
Technology Methods
and Therapy, 31
(3), July, 1985, pp. 71
-
76.

DeNoon, K.S.
B.C. Corrections, A Study of Suicides, 1970
-
1980
.
British Columbia, Canada:
British Columbia Corrections, 1983.

Embert, P. "Correctional Law and Jails." In D. Kalinich and J. Klofas,
Sneaking Inmates
Down the
Alley
.
Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas Publishers, 1980.

Esparza, R. "Attempted and Committed Suicide in County Jails." In B. Danto,
Jail House Blues
,
1973, pp. 27
-
46.

Farberow, N.
Bibliography on Suicide and Suicide Prevention: 1897
-
1957

and 1958
-
1970
.
Rockville, Maryland: National Institute of Mental Health, 1972.

Fawcett, J. and B. Marrs. "Suicide at the County Jail." In B. Danto,
Jail House Blues,

1973, pp.
83
-
106.

Federal Bureau of Prisons.
Unusual Prisoners in the Jails
. U.S.
Departm
ent of Justice: No Date.

Finnerty, J.P.
Suicide Prevention in Correctional Facilities.

New York State Sheriffs' Association
Institute, Inc., No Date.

Flaherty, M.
An Assessment of the National Incidence of Juvenile Suicides in Adult Jails,
Lockups, and Juv
enile Detention Centers.

Champaign, Illinois: Community Research Forum,
August, 1980.

French, L. "Rage, Marginality and Suicide Among Forensic Patients."
Corrective and Social
Psychiatry and Journal of Behavioral Technology Methods and Therapy, 28
(3), 1982
, pp. 74
-
80.

French, L. and J.B. Porter. "Jail Crisis

Causes and Control." In W. Taylor and M. Breswell (Eds),
Issues in Police and Criminal Psychology
,
Lanhamr Maryland: University Press of America, 1978.

Gibbs, J.
Stress and Self
-
lnjury in Jail.

Unpublis
hed Doctoral Dissertation, State University of New
York at Albany, 1978.




. "Psychological and Behavioral Pathology in Jails: A Review of the
Literature." Paper presented at the Special National Workshop on Mental Health Services in
Local Jails, Baltimor
e, Maryland, September 27
-
29,1978.


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



Goffman, E.
Asylums
.
Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1961.

Goldfarb, R.
Jails: The Ultimate Ghetto of the Criminal Justice System
.
Garden City, New York:
Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1975.

Haley, M.W.
Aberrant Behavior
and Health Care Services in Local Jails
.
Madison, Wisconsin:
Wisconsin Department of Health and Social Services, 1981.

Hardyman, P.L.
The Ultimate Escape: Suicide in Ohio's Jails and Temporary Detention Facilities,
1980
-
1981.

Columbus, Ohio: Ohio Bureau of

Adult Detention Facilities and Services, March,
1983.

Harris, K.
Jail Suicides in Los Angeles County: July 1, 1977 Through June 30,1987.

Los Angeles,
California: Department of Chief Medical Examiner
-
Coroner. 1987.

Hatty, S. and S. Walker.
A National Study

of Deaths in Australian Prisons
.
Phillip, Australia:
Australian Institute of Criminology, 1986.

Haviland, L.S. and B.I. Larew. "Dying in Jail
-

The Phenomenon of Adolescent Suicide in
Correctional Facilities."
Children and Youth Services Review
,
1980, pp.
331
-
342.

Hayes, L. "National Study of Jail Suicides: Seven Years Later."
Psychiatric Quarterly,

Forthcoming, Fall, 1988.




. "And Darkness Closes In. . .A National Study of Jail Suicides."
Criminal
Justice and Behavior, 10
(4), December, 1983, pp. 461
-
484.




. "Jail Suicide Prevention Information Task Force."
Jail Suicide Update
.
Winter, 1986
-
1987.




. "Litigation."
Jail Suicide Update
.
Spring, 1987.




. "Training."
Jail Suicide Update
.
Summer, 1987.




. "National Study of Jail Suicides: Seven Years Lat
er."
Jail Suicide
Update,

Winter, 1987
-
1988.

Hayes, L. and J. Rowan.
National Study of Jail Suicides: Seven Years Later.

Alexandria, Virginia:
National Center on Institutions and Alternatives, February, 1988.

Hayes, L. and B. Kajdan.
And Darkness Closes In
. . .A National Study of Jail Suicides.

Final
Report to the National Institute of Corrections. Washington, D.C.: National Center on Institutions
and Alternatives, October, 1981.

Heilig, S. "Suicide in Jails: A Preliminary Study in Los Angeles County." In B
. Danto,
Jail House
Blues,

1973, pp. 47
-
56.

Henry, A. and J. Short, Jr.
Suicide and Homicide: Some Economic Sociological and
Psychological Aspects of Aggression.

Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press, 1954.

Hess, A. "The Self
-
Imposed Death Sentence."
Psycholog
y Today,

June, 1987, pp. 51
-
53.

Hogarth, D.J.
Suffolk County Jail Lifeline: Manual of Suicide Prevention
.
Boston, Massachusetts:
Suffolk County Jail Lifeline Group, 1980.

Hopes, B. and R. Shaull. "Jail Suicide Prevention: Effective Programs Can Save Lives.
"
Corrections Today
,
December, 1986, pp. 64
-
7(~.

Hudson, P. and J.D. Butts. "Jail and Prison Deaths: A Five Year Statewide Survey of 223 Deaths
in Police Custody. North Carolina, 1972
-
1976."
Popular Government,

Spring, 1979.

Institutions, Etc.
"Jail Suicid
es: Almost One A Day." 4(1),1981, pp. 17
-
18.

Jenkins, R.L., P.H. Heidemann, and S. Powell. "Risk and Prevention of Suicide in Residential
Treatment of Adolescents."
Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 33
(2), May, 1982, pp. 11
-
16.

Kalinich, D. and P. Embert.

The Fatal Chain of Events: Suicide Prevention in Jails and Lockups,
Detention Homes, and Other Secure Facilities
,
East Lansing, Michigan: Ker and Associates,
1987.

Katzenstein, M.
Suicide Prevention and Detention Program: Baltimore City Jail.

Baltimore,
M
aryland: Baltimore City Jail, 1980.

Kennedy, D.B. "Theory of Suicide While in Police Custody."
Journal of Police Science and
Administration, 12
(2), June, 1984, pp. 191
-
200.

Kimme Planning and Architecture.
The Nature of Small Jails: Report and Analysis.

Ch
ampaign,
Illinois: October, 1985.

Kovacs, M., A.J. Beck, and A. Weissman. "Alcoholism, Hopelessness and Suicidal Behavior."
Journal for the Study of Alcohol, 37
, 1976, pp. 66
-
77.

Levinson, W. "The Need for Screening, Medical and Psychiatric Treatment and A
lternatives
Within Our Jails: An Analysis of the Data." Unpublished Paper, August, 1986.


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



Loeffelholz, P. "Cellhouse Observation Protocol."
lowa Medical and Classification Center Health
Services Manual,

Des Moines, Iowa: Department of Corrections, 1987.

M
alcolm, B.J. "Today's Problems in Penology."
New York State Journal of Medicine, 75
(10),1975,
pp. 1812
-
1814.

Martin, S.
Prison Suicide Study.
Interdepartmental Memorandum. New York: New York City
Health Services Administration, 1971.

Mattick, H. "The Conte
mporary Jails of the United States." In D. Glaser,

Handbook of
Criminology
,
New York: Rand McNally, 1974.

McInturff, H. and S. Band. "The Complete Investigator."
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin
,
September, 1985.

Memory, J.
Jail Suicides in South Carolina: 197
8
-
1984
.
Columbia, South Carolina: Office of the
Governor, Division of Public Safety Programs,

Michigan Department of Corrections.
Jail Suicides 1980
-
1983
.
Lansing, Michigan: 1983.




.Miller, R. (Ed.) "Prisoner Suicide

Caselaw and Standards."
Detention
Rep
orter, 30
, April, 1986, pp. 3
-
14.




. "Prisoner Suicide

Research and Literature."
Detention Reporter, 31
,
May, 1986, pp. 3
-
14.




. "Prisoner Suicide

Assessing the Operational/ Physical Setting."
Detention Reporter, 32
, June, 1986, pp. 1
-
16.




. "Prisone
r Suicide

Prescriptions for Prevention."
Detention Reporter, 33
, July,
1986, pp. 3
-
12.




. "CCTV

Closed Circuit TV."
Detention Reporter, 23
, September, 1985,
p. 3.

Nagle, B.N. "Considerations in Constructing or Renovating Police Facilities."
FBI Law
Enfo
rcement Bulletin
,
April, 1977, pp. 9
-
15.

National Center on Institutions and Alternatives (NCIA).
National Directory of County and Local
Jails.

Washington, D.C.: 1981.

National Commission on Correctional Health Care.
Standards for Health Services in Jails.

Chicago, Illinois: January, 1987.




.
Receiving Screening for Medical Emergencies and Potential Suicides.

Chicago,
Illinois: 1982.

National Sheriffs' Association.
The State Of Our Nation's Jails
.
Alexandria, Virginia: 1980.




.
Jail Officer's Training M
anual
.
Alexandria, Virginia: l980

National Institute of Corrections.
Suicide in Jails
.
Boulder, Colorado: Library Information
Specialists, Inc., December, 1983.

New York City Board of Correction.
Prison Suicide

Report and Urgent Recommendations for
Action.

New York, New York: 1972.

State Office of Mental Health, New York State Commission of Correction, Ulster County
Community Mental Health Services, and Division of Criminal Justice Services

Bureau of
Municipal Police.
The New York State Local Forensic Suici
de Prevention Crisis Service Model

Policy and Procedural Guideline Manual for County Correctional Facilities.

Albany, New York,
March: 1986.




.
The New York State Local Forensic Suicide Prevention Crisis Service Model

Policy and Procedural Guideline Manu
al for Mental Health Programs.

Albany, New York: March,
1986.




.
The New York State Local Forensic Suicide Prevention Crisis Service Model

Policy and Procedural Guideline Manual for Police Lockup Facilities.

Albany, New York: March,
1986.

_______________
.
Suicide Prevention and Crisis Intervention in County Jails and Police Lock
-
ups

Trainer's Manual.

Albany, New York: March, 1986.

Nielsen, E. "Suicidal Behavior in Jail: A Preventive Approach."
Crisis Intervention, 11
(1), 1980,
pp. 19
-
27.

North Dakota Comb
ined Law Enforcement Council. "Suicidal Behavior in Jails."
North Dakota
Correctional Officers Training Manual, Part II
,

June, 1981.

Novick, L. and E. Remmlinger. "A Study of 128 Deaths in New York City Correctional Facilities
(197I
-
1976): Implications for

Prisoner Health Care.
Medical Care, 16
(9),1978, pp. 749
-
756.


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



Postill, F. and J. Gallagher. "A New Approach for the Prevention of Pre
-
Arraignment Suicide."
Issues in Correctional Training and Casework
,
Richmond, Kentucky: Eastern Kentucky
University, Dep
artment of Correctional Services, October, 1987, pp. 26
-
30.

Reiger, W. "Suicide Attempts in a Federal Prison."
Archives of General Psychiatry, 24

June,
1981, pp. 532
-
535.

Rowan, J.
Almost All Suicides in Jails and Lockups Can Be Prevented if . . (Monograph
).

Roseville, Minnesota: Juvenile and Criminal Justice International, Inc., 1984.



.

Preventing Suicides in Police Lockups: Training Key #376
. Gaithersburg,
Maryland: International Association of Chiefs of Police, Forthcoming, 1988.




.
Curriculum on Pro
fessionalization of Correctional Officers/Jailers


With
Emphasis on Suicide Prevention and Effecting Better Discipline/Custody
.
1984.




. "Suicides in Jails, Lockups and Prisons

They Can Be Prevented."
Keeper's Voice
,
August, 1982.

Rowan, J. and L. Hayes.

Training Curriculum on Suicide Detection and Prevention in Jails and
Lockups.

Alexandria, Virginia: National Center on Institutions and Alternatives, February, 1988.

Salzberg, N.
Development of a Composite Criminal Suicide Attempt Scale
,
Unpublished Docto
ral
Dissertation, Utah State University, 1976.

Schuckit, M.A., G. Herrman, and J.J. Schuckit. "The Importance of Psychiatric Illness in Newly
Arrested Prisoners."
Journal of Neuroses and Mental Disease, 165
, 1977, pp. 118
-
125.

Smialek, J.E. and W.U. Spitz.

"Death Behind Bars."
Journal of the American Medical Association,
240
(23), December, 1978, pp. 2563
-
2564.

Special Commission to Investigate Suicide in Municipal Detention Centers.
Final Report

Suicide
in Massachusetts Lockups, 1973
-
1984
.
Boston, Massachus
etts: 1984.

Stone, W.C. "Jail Suicide."
Corrections Today
,
December, 1984, pp. 84
-
87.

Sykes, G.
The Society of Captives: A Study of a Maximum Security Prison
.
Princeton, New
Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1958.

Teddlie, S. and T. Shelden.
Prisoner Att
itudes Toward Death and Dying as it Relates to Their
Incarceration
,
Fort Worth, Texas: Federal Correctional Institution, August, 1977.

Theonig, R. "Solitary Confinement

Punishment Within the Letter of the Law, or Psychological
Torture?"
Wisconsin Law Revie
w, 223
(1), 1972, pp. 223
-
237.

Toch,
H.
Men in Crisis: Human Breakdowns in Prison
.
Chicago, Illinois: Aldine Publishing
Company, 1975.




. "Two Autopsies: A General Impression." In B. Danto,
Jail House Blues,

1973, pp. 187
-
202.

Topp, D.O. "Suicide In Priso
n."
British Journal of Psychiatry, 134
, January, 1979, pp. 24
-
27.

Tracey, F.J. "Suicide and Suicide Prevention in New York City Prisons."
Probation and Parole, 4
,
1972, pp. 20
-
29.

Tuskan, J. and M. Thase. "Suicide in Jails and Prisons."
Psychosocial Nursin
g, 21
(5), May, 1983.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.
Law Enforcement Agencies in the United
States.

Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1978.

U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.
The 1982 Jail Cens
us.

Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, November, 1984.




.
Jail Inmates 1986
.
Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics,
October, 1987.

U.S. Department of Transportation.
The Drunk Driver and Jail, Volume 1
.

Washington, D.C.:
National Hi
ghway Traffic Safety Administration, 1986.

Virginia Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation. "The Arrest and Incarceration
Phenomenon."
Mental Health Education for Police, Jail and Mental Health Professionals
,

Richmond, Virginia, June, 1986, Cha
pter VII.

Whittleton, J.
Suicide Intervention.

South Carolina Criminal Justice Academy, Columbia, South
Carolina, No Date.

Wicks, R.J. "Suicide Prevention

A Brief for Correctional Officers."
Federal Probation,
36
(3),1972, pp. 29
-
31.

Wilkins, L.
Social Devi
ance
.
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice
-
Hall, 1965.

Wilmotte, J. and J. Plat
-
Mendlewicz. "Epidemiology of Suicidal Behavior in One Thousand
Prisoners." In B. Danto,
Jail House Blues
,
1973, pp. 57
-
82.


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10







VIDEOTAPES


National Sheriffs' Association.
S
uicide: The Silent Signals.

Alexandria, Virginia, 1985.

New York State Office of Mental Health, Commission of Correction, Ulster County Community
Mental Health Services, and Division of Criminal Justice Services

Bureau of Municipal Police.
Suicide Preventi
on Screening Guidelines
.
Albany, New York, 1986.

Police Video Network and Television.
720 Deadly Seconds: A Countdown to Tragedy.

Pontiac,
Michigan, 1987.

Sam Houston State University.
Jail Suicide Prevention
, March 1992.


















Alteris

Insuranc
e Services provides the above program information in order to reduce the risk

of insurance loss and claims.
The
information provided is not intended to include all potential controls or address any insured specifically.
Alteris

also does not
warrant that
all loss and/or claims will be avoided if the program information is followed. By providing this information,
Alteris

in no
way intends to relieve the insured of its own duties and obligations, nor is
Alteris

undertaking, on behalf of or for the benefit o
f the
insured or others, that the insured’s property or operations are safe, healthful, or in compliance w
ith any law, rule or regulation
.
Insureds remain responsible for their own efforts to reduce risks and should consult their own legal counsel for app
ropriate
guidance.


Alteris

Ins
urance Services


Revised date: 01/2011

Copyright
Alteris

20
10



APPENDIX



Guide for Development of

Suicide Prevention Plans



The instructor should review the latest version of
Jail Suicide Prevention Standards for your
department or use the attached sample guidelines
for developing your own.


































Alteris

Insurance Services provides the above program information in order to reduce the risk

of insurance loss and claims.
The
information provided is not intended to include all potential controls or address any insured spe
cifically.
Alteris

also does not
warrant that all loss and/or claims will be avoided if the program information is followed. By providing this information,
Alteris

in no
way intends to relieve the insured of its own duties and obligations, nor is
Alteris

undertaking, on behalf of or for the benefit of the
insured or others, that the insured’s property or operations are safe, healthful, or in compliance w
ith any law, rule or regulation
.
Insureds remain responsible for their own efforts to reduce risks and

should consult their own legal counsel for appropriate
guidance.