MODERN ARCHITECTURE RELOADED Modesty, technology and development in the 1960s

earthwhistleUrban and Civil

Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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HISTORY OF HUNGARIAN ARCHITECTURE 2

OCTOBER
8. 2013.

MODERN ARCHITECTURE RELOADED

Modesty, technology and development in the
19
60s



EARLY 1960S

= between 1957
-
1963

A
fter the failed revolution in 1956 the socialist regime slowly regains its power

=
showdown

with the political enemy + opening towards the
people

and the West.

Two p
roblem
s

for architects
:

1. How about the national aspect of architecture?

2. Where to
turn

for inspiration?


1.
MODERN AND/OR NATIONAL ARCHITECTURE?

Prescription of
Socialist Realism was still valid, only the
interpretation
has
changed.

1958
Guiding principles

for culture announced by Hungarian Socialist Working Party


The unfolding
new culture is socialist in content, national in its form
. It preserves and
includes all the advanced cultural treasure, which was accumulated in national creations and
in other values based on international sources. This culture relies on the best former results,
and while penetrated by socialist ideals it rea
lises on a higher level the synthesis of folkness,
n
ational character and humanism.’

Adaptation in architectural theory

MAJOR

Máté: T
imely problems of socialist architecture, 1959

Socialist content: socialist way of life and socialist idea


it should
evol
ve


W
hen it will be totally

evolved

only then
our architectural forms will differ from that
of the capitalist West and reach the
national form = socialist form

(Marxism)

SOME OTHER OPINIONS


within an easing political environment

1960
-
1961 Debate in the periodical
Magyar Építőművészet


Does H
ungarian architecture have advanced traditions, and if so which are they?



Answer 1
: Yes, we have and we have to look for
them



Answer 2:

Yes, we have but we do not have to look for

them
,
they

sh
ould emerge
and appear
as an architectural instinct in the final work



Answer 3:

Yes, we have but we have to be careful, and find the harmony between
being
close

to our heritage and simple copy
ing

of foreign examples
.



PRACTICE




Mortuary, Szeged (1961,
BOR
VENDÉG
Béla)


It is a synthesis of the newest modern architectural possibilities using conscious and
unconscious symbols and the values of the
most ancient folk architecture.’



It refers both to the smoking h
ouses on the Hungarian p
lain and to Le
Corbusier’s chapel
at Ronchamp.’

Review from 1961



Cleaning bath, Jászberény (1963,
ZALAVÁRY

Lajos)

Two basins are like beehive oven + a simple block with half pitched roof



Balaton
-
Project (1957
-

)

Well prepared intervention, regional plan, backed with seve
ral surveys
.


Temporary buildings with identical elements (1958,
POLÓNYI

Károly)

Prefabricated reinforced concrete beams, masonry, on
-
site construction, mobile crane

1959 presented at the Otterlo conference of TEAM X.


soft touch of nature
’, ‘
the spirit

of the vernacular architecture’

Folk, peasant, vernacular architecture


WHY?



2. WHERE TO TURN FOR INSPIRATION
?

There were n
o open debates only myth, oral history and
a few
evidences.

Nordic impulse = Nordic
C
lassicism turned to Nordic Modernism

Eric Gunnar Asplund, Arne Jacobsen, Alvar Aalto

HISTORY OF HUNGARIAN ARCHITECTURE 2

OCTOBER
8. 2013.

PRACTICE



Infill apartment block, Budapest Castle Hill (1959,
FARKASDY

Zoltán)



Infill apartment block, Budapest Castle Hill (1963,
JÁNOSSY

György)



Infill office building, Budapest City (1963,
GULYÁS

Zoltán)

WH
Y?


Natural materials, human scale,

sophisticated details, workmanship


LATE
1960S

= between 1964
-
1970

Government and politics feel strong again: they need visible result
s

of development.

Quantity
: mass production, standardisation, prefabrication =
technological development

Quality (?): signs of technology: increase in scale, in height.


THE CASE OF HIGH
-
RISE BUILDINGS IN BUDAPEST

City plans for Budapest inc
l
ud
e

also
tall buildings: 1946, 1953,
1963

General considerations on
tall buildings
:

1. Rational, economical reasons + human points: sunshine, fresh air etc.


We meet the concept of tall buildings (and not high
-
rise)


usually free from any urban
design ideas


referring to
economic considerations
. The
selected

building plot in the city i
s
usually not big enough


at least without previous demolishing the already existing buildings


to realise the expected built in volume prescribed in the program.


HEIM
Ernő, 1967

2. Aesthetic consideration: the high
-
rise building is the essential elemen
t of a modern
metropolis


The worldwide spread high
-
rise buildings with their stressed vertical masses introduce a
new
aesthetic element

into the cityscape. I am convinced that nobody can question the touching
effect and the harmony of group

of tall buildings.’

SÁRKÁNY

István, 1967

Where should be built high
-
rise?

Not in BUDA, not in the PEST city,
but
YES in the outer districts

However some exceptions:


In the Buda hillside, here and there it can be built some tall buildings for an appropri
ate
function (research centre, dwellings)
just to utilize the beautiful environment
.


GRANASZTÓI
Pál, 1968

Realised projects

CITY CONTEXT / HOUSING ESTATE CONTEXT / NATURAL CONTEXT

a1966

Office Building, V. Szép utca (
POMSÁR
János,
PUSKÁS

Tamás, 12
storeys)


1966

Infill Apartment Building, I. Attila út (
BOROSS

Zoltán, 15 storeys)

b1965

Experimental Housing Estate Apartment Buildings, Budafok (
TENKE

Tibor)


1967 Experimental Housing Estate Apartment Building, Kelenföld (
FARKASDY

Zoltán)

c1967

Hote
l Budapest (
SZROGH

György, 18 storeys)


1969

Apartment Builings, XII. Budakeszi út (
IVÁNYI

László, 10 storeys)

PROFESSIONAL STANDPOINT


about the first tall buildings in the city:
CONTROVERSIAL

PROFESSIONAL STANDPOINT


two high
-
rise on the hillside
-

PO
SITIVE

LAYMEN STANDPOINT
S
-

controversial

Hotel Budapest / problem with height, mass and shape

Budakeszi út / everything
is
okay, „it sits well in the landscape”


Symbolic meaning of a tall house

= cosmic mountain, that connects the heaven and the earth,
axis mundi

Tall house on the plain = symbol of a missing thing

Tall house on the top of the mountain = extension what was already there

Tall house in the mountains
=
expression of the power of human will against Nature

ADDED MEANING IN HUNGARY IN 1965

=
Symbol of technological development

-

They are the ‘
symbols of ambitious human work

,

-

T
hey evoke ‘
the recognition of
c
reative human work’
,

-


They evoke the feeling of renewal, technical progress and the development of the
city

.