What is a composite?
o
A composite is anything made using more than one type of material
o
Structure of a composite
Usually a continuous phase and a discontinuous phase are present
Composite Beams
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Discontinuous phas
e is usua
lly harder, stronger, and more expensive
C
alled the reinforcing material
Continuous phase is usually weaker than discontinuous if used alone
Called the matrix of the composite
Based on this, w
ho can name a common composite and identify the
matrix and the
reinforcing material?
Most common is steel reinforced concrete where the concrete is the
matrix and steel is the reinforcing material
Fiberglass
o
Reasons for using composites
Allows you to create a material with properties that are superior to those
of the
individual materials
Can exploit the good points of the individual materials and make up for
any shortcomings by using the other materials appropriately
Examples of Composites and Their Use
o
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer wrap on concrete
Examples of Comp
osite Materials
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Concrete column alone would fail at 600,000 lb
With CFRP wrap, the column withstood 3,000,000 lb which was the
capacity of the testing machine
Can be used to repair concrete columns that have been damaged
o
UMR
Smart Composite Bridge
Examples of
Composite
Materials
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Used bonded tubes in construction
Built up layer

by

layer
Lab Procedure
o
We will be working with composite beams made from aluminum and stainless
steel
sections bolted togethe
r
Make sure you set up the beam with the stainless steel side up
o
You will need to take several measurements and record them on your data sheet
Draw on board
o
There are two strain gages attached to the composite beam
One is on the top surface and the o
ther is on the bottom surface
Both measure axial strain
o
Place the weight hanger on the beam
if using the lathe bed
You can select any arbitrary location to place the
load
o
Connect the strain gages to the indicators and follow
the steps from our previous
lab
Zero the amp
Set the gage factor
Balance the load
o
Load the beam in 10 lb increments from 0 to 100 lb
Record the axial strains at each 10 lb increment of load
Calculations
o
Start your calculations by converting your strain values to stresses using
ss ss ss
E
al al al
E
These formulas are from Hooke’s law for uniaxial loading
o
Next, use Excel to plot normal stress vs. load
for both strain gages on the same
graph
From linear regression find the slopes of the
two lines
o
Use your slopes to find the experimental location of the neutral axis
Convert your slopes back into strains per unit load
1
ss ss
ss
P E P
1
al al
al
P E P
Use the following formula to find the location of the experimental neutral
axis
1
ss
al
ss al
exp
P
P
h h
y
This follows from the fact that strain increases linearly with
distance from the neutral axis
o
Allows the use of similar triangles
Composite Beam Theory
o
We will use composite beam theory to c
alculate theoretical values to compare the
expe
rimental values against
Can’t directly apply beam theory to a composite beam
What assumption of beam theory do we violate if we apply it
directly to a composite beam?
Due to the fact that the beam is made of more than one material
Beam isn’t homogeneous
W
e get around this by transforming the beam cross section into an
equivalent cross section made from one material
Creates a homogeneous beam that allows use of the usual beam
formulas
o
Cross Section Transformation
Transform the cross section to being made of
only one of the two
materials
Easiest if you convert the material with the higher E into an equivalent
amount of the other material
Find the ratio of the modulus of elasticities of the two materials
o
ss
al
E
n
E
Multiply the width of the st
ainless steel by n to find the
transformed width
Creates an equivalent cross section composed entirely of aluminum
The height of the stainless st
eel section does NOT change
o
This ensures the strain and radius of curvature are
continuous from one section to the other
o
Theoretical Neutral Axis Location
Solve for this using the transformed cross section and the usual method
of
finding the centroid
by a
pplying
i i
th
i
y A
y
A
Make sure all the dimensions you use in this equation come from
the transformed cross section
The location found for the transformed cross section is the same
location of the NA as for the actual composite beam
o
Moment of
Inertia About Neutral Axis
This should also be calculated using the transformed cross section
dimensions
o
Theoretical Stresses per unit Load
These are found by looking at a FBD of the beam at the section where the
strain gages are located
L
P
L
R
A
2
0
g
A
B
g
L
R
M
M
L
L
PL
L
R
M
g
g
A
B
2
2
g
th
al
NA
L L
y
L
P I
2
g
ss al
th
ss
NA
L L
n h h y
L
P I
Lab
Report
o
The report for this lab
should be a
memo
worth
10
0 points
o
Make sure you attach your
initialed
data sheet and sample hand calculations
o
Experimental Results
I
nclude a table showing the original data collected in lab
Include the graph created in Excel and show the linear regression lines
along with their equations
Calculate the following experimental values
Location of neutral axis
(
exp
y
)
Stress per unit load for each material
Calculate the following theoretical values
Location of neutral axis
th
y
Stress per unit load
for each material
Create a table with the following information
y
ss
P
al
P
Experimental
Theoretical
% Difference
L
g
o
Discussion of Results
Compare your experimental and theoretical values
using % error
Discuss how well the composite beam theory predicted your experimen
tal
values
Describe any reasons for why your results don’t exactly match the theory
Research and discuss two different composites
Tell what materials are used to create the composite
Describe how the materials are joined together and the benefits
gained by
using them as a composite
Presentation
o
Each group will write their experimental values for
y
,
ss
P
, and
al
P
on the board.
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