Ubiquitous Group Assignment

earthblurtingAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Ubiquitous Group Assignment


Ubiquitous Computing


Group Assignment

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1


Table of Contents

1.0

Introduction

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................................
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......

1

2.0

Scenario
................................
................................
................................
................................
............

3

2.1


Airport Def
inition and environments

................................
................................
.....................

3

2.2


Different People related to airport

................................
................................
.........................

4

2.3


Different activities related to airport

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................................
......................

5

3.0

Passport Control

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...............................

6

3.1


Problem justification: Disembarkation Card

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................................
.........

6

3.2


Solution: Biometric Passport Control

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7

3.3


Retina Recognition

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................

8

3.4


Face Recognition

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................................
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.................

10

3.5

Fi
ngerprint Recognition

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.........

12

3.6

Justification for Face Recognition

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13

3.7

Implementation

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................................
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......................

14

3.8

Issues

of using biometric technology
................................
................................
.....................

15

3.9

Simulation

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..............................

16

4.0

Baggage Control

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................................
................................
............................

20

4.1


PROBLEM JUSTIFICATION FOR BAGGAGE ISSUES

................................
.................

20

4.2


Solution: RFID Baggage Control

................................
................................
........................

21

4.3


Implementation

................................
................................
................................
....................

23

4.4


Issues of using RFID

................................
................................
................................
...........

24

4.
5


Simulation

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............................

24

5.0

Information Kiosk

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27

6.0

Conclusion

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28

7.0

Individual

Reflection
................................
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29

7.1


Individual Reflection Kang Shuo (TP014977)

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....

29

7.2


Individual Reflection Hendro Ang (TP017765)

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................................
..

30

7.3


Individual Reflection Benny Tanizal (TP
021164
)

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...............................

31

7.4


Individual Reflection Wong Tze Hong()

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................................
.............

33

8.0

REFERENCES

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................................
................................
..............................

34

8.1


References: Kang Shuo (TP014977)

................................
...

Error! Bookmark not defined.

8.2


References: Hendro Ang (TP017765)

................................
..

Err
or! Bookmark not defined.

8.3


References: Benny Tanizal (TP021164)

..............................

Error! Bookmark not defined.

8.4


References: Wong Tze Hong ()

................................
............

Error! Bookmark not defined.

9.0

Individual Assignment

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................................
................................
...................

36

9.1


Kang Shuo individual Assignment (TP014977)

................................
................................
..

36

9.2


Hendro Ang Individual Assignment (TP017765)

................................
................................

49

9.3


Benny Tanizal Individual Assignment (TP021164)

................................
.............................

65

9.4


Wong Tze Hong Individual Assignment ()

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................................
..........

79

10.0

Appendices

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81

10.1

Workload Matrix

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81

10.2

Wikispaces pages

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81

10.3

P
resentation Slides

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81




1.0

Introduction

This paper is allowed to work together with 4 members to explore the application of Ubiquitous
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Computing. As recent studies, Ubiquitous Computing defined by (Weiss and Craiger, 2002), is
the third wave of hype of computing in which the computers become a helpful and invisible,
assisting the user in satisfying their needs.


In order to fulfill the
promises, Ubiquitous Computing was developed in various performances,
executed in different areas wherein Airport as our scenario that we are going to worked on.
Along with the scenario decision, the related people and activities would be also defined. A
s
we are supposed to apply the concepts of ubiquitous computing to improve the identified
problems, RFID and Bluetooth were our category of which we are going to apply in the scenario.


The next part is the implementation of how the technology works that can facilitate current
customers by applying the ubiquitous computing applications. At last, despite of that, our team
should be also very clear on the issues of applying it.







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2.0

S
cenario

2.1


Airport Definition and environments





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2.2


Different People related to

airport




Security

Security staff is the one who working for protecting the airport from the crime. Airport
security attempts to prevent attack from bringing weapon or
bombs in the airport.



Ticket Agent

Ticket agent is the customer service in selling ticket, tag baggage. Answering question from
the customer is the usually duty in ticket agent and provide the information for customer.



Gate Security

The person in responsib
le for the safety of all the person in the airport and around the airport.
They have the authorized to check passenger luggage and enforce airport regulation.



Staff

In staff are there have a variety duty in this area such as maintenance staff and airport
agents.
Maintenance staff duty in the airport is maintain the airport area such a cleaner in the airport.
Airport agent some of the airport they provide the person who help a passenger to process
their check in or some service to make passenger easier.



Pas
senger

Somebody who travel in plane or others vehicle but they are not the driver or member of a
crews. For the purpose transport from one place to another place there is called passenger.



Air Cargo Crew

One of the airport crew who handling loading and un
loading passenger and crew baggage or
another service which they can do in the airport area.



Gate Staff

Who work at the boarding gate of the airport, they have variety duties in this area which the
staff checks the ticket of passenger when the passenger bo
ard to flight and some of duty
making announcement to passenger and can be a customer service to passenger.



Travel A
gent

The travel agent promotes airlines ticket and call on customer to making promotion, arrange
charter flight.



Food S
ervice

Services in th
is are to prepare a food for airline traveler and also responsible in clean up the
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dishes and utensils. Health certificate are required in this service.



Immigration Officer

Immigration officer is a kind of government officer who transacts passport and entr
y visa for
specified country



Custom Officer

An officer who is charge of entrance registration, process disembarkation card and is able to
allow/deny tourists to entry the specific country


2.3


Different activities
related to
airport




Airport Security

Airport security is one of the methods to protecting airport and airplane from the crime. To
make sure the travelers are safe. It is normally required the luggage check for through x
-
ray
machine. The passenger goes through a metal detector. And now they us
e full body scanner
to detect hidden weapon and explosive on passenger.



Check I
n

Check in is the important part for passenger when they arriving at the airport. Check in is the
service counter for passenger for getting ticket and one the counter for
passenger hand over
the baggage which they not allowed to carry they luggage to the airplane cabin one reason is
because of the size usually. The check in process is usually handled by the airline agent
whose working in the airline.



Boarding Checking

For c
hecking boarding pass with boarding gate staff or some airport
by

high technology
using machine to read their boarding pass.



Customer S
ervice

Specialized in a variety of customer service products, and specialized in handling passenger
types they need atten
tion. The services also offer a variety of aviation related services, this in
coordination with the airline and the handling company.



Baggage S
ervice

These agents work in the baggage claim area of the airport office and mostly spend their time
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assisting pa
ssenger with delayed, lost and damaged luggage.



Visa Application

As far as foreign citizen is concerned, no doubt visa application is the first procedure to entry
other countries. Once a visa label attached on your passport, it means the citizen had got th
e
permission to enter the specified country. However, the duration depends on country, usually
within one month. At the time of processing visa, the main duty is to identify personal
identity, including check passport expiry date, validate personal bad rec
ords and deal with
application.



Passport
Control

Normally, the passport is essential in international flight. This is because the tourist need to
bring boarding ticket over by passport. Other than that, entry procedures also allow passport
control to check

the passport information and indentify the passenger.



Entry P
rocedures

Entry procedure is a vital step when foreign citizen prepared to enter the country. First of all,
the custom needs you fill disembarkation card. Then, they help you handle entrance
re
gistration; meanwhile, they would identify your identity by a set of conversation and photo
comparison. After that, they seal on your passport. At last, the person would be decided
whether you can enter the country.

3.0

Passport Control

3.1


Problem
justification: Disembarkation Card

In the view of Australian Government Department of Immigration and Citizenship (2011),
disembarkation card, also called arrival card is a legal document published by each country’s
immigration so as to provide passenger
identification and person’s record of entry to a country.


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Figure 1(a): Front Page


Figure 1(b): Back Page

Figure 1: Arrival Card


As a foreign student, every time we are allowed to fill disembarkation card when we intend to
enter Malaysia back from our hometown. Of course, this is a regulation as well as other countries.
Maybe for us, we can easily fill the card and pass the custom q
ueries due to studied here. What if
the tourist doesn’t know how to speak English or Basha Malay, they even can’t finish the card in
easy, say nothing of custom questions. Simply put, it is an inefficient way for a foreign tourist to
enter a country where
they fully don’t know how to speak local language. In this situation, those
tourists may be caught as a suspect.


3.2


Solution: Biometric Passport Control

In this problem, our team decided to integrate disembarkation card into passport control.
Passport
in general, is the most primary tool of identifying a personal identity used in
international flights. However, due to insufficient utilization, the disembarkation card is appeared
to assist it. With the presence of passport control, a passport is enough t
o carry all information
thereby tourist won’t fill any form and answer any questions any more.


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However, it is insufficient to satisfy ubiquitous computing concepts whereby biometric passport
control is present. Even though biometric technology had applie
d in many areas for past few
years, it is the first time to execute fully biometric on passport. As biometric passport equipped,
it would enhance security and facilitate utilization. In the recent study of Woodward, et al. (2003),
biometric technology incl
udes Fingerprints, Hand Geometry, Face Recognition, Retina
Recognition, DNA, and Signature and so on. Furthermore, they think of any kinds of password
or PIN is not reliable. Therefore, there are 3 biometric technologies coming into discussion as
our propo
sed solution (Figure 2). However, which one is the most suitable one for the proposed
system, our team should justify on that:


Figure 2: 3 biometric technologies

3.3


Retina Recognition

As (Bolle, 2004) claimed that Retina Recognition is a kind of biomet
ric technology used to
identify a person by capturing and comparing images of the blood vessels in the back of the eye,
the choroidal vasculature. This is a more precise technology thereby the image acquisition should
be done only in the near infrared. Ano
ther important point when apply in the technology is that
retina in general is transparent, the retina itself is not imaged thereby it must be in virtue of
commercially available system so as to actively illuminate in the visual spectrum.


According to S
ukumaran and Punithavalli (2009), Retina is a highly reliable technology no two
people have the same pattern of blood vessels; even the eyes of identical twins are distinct
thereby it is quick to verify. The construct of eye (figure 3) and Blood Vessels fo
r Retina (Figure
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4) has shown as follow:


Figure 3: Construct of eye (Muthukrishnan, 2009)





Figure 4(a) Figure 4(b) Figure 4(c)

Figure 4: Blood Vessels for Retina from left to right are Figure 4(a): Retina
l Image, Figure 4(b):
Retinal Vascular Tree, Figure 4(c): Retina Features (Sukumaran and Punithavalli, 2009)


Advantages:

1.

Highly Stable

The blood vessel pattern of the retina hardly changes over the lifetime of an individual.

2.

Highly Speed

Since the actual

templates is only 96 bytes
-
which is very small. This could result in quicker
verification and identification processing times.

3.

Rich Template

Unique features are rich thereby it can be extracted from the blood vessel pattern of the retina
up to 400 data po
ints


Disadvantages

1.

Health Threat

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A retinal scanning device might cause damage to your eye.

2.

Inflexibility

It must be a very close distance between eye and scanner. Furthermore, it is not allowed users
to wear eye glasses during the scanning process.

3.

Hi
gh Cost

It spends too much money to procure and implement retinal scanning devices at the current
time.

[Das, 2007]


3.4


Face Recognition

Face Recognition is the most acceptable biometric because Bolle

(2004, p.36) states “Face
appearance is a particularly compelling biometric because it is one used every day by nearly
everyone as the primary means for recognizing others humans”. The principle of the
technology is to capture faces by some easy conventi
onal optical imaging devices and then
comparing to the database so as to identify the person ID. Normally, most of them are applied in
surveillance system.


The reason why Face Recognition is well
-
known is because face is a three
-
dimensional object
and al
so has its own unique characteristic. Say for example on its visual cues. There are
two
-
dimensional cues that derive from the surface, such as shadows, contrasts, defining features,
and colors. Moreover, its three
-
dimensional cues as well derived from our
binocular vision. In
short, our face is made from various points and different angles and because of the characteristics,
people is easy to be identified (Figure 5) is defined by Rakover and Cahlon (2001).



Figure 5: Face Recognition (NSTC,
1993)

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The following figures show how a 2D facial scanner identifies a person.






Figure 6: Facial Scanner Record Identities (BBC, 2007)


Advantages:

1.

High Acceptability

Since it is easy to apply and no health threat, it is wide to use.

2.

Fast
Processing

Face Recognition system performs fast and accurate detection.

3.

Low Cost

Unlike other biometric technology, face recognition only needs to some conventional optical
imaging devices. Those devices are cheap in the current world.


Disadvantages:

1.

Not Reliable

It is easy to crack with photo taken by camera in PPC.

2.

Inflexibility

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It is difficult to recognize a person in complex background.


3.5

Fingerprint Recognition

Fingerprint as the most familiar biometric technology consists of many details of the
ridge flow
pattern in figure 7, for example ridge endings, ridge bifurcation, ambiguous ridge ending/
bifurcation and independent ridge (
e.g. lake, spur, crossover, etc
). Bolle (2004) has illustrated
that and emphasize on my point.


Figure 7: Ridge patte
rn of individual fingers (Bolle, 2004, p.35)


Maltoni et al (2009) explained the principle of Fingerprint: Fingerprint scanner is the vital
component of structure. With the general structure presence, sensor can read the ridge pattern on
the finger surfac
e and analyze the different finger by A/D converter (Figure 8). And then, an
interface module is responsible for communicating (
sending images, receiving commands, etc.
)
with external devices. The common term “Sensor” has different meaning here. As sensor
we
denote the internal active sensing element of a fingerprint scanner that reads the finger surface.
Sensor here refer to optical, solid
-
state, and ultrasound, etc.


Figure 8: the principle of fingerprint (Maltoni et al, 2009, p.58
-
p.60)


Advantages

1.

Hi
gh Accuracy

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Since many ridge patterns on individual finger, the combination must be different. It can
accurately identify a person

2.

Most Economical

It doesn’t need too complex equipment only scanner and sensor. Furthermore, small storage
space is required.

3.

Standardized

Unlike other biometric technology, Fingerprint has its standard guidelines to follow.


Disadvantages

1.

Fingerprint can be altered and
are only on the fingers. Burning or cutting a finger can change
the makeup of the print is defined by (eHOW, 2011)

2.

Due to high accuracy, it may lead to make mistakes with the dryness or dirty of the finger’s
skin

3.

It is so dedicated. Even you cannot be acc
essed if fingerprint is changed.


3.6

Justification for Face Recognition

Our team selected Face Recognition for our proposed system. The reason why Retina
Recognition is eliminated is because user requirement is considered. As recent research from
(World Heal
th Organization, 2011), the blind people have occupied the world’s population
22%
-
24% (Figure 9).




Figure 9: World Visually Disabled Population


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As figure shown, there is an average of 1 visually disabled person in 5 people. Therefore, i
f we
used Retina Recognition, those people cannot access the custom security.



With respect to Fingerprint Recognition, normally, people would carry too many luggages on
their tour. In additional, the immigration custom count is set after grabbed baggage
. Therefore, it
is trouble for tourist who holds on too many baggages to perform fingerprint. Our system is to
facilitate them, rather than resulting in more big troubles.


Hereby, Face Recognition is decided as our most suitable biometric technology. Even though it is
not the highest security, face recognition needs to set a large of cameras thereby the
surveillance
system can assist the technology to be successful to execut
e.


With the Face Recognition as our biometric passport control, it can carry a lot of advantages:



Facilitate the trouble on arrival card



Avoid foreign tourist from language problem



Speed up the immigration process



Reduce the number of offices on custom



Reduce the long queue for
immigration control


3.7

Implementation

After Face Recognition is selected to improve the process of arrival card, let me introduce the
process of how it is implemented.


When the passenger go immigration office for applying visa, the

officer can help applicant
establish the first unique connection between the document and its owner by scanner the barcode
on the passport thereby the database will store the user profile. User profile include information
such as passport relevant informa
tion and visa condition, visa date of issue, visa place of issue
and visa expiry date.

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After that, the tourists as usual go airport change the boarding ticket. Once the boarding ticket
is got, the passenger can use the airport kiosk machine to scan and
update their information such
as Flight No. and others which are required on the arrival card whereby all of information had
record on their own user profile.


At last, the passenger won't need to fill the arrival card. It just need to reach the custom se
curity,
using face recognition to identify them, if accessed, they can easily pass through the immigration
custom. If denied, they can try it again or press the Help button on the machine.


3.8

Issues of using biometric technology

The benefits had displayed

in the previous chapter, but some issues may faced when
implementing the fully biometric security

1.

Economical

The implantation of the Face Recognition in the airport may increase the cost.


2.

Technical

It may face more technical risk because this system should access the database. Any phases
including Immigration office, Boarding ticket kiosk or custom security got problem (e.g.
disconnect database and system catastrophe, etc.
) may cause problem for the
passengers
because they might be denied to pass the custom security.


3.

Social

Since this is the first time to implement fully biometric technology on airport, people may
threat on whether the system can work properly. As the problem mentioned before, terrorist
or stowaway may crack the security system by photo so that causing social

threat.

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3.9

Simulation


Figure 10: Scan passport and visa information in Immigration Department

The passport and visa information will be stored after the visa was published. As figure 10 shows,
the officer is helping applicant scan the required informatio
n by barcode.


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Figure 11: Update flight information on Airport Scanner Machine


Once the boarding ticket is got, the passenger should refurbish database information by Airport
Scanner Machine. As figure 11 shows, the new information is updated in red mar
k.


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Figure 12: Passenger Identified By Face Recognition (Accessed)


Once identity accessed by face recognition, the tourist is allowed to pass through the guard bar.


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Figure 13: Passenger Verified by Face Recognition (Denied)


If passenger still has problems after tried 3 times, the Help button will light to remind them call
for help. Once the Help button was pressed, officers will come to help you. If passengers
continue trying 3 times after Help button lighted, the police will

come to inquire you.








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4.0

Baggage Control

4.1


PROBLEM JUSTIFICATION FOR BAGGAGE ISSUES

Baggage system which is now being used at the most of the airports have becomes an issues
that actually happen to the passengers where their luggage could have been switched with
someone else.
This is due to the complexities of baggage procedures and proce
sses and how bags
are moved through a series of security systems to get loaded on to their next aircraft.

That is the main reason so many people who do not feel comfortable about the current system.
As we know that there might be many people who use the s
ame brand or have the same baggage,
that’s why an issue about the baggage has arise due to this kind of errors. Therefore, there are
always the risks of having items lost, misplaced, stolen, or damaged. Many of the common risks
can be reduced, avoided, or
eliminated with a change of the System.


Image taken from:
http://beaut.ie/blog/2007/makeup
-
meltdown
-
what
-
happened
-
when
-
ryanair
-
lost
-
my
-
luggage/

The
current system which is being used at the airport is totally failed but we don’t know why in
most of the airport they are still using this kind of system. As we know that the current system is
a manual system which doesn’t have any technology or tools impl
emented to help the passengers
get the right baggage. This problem will become a big issue when someone got the wrong
baggage and go leave the airport, in this case is their baggage is changed with another baggage.
This will give a bad reputation and also
a big problem to the airport and how they are going to
take the responsibility for it.



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4.2


Solution: RFID Baggage Control

According to the problem justification we have came out with a solution which is using
RFID Baggage Control Technology in order to
solve the problem. RFID (Radio Frequency
identification) is a technology that incorporates the use of
electromagnetic or electrostatic
coupling in the radio frequency (RF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely
identify an object, animal, or p
erson.” (Tech target 2002).
This kind of Technology has the ability
to identify, reading and describes a system that transmits the identity (in the form of a unique
serial number) of an object or person wirelessly, using radio waves.

The RFID system consis
ts of three components:



RFID Tag (transponder): It is a small object, paper thin, flexible such as an adhesive
sticker that can be attached to or incorporated into a product. RFID tags contain antennas
to enable them to receive and respond to radio
-
frequen
cy queries from an RFID
transceiver. Tags are the heart of RFID system because they store information about the
object being tagged.



Readers and Antennas (transceiver): RFID readers are devices that convert radio waves
from RFID tags into a form that can b
e passed to middleware software. An RFID tag
reader uses antennas to communicate with the RFID chip.



Hardware and software infrastructure: they are needed to retrieve the required data from
the interaction of tag and reader and to manage the flow of data f
rom the reader to the
back
-
end management system (What every internal auditor should know about RFID,
2006).

Advantages and Disadvantages of RFID

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Line of Site

-

Not required(in most cases)




It is difficult for an RFID reader to read
the information in case of RFID tags
installed in liquids and metal products.

Read

Rate



The problem is that the liquid and metal
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-

10’s, 100’s or 1000’s simultaneously


surfaces tend to reflect the radio waves,
wh
ich makes the tags unreadable.


Identification

-

Can uniquely identify each item/asset
tagged




The presence of mobile phone towers
has been found to interfere with RFID
radio waves. Wal
-
Mart, the retail sector
giant, has installed billions of RFID
tags in
their products throughout the
world and they have encountered such
problems.


Technology

-

RF(Radio Frequency)


Read

Range

-

Passive UHF RFID:

o

Up to 40 feet(fixed readers)

o

Up to 20 feet(handheld readers)

-

Active RFID:

o

Up to 100’s of feet or more

-


Read
/
Write

-

Many RFID tags are Read/Write


Interference

-

Like the TSA(Transportation Security
Administration), some RFID
frequencies don’t like Metal and
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Liquids. They can interfere with some
RF Frequencies


Automation

-

Most “fixed” readers don’t require
human

involvement to collect data
(automated)



4.3


Implementation

According to the Justification and Solution above, we have come out with a conclusion that
RFID’s is a main solution to solve the problem which I have mentioned above. RFID tags
provided an enhance feature which do not require line
-
of
-
sight to be read. So
it will
automatically minimize the number of human resources to scan the luggage.

4.3.1

Luggage Implementation

In the baggage implementation we are going to implement the RFID technology into the
label which will be stacked in the luggage as
Identification. So when the passengers who have
taken their baggage wanted to leave the airport, he/she needs to pass the security gate scanner
which contains the RFID tag Reader. By the time the luggage is being scanned, the passengers
also have to scan t
heir Passengers boarding pass which is going to compare the Luggage data and
the passengers boarding pass data. The data here is actually including Passenger name, Passport
Number and Destination. The passengers are allowed to leave the airport when the da
ta between
their luggage and Boarding pass are match.

4.3.2

The passenger
implementation

Before leaving the airport, the passenger should scan their boarding pass while waiting for the
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luggage to be scanned. Once the passenger scans their boarding pass, th
e data will be retrieved. It
means data from luggage will be compared with the data from the passengers boarding
pass. So
the rules are if the information between the luggage and the boarding pass are not match so the
passenger are not allowed to leave the

airport and need to go to find their baggage again or go to
the information assistance. The passengers are allowed to pass and leave the airport if the data
are match.

4.4


Issues of using RFID



The implementation of the RFID tags in the airport will be so

expensive.



The other disadvantage of fusing this system is that the passengers may lose their
boarding pass after they arrived at their destination



The RFID signals may have problem by some materials. So the tag placement is very
important.

4.5


Simulatio
n

4.5.1

Figure 1

This simulation shows that this is the first step which the baggage and the passengers boarding
pass are going to be scanned.

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4.5.2

Figure 2

This Simulation shows that the luggage has scanned and the data of the luggage has been shown
by

the Screen provided.


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4.5.3

Figure 3

The last simulation shows that the luggage and the boarding pass have been scanned and as you
can see the door is open automatically when both of the data are match.


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5.0

Information Kiosk



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6.0

Conclusion



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7.0

Individual Reflection

7.1


Individual Reflection

Kang Shuo (TP014977)

This module taught us to explore and apply the ubiquitous computing. In order to fulfill the
promise, this assignment consists of individual part and group part. In the individual part, we are
assigned to write a research paper as well as evaluating the pe
er’s research paper.


This is a real challenge for me because I’ve never done any similar research paper. Furthermore,
I also have no background knowledge on definition of ubiquitous computing thereby everything
is new for me from beginning to the end. F
irst of all, in order to deeply comprehend the
concept of ubiquitous computing, I had to read a lot of fundamental books and find relevant
resource from the internet on the sector. After I got to know that, making an appropriate title for
research pager is

another headache for me. As lecturer requirement, the title should be academic
wherein it cannot be interesting and so clear for the topic, but also it should imply the topic. My
topic area was “Intelligence & Meaning in Ubiquitous Computing” As to study
out the title with
the situation,
Mr. Manimohan,
our lecturer gave me a big aid. Therefore, my title was final to
decide “the Reformation of Human Technology: “Disappeared” Communication”. In order to
touch on the topic, I had researched many information i
n terms of Wi
-
Fi, Bluetooth and other
disappeared technology thereby justify which one is the most suitable for my proposed title in
Ubiquitous Computing area.


Thanks to
Mr. Manimohan

strict requirement, this is the first time I can realize what is citati
on.
In the previous literal review, I never had done this for the research. Right here, I understand not
only how to do the citation, but also the importance. Since citation is essential part in every
research paper to support your own idea. Therefore, wit
h the citation presence, it is more likely
to be trusted than a personal work.


Other than that, reference is another harvest which my lecturer gave me a lesson. I would never
forget his word, “Reference is referring to your citation, how many citations m
ean how many
reference you should do, other resources called bibliography, instead of reference”.

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In the review of peer paper part, I had chance to read peer’s better research paper, and also under
the evaluation sheet and lecturer’s guides, I can aware

of how the marks were got. It is very
useful for my further career.


With respect to group part, we encountered a lot of problems as well. In the part, we are asked to
propose a scenario within 4 members of group. Even though our lecturer gave us chance
to help
our idea generation in the class, our entire brainstorm was eliminated because as
Mr. Manimohan

said, the scenario couldn’t start from technology. This is because if starting from technology
would limit our thought space wherefore our effort should

focus on public place where it can
apply the ubiquitous computing application to improve the current environment and interaction.
Via a large of research on websites and personal experience, our team made decision on airport.
However, differentiating betw
een automated solution and ubiquitous approach is another big
problem that we need to overcome in group part. That’s also the reason why too many solutions
we thought were rejected by lecturer. After that, we held on many meetings to balance our
solution w
hether they are practical. At last, we made three reasonable problems with available
solution. In order to the solutions make sense; we are responsible to look for more researches on
the technology. With the atmosphere of harmonization, we finally overcome

various problems
and finish the assignment before deadline.


In a conclusion, this module is useful for me. I gained not only the experience of research pager,
but only the concept of ubiquitous computing. One coding language could be washed out by
trend
of the times, but using of technology to improve and facilitate our life will not change,
especially in current technology age. Besides that, I also learnt how to work in a group. All of
these should be my fortune in future.

7.2


Individual Reflection He
ndro Ang (TP017765)


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7.3


Individual Reflection Benny Tanizal (
TP
021164
)

First of all I would like to Thanks to my lecture Mr.Manimohan for teach us Ubiquitous
Computing and share His experienced to us.

With his guide and advice that the main things to
make facilitate us and understand to finish our assignment successfully. He provides us the
required knowledge in this Ubiquitous Computing to complete this assignment clearly.


During entire degree course

we encountered many assignment and different module. When
become a level
-
3 student I encounter for this module call “Ubiquitous Computing”, where I have
never been heard before even the word of Ubiquitous. First time I heard this module in my First
semest
er I felt really hard for me to go through this module. But the reality in this module is
quite fun. This module taught me how the human interact with computer. This is ordinary
activities like we using ubiquitous computing participates many computational
and the system at
the same time. And we even not are aware what they doing so. It is quite confusing sometimes
what we did is all about ubiquitous computing. But this the point for me can to solve the
curiosity and make want to find out and learn more abou
t ubiquitous computing.


In this module we got the assignment which is consists individual assignment and group
assignment. Where the individual part we assigned to find a specific title and make it become
research paper. When our lecture handover this ind
ividual assignment. I go through a lot a
question in my mind, how is the research paper look like. I think this problem not only for me
but for my class mates as well. Because I have never do a research paper before and I do not
know how the research paper

concept look like. First of all, in order to understand the concept of
research paper, I do a lot of research to find a related resource with this ubiquitous from the
internet and I read fundamental books which it all related what I looking to. And for th
e research
paper format, in research paper that a several kind format of research paper, some students are
making their research with one side only and some with two sides. But there is not required, and
I decide to use one side research paper format. As l
ecture requirement we have to find research
title where it should be boring and related with the topic area, and my topic area was
“Security/and Ethics in Ubiquitous Computing” need to study and find in this topic area. I got
rejected by the lecture when t
he submission and the lecture ask me to find more specific title in
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that area. And our lecture gave us time one more week to change the title and I finalize my
research paper with “Social implication With Human Body Modification in Ubiquitous
Computing” as

my research paper title. For getting information in that area I research a lot of
information which is related with my topic where my topic contains is about implanting
microchip into a human body. But in this implanting body got a lot positive and negati
ve aspect
which the negative aspect some religious views restrict certain type of technology to be
implanted into human body. In some people’s view the usage of device which is implanted is
against the rule or can damage human’s body and can lower the inte
grity of a human being. And
the positive aspect some people think of the usage, ubiquitous computing has been implemented
into our daily life by means to make people’s life become easier by performing tasks which used
to take longer time to be finished in
a shorter amount of time.


From this research paper I know a lot things what I never experienced it. Now I know what the
concept in research paper and I getting know what is citation and quotation. And I know how to
present it and come up in research paper
. Virtually in the research paper we just need to analyze
perspective or argues a point in that area. Regardless of the type of research paper you are
writing, your finished research paper should present your own thinking backed up by others'
ideas and inf
ormation.

Aside from that, reference is another harvest which my lecturer gave me a
lesson. I would never forget his word, “Reference is referring to your citation, how many
citations mean how many reference you should do, other resources called bibliograp
hy, instead
of reference”.


We got another assignment in group, in the group we got 4 members. Where we assigned to
propose a scenario and inside this scenario are all about human activities in those area, and in
this scenario we couldn’t find something re
lated with technology because that can limit our
thought space area. So we should focus on the public area where that can apply ubiquitous
computing to improve the current environment. And after we go through research from the
internet and discussion with
our group mates, we decide to make a scenario about airport area.
We asked by lecture to find a several problem in airport area and also the solution for this
assignment.


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After we found the solution and we show to our Lecture, and the lecture said that t
o narrow, it
means that are is too small and that can limit your area for this problem. And we could change it
to another one. Finally we found a three reasonable problem also with the solution. And for
getting more reasonable solution we do more research
on that area. And we divide a problem to
group member to find more specific in that area. And for getting clear with our documentation
we create some simulation is related with our problem and solution. It was quite fun when I
creating a simulation, becaus
e it been while I have been never use that software for making some
kind of animation. With our Group Corporation and hard work to complete our assignment, we
finally finish our assignment on time. Before that we gather all the part in to one becomes
docum
entation.


Through the lecture class and tutorial class from this Ubiquitous computing module. I went
through a lot of fun and new experience and useful for me. And I learn more how to work in
group and sharing our idea and discuss it through a website cal
led “Wikispaces” which suggested
from our Lecture.


I also want to thanks my group mates for giving me advice and their corporation to complete this
Ubiquitous Computing assignment. With sharing the idea is the main thing in one group to
complete our
assignment.


7.4


Individual Reflection Wong Tze Hong()







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8.0


REFERENCES

A
ssociation for Automatic Identification and Mobility and Mobility
, 2010.
What is RFID?
[Online]. Available:


http://www.aimglobal.org/technologies/RFID/what_is_rfid.asp

[Accessed 7th February 2011].


Australian Government Department of Immigration and Citizenship, 2011,
Passenger Cards
,
Available from
http://www.immi.gov.au/managing
-
australias
-
borders/border
-
security/travel/passenger
-
cards/
,
[Accessed 9
th

Feb 2011]


BBC, 2007,
BIOM
ETRIC TECHNOLOGY
, Available from
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/guides/456900/456993/html/nn2page1.stm
, [Accessed 10
th

Feb 2011]


Bolle, R., 2004,
Guide to
biometric
, NY: Hawthorne


Das, R., 2007,
The strengths and Weaknesses of Retinal Recognition
, Available from
http://www.technologyexecutivesclub.com/Articl
es/security/artRetinalRecognition3.php
,
[Accessed 8
th

Feb 2011]


eHOW, 2011,
Advantages & Disadvantages of DNA Fingerprinting
, Available from
http://www.ehow.
com/list_5994718_advantages
-
disadvantages
-
dna
-
fingerprinting.html
,
[Accessed 10
th

Feb 2011]


Fabian, G., 2006,
Lost Baggage Handling
[Online], available from
http://liftlab.com/think/fabien/2006/03/26/lost
-
baggage
-
handling/
, [Accessed 7
th

February 2011].



Maltoni, D. et al., 2009,
Handbook of Fingerprint Recognition
, 2
nd

ed., British, Springer
-
Verlag
London


Muthukrishnan, A., 2009,
Biometric


Fingerprint, Ir
is, Retina and Pupil Recognition
, Available
from
http://knol.google.com/k/biometrics
-
finger
-
print
-
iris
-
retina
-
and
-
pupil
-
recognition#
,
[Accessed 8
th

Feb 2011]


NSTC, 1993,
Face Recognition
, [Online], Available from
http://www.biometrics.gov/Documents/facerec.pdf
, [Accessed 8
th

Feb 2011]


Pandey, K, 2009,
Advantages and Disadvantages of RFID
technology

[Online], available from
<
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advantages
-
and
-
disadvantages
-
of
-
rfid
-
technology.html
>,
[Accessed 7
th

February 2011].


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35



Rakover, S.S. and Cahlon, B., 2001,
Face Recognition: Cognitive and Computational Process
,
USA


Sukumaran, S. and Punithavalli, M., 2009,
Retina Recognition Based on Fractal Dimension
,
[Online], Available from
http://paper.ijcsns.org/07_book/200910/20091009.pdf
, [Accessed 9
th

Feb 2011]


Woodward, J. D. et al., 2003.
Biometric
, USA, McGraw
-
Hill


World Health Organization, 2011,
Blindness: Vision 2020


The

Global Initiative for the
Elimination of Avoidable Blindness
, Available from
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs213/en/
, [Accessed 10
th

Feb 2011]








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9.0

Individual Assignment

9.1


Kang Shuo individual Assignment (TP014977)

9.1

.1

Research Paper Proposal

Topic Area:
Intelligence & Meaning in Ubiquitous Computing


Title:
the Reformation of Human Technology:

“Disappeared” Communication


Module Code Name:
CE00313
-
3
-
UCOM

Student Name: Kang Shuo

Student ID: TP014977

Intake: UC3F0910COM


Background:

“The word "ubiquitous" can be defined as "existing or

being everywhere at the same
time,"

"constantly encountered," and "widespread."”, (UBIQUITOUSCOMPUTING 2006). So,
ubiquitous computing is integration between computing communication and environment, in
order to provider needs for people. It is always capable, invisible and widespread, with w
hich
they are associated in people life.


Hence as ubiquitous computing shift over the past decades, its importance and benefits have
impacted on network areas around the world. In recent study (Riley, 1992), “as the paradigm

of
U
-
COM appeared,
it almost
radically replaced traditional of people perceptions. We can be
aware of the desk
-
top or lap
-
top machine getting less and less surround us”. But, does it means
the computer or some computing communication won’t exist tomorrow?

I think that the
computer wo
n't disappear from our everyday lives, but it will get smaller and less visible. We
will no longer see the computer as a device because it's incorporated everywhere


in all of the
things that we use.” (Jaehnichen
, 2010) have answered the question and is a
ppropriate to
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emphasis on my title.


Nowadays, as the human technology reformed, network wrath become stronger and stronger.
Especially, after 1997, due to
IEEE 802.11 appeared as a first standard for wireless and
available to public
, it makes people craz
ier on unlimited internet environment.


My paper is to give the reason why more and more people trends to a smart communication by
stating the problem of previous way to access internet. It consists of a set of devices used before.
When the wireless radica
lly replaces wires, the world will use a “disappeared” way to
communicate.




Each people or organization is able easily and fast establish a network environment



People completely avoid
expensive cabling and wiring costs



Each person can access the real
-
time

information from more place


Topic:

The reason why I choose the title is that our world is heading towards ubiquitous computing. As
the technology developed, people prefer to choose a convenient way in communication. The
“disappeared” means a new way,
which is invisible to permeate into our life, “given the
continuing technical progress in computing and communication, it seems that we are heading
towards an all
-
encompassing use of networks and computing power, a new era that Mark Weiser
termed “ubiquito
us computing”.”, as claimed by Weiser (1991). Hence according to (Mattern,
2004), “the computer as a dedicated device should disappear”.


Because of its scalability and mobility, it can be added and removed any mechanism easily, and
also output can easil
y desirable to the users. The disappeared communication as a form of
U
-
COM is applying Home, Small Business and Product Industry. It is satisfied with people
needs.


There were a number of problems before the reformed technology was able for us. That’s al
so
the reason why the way of communication is significant. The problems had been listed as follow
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based on
Hewlett
-
Packard Development Company

(2006):



The major one is hard and slow to set a new network workplace



Time
-
cost and money
-
cost to measure and
install cable



The network connection is limited by wires


Keeping these problems in mind, date back to last decades, if we want to install a network place,
we need to measure and buy wires firstly; then we have to
pull cable through walls and ceilings;
aft
erwards, we are supposed to configure networking card and hub, at last we need to reconsider
other important networking related to hardware. Because of redundant processes, it would spend
too much time and money on installing.



As the note above, it also

leads to people be supposed to go particular place for accessing
internet. Up till to 1995,
the ubiquitous computing means support a kind of communication
device per person or per office, "
this has required new work in operating systems, user interfaces,
networks, wireless, displays, and many other areas. ", (Weiser, 1996). People get to know that.
From then on, people start to consider the problems, and wireless

became everyone jumps on the
bandwagon and then in due time the excitement and hype.



Appr
oach:

My paper is going to analyze the “disappeared communication” and how it is intelligent and
flexible in U
-
COM area, meanwhile I will use different devices and concepts of ubiquitous
computing to support the above issue


Wireless

According to
Weiss and Craiger (2002)
, wireless computing has become a popular way to
“connect computers to a network” in our life. Because of U
-
COM concepts, it allows people
access network and communication services, avoiding the limit of network cable. Hereby, it is

a
new human technology throughout everywhere
without installing or moving wires. That’s why I
said it is a “disappeared” communication. “Except computer, the kind of device embedded in
various mobile devices such as Smart phones and PDAs”, SearchNetworkin
g (2004).

Therefore,
It can be better customer needs, connection without constraint of wires, easy and fast to install
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and more cost
-
effective.


Router

WEBOPEDIA (2005), defined router as: a “device” that supports “exchanging
data packages”
between different networks, it normally has wireless function. In this way, users can access the
internet without cable as well; it also can save payment
for

a full broadband subscription service
to their

ISP

for each computer on the network. Based on the different environment (Home, Small
Business or Big company), we can be reasonable to choose it. Thus it makes possible to release
redundant cable. It
is also the way to save money and resources.


Wireless Network Card

It is another device, “
allows a computing device to join a wireless LAN; Wireless network
adapters contain a built
-
in radio transmitter and receiver.” as defined by Mitchell (2010)
. Due to

the device, it fulfills fil
e transferring from server to clients.
Hereby, we can fully ignore the cable
length because we won’t need to buy cable and put it in proper way anymore.


In a nutshell, due to concepts and devices above, i
t not only saves money
for applying a
bandwidth service, but also
can access the real
-
time information
. As the important point, it refers
to ubiquitous computing concepts, available everywhere invisibly and offered services for users.






















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9.1.2

Resea
r
ch Paper Final

Topic Area:
Intelligence & Meaning in Ubiquitous Computing


Title:
the Reformation of Human Technology:

“Disappeared” Communication


Module Code Name:
CE00313
-
3
-
UCOM

Student Name: Kang Shuo

Student No.: TP014977

Intake: UC3F1010COM


Abstract

The paper presents two popular “disappeared” communications in the era of Ubiquitous
Computing, which are Wi
-
Fi and Bluetooth. Finally, in the paper, it claims Wi
-
Fi is superior way
to be intelligent to meet users more needs via a set of arguments

and its benefits.

Keywords:
--

Ubiquitous Computing, Wi
-
Fi, Bluetooth, “Disappeared” Communication


1.

Introduction

“The word "ubiquitous" can be defined as "existing or

being everywhere at the same
time,"

"constantly encountered," and "widespread."”, (UBIQUITOUSCOMPUTING 2006). So,
ubiquitous computing is integration between computing communication and environment, in
order to provider needs for people. It is always capable, invisible and widespread, with w
hich
they are associated in people life.



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Hence as ubiquitous computing shift over the past decades, its importance and benefits have
impacted on our life around the world. In recent study (Riley, 1992), “as the paradigm

of
U
-
COM appeared,
it almost radi
cally replaced traditional of people perceptions. We can be
aware of the desk
-
top or lap
-
top machine getting less and less surround us”.


But, does it means the computer or some computing communication won’t exist tomorrow?

I
think that the computer won't

disappear from our everyday lives, but it will get smaller and less
visible. We will no longer see the computer as a device because it's incorporated everywhere


in
all of the things that we use.” (Jaehnichen
, 2010) have answered the question and is appr
opriate
to emphasis on my title.


My paper is complete confirmation that Wi
-
Fi is the intelligent “Disappeared” communication
wherein it consists of a set of argument to prove why Wi
-
Fi is better than Bluetooth. Anyway,
when the entire device had been rep
laced by wireless, the world will use a “disappeared” way to
communicate.

The aim of my paper not only shows Wi
-
Fi intelligence, but also displays where it fulfills its
promises. There are 2 major statements that are going to discuss as follow:




Wi
-
Fi
is
more essential than Bluetooth in our world



Wi
-
Fi is more intelligent to perform specific function


2.

Topic:

The reason why I choose the title is that our world is heading towards ubiquitous computing. As
the technology develop, people prefer to choose a convenient way in communication whereby
the “disappeared” becomes a new way, which is invisible to permeate in
to our life, “given the
continuing technical progress in computing and communication, it seems that we are heading
towards an all
-
encompassing use of networks and computing power, a new era that Mark Weiser
termed “ubiquitous computing”.”, as claimed by Ma
ttern (2004). Hence according to (Weiser,
1991), “the computer as a dedicated device should disappear”. Indeed, we were enjoying the
convenience and benefits of which “disappeared” communication bring us over past decade. And
I’m sure the most common one,

which people used is Wi
-
Fi and however, it is general that
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people usually think of the kind of disappeared communication, called wireless due to unclear
definition. In recent research (Malykhina, 2007), all invisible communication can be called
wireless,
consist of Wi
-
Fi, Bluetooth, WAP and FM Radio, etc. Since Wi
-
Fi is so widespread in
wireless that it results in thinking of Wi
-
Fi is wireless in common people perception.


In order to validate Wi
-
Fi benefit as a disappeared communication under the reforma
tion of
human technology, I attempt to compare the most 2 popular members in wireless so as to
demonstrate that Wi
-
Fi is obliviously superior to Bluetooth.


The comparison would be touching on universality, speed, range, capability, security and
function

to show what Wi
-
Fi powerful it is (Figure 1).


Wi
-
Fi

Bluetooth

Universality

Almost all Computing Device

Particular Computing Device

Speed

108Mbps and above (Newest)

3Mbps (today at most)

Capability

Data Transfer in different Multiple
Devices

Data
Transfer usually between
only 2 Mobile Devices

Range

Easily up to 100 feet inside, 300
feet open or outdoor areas by itself

Often within about 33 feet,
extended to 330 feet with
additional equipment

Security

Stably dedicated communication

Share data bet
ween multiple devices

Protected by security mechanisms

Easy to be interfered

Disrupted because of more
than 2 device in a same place

No any security mechanism

Function

Data Transfer

Support Wireless Network

Able to access Internet

Only able to Transmit
Data

Figure 1


Universality

According to (Martin, 2002a), Bluetooth was first developed and available in 1994 and in fact,
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Wi
-
Fi as standard of IEEE 802.11b, beginning appearing in products in late 1998; but
Bluetooth is not as popular as Wi
-
Fi.
"The use of Bluetooth is not widespread. There is still a lot
of confusion”
(Evers, 2002) had expressed the reason why Bluetooth is not as fashionable as
Wi
-
Fi whereby we are still waiting for Bluetooth, because “
hardware makers have been slow to
incorpora
te it into their products”, (Martin, 2002b). By contraries, Wi
-
Fi is rapidly developing
and steadily rising,

Almost all computing devices, including desktops, workstations, monitors,
keyboards, notebooks, tablets, handhelds, and printers can be equipped t
o communicate with
Wi
-
Fi.” is defined by Hewlett
-
Packard Development Company (2006a) thereby it means Wi
-
Fi
is more prevalent than Bluetooth. We can aware of Wi
-
Fi is the indispensable device and it
always be inside when we buy a new laptop, rather than Bl
uetooth.


Speed

Shelly and Vermaat
(2010a) had shown advantage of Wi
-
Fi because data transfers of Bluetooth
between devices at a rate of only up to 2Mbps (Now can be extended to 3Mbps) whereas Wi
-
Fi
is identified by any network based on the 802.11 standa
rds (Figure 2). Previously used Standard
802.11g is several ten times as fast as Bluetooth. Needless to say, the newest standard is
802.11n, which is to reach speeds from 2 to 10 times faster than 802.11g. In addition, “
Not
only is it significantly slowe
r than 802.11b products, but it's also completely incompatible with
them”, (Pacchiano, 2004). Hereby, Bluetooth is far away behind Wi
-
Fi.


Figure 2


Capability:

In common people view, Bluetooth is developed for data transfer and however, its mere
particular capability hardly catches up with Wi
-
Fi as well. “Bluetooth is designed for limited
data transfer between two devices, one of which usually is a mobile device

(e.g., a notebook
computer and a printer, a digital camera and a desktop computer, two PDAs.). Wi
-
Fi, which
supports much faster data transfer rates, allows users to network many computers and devices
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together wirelessly.” Shelly et al (2007a) has alread
y discussed Wi
-
Fi is better than Bluetooth in
transferring capability and is suitable to emphasis on my previous point.


Range

Based on Shelly et al (2007b), In order to communicate with each other, Bluetooth devices with
short
-
range radio waves often ar
e allowed within about 10 meters (about 33 feet), at most it is
able to be extended to 330 feet with additional equipment. It is different from Wi
-
Fi. Because of
radio waves, Wi
-
Fi can be easily available 100 feet of each other in closed areas by itself; b
est
yet, it can be up to 300 feet when it is used in open or outdoor areas. That is another factor
proving Wi
-
Fi is a superior way to satisfy people needs, rather than Bluetooth.


Security

I am going to go on to compare them in security. In the light of (B
axamusa, 2010) opinion, both
of them can transmit data though physical objectives, but Bluetooth is weaker. It is general to
face while two devices are transmitting, it always reminds us “Connection Abort” due to same
frequency conflicting. Other than that
, Bluetooth also
get disrupted due to a number of mobile
devices in a same room. At last, as (Mason, 2007) said, unlike Wi
-
Fi, protected by security
mechanisms, Bluetooth is likely to be eavesdropped while people are calling.


As summarized above, Wi
-
Fi i
s the most effective “Disappeared” communication in the area of
data transfer and however, it is insufficient to be intelligent to meet Ubiquitous Computing goal.
There should be a more powerful function to state why the form of communication
becomes
every
one jumps on the bandwagon and then in due time the excitement and hype.


Function

In the recent study
Shelly and Vermaat
(2010a)
, Wi
-
Fi sometimes is referred to as wireless
Ethernet because it use techniques similar to the Ethernet standard to specify how

physically to
configure a wireless network. Therefore, Wi
-
Fi networks can perform wired Ethernet network to
access the Internet with same network standard, TCP/IP. In term of Bluetooth, it has only one
function, transmitting data. Because of Wi
-
Fi specifi
c function, the communication becomes
virtually invisible to the users and directly beat Bluetooth.

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With the presence of Wi
-
Fi function, people are:



able easily and fast to establish a network environment



completely avoid
expensive cabling and wiring
costs



access the real
-
time information from more place


Keeping these benefits in mind, date back to last decades,
if we want to install a network place,
we need to measure and buy wires firstly; then we have to
pull cable through walls and ceilings;
after
wards, we are supposed to configure networking card and hub, at last we need to reconsider
other important networking related to hardware. Because of redundant processes, it would spend
too much time and money on installing. Except those, it also leads to
people be supposed to go
particular place for accessing internet; a
s the noted above, it is based on
Hewlett
-
Packard
Development Company

(2006). Up till to 1995,
the ubiquitous computing means support a kind
of communication device per person or per office
, "
this has required new work in operating
systems, user interfaces, networks, wireless, displays, and many other areas. ", (Weiser, 1996).
However, it is not exactly available in public. Nevertheless, from then on, vendors began to
predict that Wi
-
Fi woul
d be everywhere in the future.


3.

Approach

Until now, as human technologies develop, Wi
-
Fi is not a luxury any more, but it seems a kind of
essential supplies, penetrating in each area of our life. Hereby, I am going to go on analyzing
the kind of “disappe
ared” communication where it is intelligent and flexible in Ubiquitous
Computing. Wherein, I’ll use different devices and
concepts of ubiquitous computing to support
my point.


Wi
-
Fi

According to
Weiss and Craiger (2002)
, wireless computing has become a popular way to
“connect computers to a network” in our life. Because of U
-
COM concepts, it allows people to
access network and communication services, avoiding the limit of network cable. Hereby, it is a
new human technolo
gy throughout everywhere
without installing or moving wires. That’s why I
said it is a “disappeared” communication. “Except computer, the kind of device embedded in
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various mobile devices such as Smart phones and PDAs”, SearchNetworking (2004).

Therefore,
It can be better to meet customer needs, connect Internet without constraint of wires, be easy and
fast to install and more cost
-
effective.


Router

WEBOPEDIA (2005), defined router as: a “device” that supports “exchanging
data packages”
between different n
etworks, it normally has Wi
-
Fi function. In this way, users can access the
internet without cable as well; it also can save payment
for a full broadband subscription service
to their

ISP

for each
computer on the network. Based on the different environment (Home, Small
Business or Big company), we can be reasonable to choose it. Thus it makes it possible to release
redundant cable. It is also the way to save money and resources.


Wireless Network Ad
apter

It is another device, “
allows a computing device to join a wireless LAN; Wireless network
adapters contain a built
-
in radio transmitter and receiver.” as defined by Mitchell (2010)
. Due to
the device, it not only fulfills fil
e transferring from serve
r to clients, but also makes other devices
possible to connect router to access internet or transmit data.
Hereby, we can fully ignore the
cable length because we won’t need to buy cable and put it in a proper way anymore.


In a word, Wi
-
Fi is easy to be

accessible and due to concepts and devices above, i
t not only saves
money for applying a bandwidth service, but also
able to access the real
-
time information
. In
addition, it ensures Wi
-
Fi can be used anytime, anywhere, and any
-
ware. That is also the
impo
rtant point because it refers to ubiquitous computing concepts, available everywhere
invisibly and offered services for users.



4.

Conclusion

After going through the arguments and benefit, I can conclude Wi
-
Fi is the kind of disappeared
communication and is

definitely superior to other wireless members by comparing to another
most popular wireless device, Bluetooth. I can say that we can still communicate without
Bluetooth, but we can’t leave Wi
-
Fi.


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Reference:

Baxamusa, B.N., 2010,
wireless vs bluetooth
,
Available from

http://www.buzzle.com/articles/bluetooth
-
mouse
-
vs
-
wireless
-
mouse.html
, [Accessed in 24
th
Nov]


Evers, J., 2002,
why we’re still waiting for Bluetooth
, Avai
lable from

http://www.pcworld.com/article/101942/why_were_still_waiting_for_bluetooth.html
, [Accessed
in 24
th
Nov]


HP, 2006,
Wireless Technology
, [Online], Ava
ilable from
http://h20219.www2.hp.com/Hpsub/downloads/Wireless_Technology.pdf

[Accessed 25th Nov
2010]


Jaehnichen, S., 2010,
computing future
, Available from
http://www.dw
-
world.de/dw/article/0,,6061982,00.html
, [Accessed in 22
nd

Nov]


Malykhina, E., 2007,
wireless technology
, Available from

http://www.informationweek.com/news/hardware/processors/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=19700
4148
, [Accessed in 26
th

Nov]


Martin, J.A., 2002,
bluetooth,vs Wi
-
Fi Technology
, Available from

http://www.pcworld.com/article/103848/mobile_computing_tips_bluetooth_vs_wifi_faq.html
,
[Accessed in 24
th
Nov]


Mason, 2007,
disadvantages of Bluetooth
, A
vailable from
http://mason.gmu.edu/~vneamo/disadvantages.html
, [Accessed in 24
th
Nov]


Mattern, F., 2004,
Wireless Future: Ubiquitous Computing
, [Online], Available from
http://www.vs.inf.ethz.ch/publ/papers/mattern2004_electronica.pdf
, [Accessed 24th Nov 2010]


Mitchell, B., 2010,
wireless adapter function
, Available from
http://compnetworking.about.com/od/wireless/ss/wirelessgear_3.htm
, [Accessed in 22
rd
Nov]


Pacchiano, R.V., 2004,

bluetooth,vs Wi
-
Fi Technology
, Available from

http://www.smallbusinesscomputing.com/webmaster/article.php/3331421/Bluetooth
-
vs
-
Wi
-
Fi
-
Te
chnology.htm
,

[
Accessed in 24
th
Nov]


Riley, M., 1992,
Ubiquitous Computing
, Availa
ble from
http://www.cc.gatech.edu/classes/cs6751_97_fall/projects/say
-
cheese/marcia/mfinal.html
,
[Accessed in 21
st

Nov]


SearchNetworking, 2004,
Wireless
, Available from
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid7_gci759337,00.html
, [Accessed in 24
th

Nov]

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48



Shelly, G.B., Cashman,T.J. and Vermaat M.E.,

2007,
Discovering Computers 2007 : A
GATEWAY TO INFORMATION
. USA, Thomson Course


Shelly, G.B. and Vermaat M.E., 2010,
Discovering Computers 2010: LIVING IN A DIGITAL
WORLD: COMPLETE
. USA, Thomson Course


UBIQUITOUSCOMPUTING, 2006,
Ubiquitous Computing
Importance
, Available from
http://www.rcet.org/ubicomp/what.htm
, [Accessed in 23
rd

Nov]


WEBOPEDIA, 2005,
Router
, Available from
http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Hardware_Software/2005/router.asp
,

[Accessed in 23
rd

Nov]


Weiser, M. 1991,
the Computer for the 21st Century. Scientific American
, Vol. 265 No. 9, pp.
66
-
75


Weiser, M., 1996,
Ubiquitous Computing
, Available from
http://sandbox.xerox.com/ubicomp/
,
[Accessed in 24
th

Nov]


Weiss, R. J. & Craiger, J. P., 2002,
Ubiquitous Computing
, [Online], Available from

http://www.siop.org/tip/backissues/TIPApr02/pdf/394_044to052.pdf
, [Accessed 22rd Nov 2010]













9.1.3

Evaluation Sheet

CE00313
-
3
-
UCOM

Ubiquitous Computing

Research paper Evaluation Sheet

Name

Kang Shuo

Student ID

TP014977

Intake

UC3F1010COM

Index Number

243543


Ubiquitous Group Assignment


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Page
49


Index Number of Paper Marked

045129


Marking Criteria

Max Marks

Actual Marks

Research & Relevance

10


7

Quality of Argument

5


3

Quality,Style & Presentation

5


5

Overall Comment

Good Documentation with Harvard Reference

Not strong reason to support title selected

Insufficient Arguments

For Lecture use























9.2


Hendro Ang Individual Assignment (TP017765)

9.2.1

Research Paper Proposal

Research Paper Proposal

Humanoid Intelligence Services interacting in Human’s
Ubiquitous Group Assignment


Ubiquitous Computing


Group Assignment

Page
50


Environment and Real Life

By

Hendro Ang


Student I.D



: TP017765

Intake




: UC3F1010COM

Module Code and Name

: CE00313
-
3
-
UCOM Ubiquitous Computing

Topic Area



: Intelligence and Meaning in Ubiquitous

Computing


Humanoid Intelligence Services interacting in Human’s
Environment and Real Life

Hendro Ang

Asia Pacific University College of Technology & Innovation

Technology Park Malaysia

Bukit Jalil, 5700 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

November 2010

Abstract

This paper made for the purpose of knowledge and research about the humanoid robots, which
would certainly be an amazing project in the future. This paper discussed only in the theory of
intelligence from the research that has been done so far and the theo
ry is only focused on
knowledge about the research of humanoid intelligence and human robot interaction through
ubiquitous computing and personal service robot.


All the discussion and also knowledge is only based on research done by researchers based on
their knowledge of the situation or system that will be developed later. The approach of this
paper is to present observations, experiences and preparing effective knowledge, skills and
implementation that meet appropriate standards.


Ubiquitous Group Assignment


Ubiquitous Computing