QUEST Discussion Topics Mar 23 - Quest Group's Blog

earthblurtingAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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QUEST Discussion Topics

23 March 2012


We will start with a discussion on prospagnosia


there was a story this week on 60
minutes we want to review and then map the characteristics into our flow diagram of
sys1 and sys2 processing


to include a
discussion on qualia within the sys2
representation.


The information for the story can be found
at

http://www.cbsnews.com/8301
-
18560_162
-
57
399118/face
-
blindness
-
when
-
everyone
-
is
-
a
-
stranger/



There is also a story in the news that we want to cover associated with processing open
source intelligence.



Spies will

no longer have to plant bugs in your home
-

the rise of
'connected' gadgets co
ntrolled by apps will mean that people 'bug' their own homes
,
says CIA director David Petraeus”
-
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article
-
2115871/The
-
CIA
-
wants
-
spy
-
TV
-
Agency
-
director
-
says
-
net
-
connected
-
gadgets
-
transform
-
surveillance.html



The last t
opic is associated with an article from Sci American Mind


Probing the
Unconscious Mind


Christof Koch.


The examples from the article include experiments
on visual masking and accessing unconscious visual information.


References
-

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=probing
-
the
-
unconscious
-
mind


http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Visual_masking


News Articles

1.

Retrofitted F
-
22’s

http://www.foxnews.com/us/2012/03/20/f
-
22
-
fighter
-
jets
-
retrofitted
-
a
fter
-
alaska
-
crash/


Air Force is replacing handles that engage the F
-
22 Raptor fighter jet's
emergency oxygen system after pilots reported feeling lightheaded and the
death of a captain whose $143 million aircraft took a nosedive into a mountain
range in A
laska…report found that the two
-
step process to manually activate the
system required the pilot to pull the green ring up and out of the retaining slot
and then pull it directly forward. The Air Force says the latter move may have the
same force as pulling

a 40
-

or more pound weight…modification makes it easier
for the pilot to access the handle, the military says. The Air Force has ordered
200 handles at a cost of $47 each. They have already been installed in Joint Base
Elmendorf
-
Richardson's 40 F
-
22s…Air
Force's entire fleet was placed on
temporary stand
-
down last summer and an investigation ensued after numerous
pilots reported lightheadedness and other symptoms consistent with not
receiving enough oxygen. The planes were returned to service in mid
-
Septem
ber, but there have been more reports of hypoxia
-
like events



2.

Beyond passwords

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/18/business/seeking
-
ways
-
to
-
make
-
computer
-
passwords
-
unnecessary.html?_r=1&ref=technology


IMAGINE sitting down at your work keyboard, typing in your user name and
starting work right away


no password needed…vision that the

Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency
, part of the Defense Department, wants to
turn into a reality. It will distribute research funds to develop software that
determines, just by the way you type, that you are ind
eed the person you say
you are…Passwords like “6tFcVbNh^TfCvBn” meet the Defense Department’s
definition of “strong,” says

Richard Guidorizzi,

a program manager at Darpa
.
“The problem is, they don’t meet human requirements,” he says. “Humans
aren’t built to understand random connections of characters.”… No biometric
sensors, like thumbprint or iris scanners, would be used. Instead, he is seeking
technology that relies sol
ely on an individual’s distinct behavioral characteristics,
which he calls the cognitive fingerprint…“keystroke dynamics,” including the
length of time a user holds down a given key and moves from one particular key
to another…Motions that we’ve performed
countless times, Professor Maxion
says, are governed by motor control, not deliberate thought. “That is why
successfully mimicking keystroke dynamics is physiologically improbable,” he
says…example: A computer user holds down a key for an average of 100
mi
lliseconds. Suppose that a fraudster is trying to mimic a person who is slightly
faster than average


typically holding the key down for 90 milliseconds. “Then
the spoofer is in the dubious position of having to consciously shorten a key
-
press action by 1
0 milliseconds,” Professor Maxion says. Having such control
doesn’t seem realistic, he says, when one considers that “a voluntary eye
-
blink
takes 275 milliseconds.”… some evidence that a user’s emotional state affects
typing rhythms. But just as people can

recognize a familiar song even if it is
mangled by inept musicians, so, too, he hypothesizes, could software recognize
one’s distinct “core rhythm,” which would be “perceptible even through the
noise of emotion, fatigue or intoxication.” He adds that the
notion of core
rhythm has not been experimentally confirmed…research group has developed
software that analyzes the distinctive pattern of keyboard pressure; it accurately
confirms the claimed identity of a test taker in 99.5 percent of cases…situations
th
at Darpa has in mind would require a system that quickly authenticates the
user, without waiting to collect data on hundreds of keystrokes. But Professor
Tappert says that an intruder’s movement within an internal network would
show telltale irregularities

and that his software would be able to detect
them…CONTINUOUS monitoring of a user’s behavior is an essential element of
Darpa’s requirements. Because of the conventional password
-
based systems
used today, the agency says, there is now no way “to verify t
hat the user
originally authenticated is the user still in control of the keyboard.”… Test
subjects were invited to mimic the keystroke timing of another person they were
observing, and were permitted to practice that person’s 10
-
character password
100 tim
es. He said no one succeeded in mimicking the target…worked on
another behavioral biometric for user verification: mouse dynamics. He explains
that “everyone has an idiosyncratic way of using a mouse, such as the speed with
which you move the cursor across

the screen; the path


straight line, convex or
concave arc; and the presence or absence of jitter.”…


3.

Working memory and wandering minds

http:
//www.telegraph.co.uk/science/9149684/Children
-
whose
-
minds
-
wander
-
have
-
sharper
-
brains.html


study has found that
people who appear to be constantly distracted have more
“working memory”
, giving them the
ability to hold a lot of information in their
heads
and manipulate it mentally…
Children at school need this type of memory
on a daily basis for a variety of tasks, such as following teachers’ instructions or
remembering dictated sentences…
volunteers were asked to perform one of two
simple tasks during which

researchers checked to ask if the participants’ minds
were wandering…
participants measured their working memory capacity by
their ability to remember a series of letters interspersed with simple maths
questions…
those with higher working memory capacity re
ported “more mind
wandering during these simple tasks”, but their performance did not
suffer…
appear to confirm previous research that found
working memory allows
humans to juggle multiple thoughts simultaneously…
“What this study seems to
suggest is that, w
hen circumstances for the task aren’t very
difficult, people who
have additional working memory resources deploy them to think about things
other than what they’re doing.”…

Working memory capacity is also associated
with general measures of intelligence, s
uch as reading comprehension and IQ
scores
, and also offers a window into the widespread, but not well understood,
realm of internally driven thoughts…
“Our results suggest the sorts
of planning

that people do quite often in daily life


when they are on th
e bus, when they
are cycling to work, when they are in the shower


are probably supported by
working memory….


4.

Face recognition and crime solving

http://www.myfoxny.com/dpp/news/local_news/nyc/nypd
-
uses
-
high
-
tech
-
software
-
to
-
capture
-
suspect
-
20120316
-
apx


New York City detectives have used cutting
-
edge
facial recognition software to
capture a man suspected in a shooting at a
barbershop…
bullet grazed the 39
-
year
-
old man's head. He required stitches, but will survive…Police say the man
was beaten and shot on March 10 over a neighborhood dispute as he tried to get
a haircut…The
victim knew the shooter but not his name, pulled up
a Facebook
photo and gave it to police
. Authorities at the Real Time Crime Center
fed the
photo through the system and a match appeared: The suspect's prior mug
shot….
center has a database of mug shots, names and nicknames


5.

Teach your robot

http://www.physorg.com/news/2012
-
03
-
robot
-
georgia
-
tech.html


Within a decade, personal robots could become as common in U.S. homes as
any other major appliance, and many if not most of these
machines will be
able to perform innumerable tasks not explicitly imagined by their
manufacturers. This opens up a wider world of personal robotics, in which
machines are doing anything their owners can program them to do

without
actually being programmers

new study by researchers in Georgia Tech's Center
for Robotics & Intelligent Machines (RIM), who have identified the types of
questions a
robot

can ask during a learning interaction that are most likely t
o
characterize a smooth and productive human
-
robot relationship…questions are
about certain features of tasks, more so than labels of task components or real
-
time demonstrations of the task itself, and the researchers identified them not
by studying robots
, but by studying the everyday (read: non
-
programmer)
people who one day will be their masters. The findings were detailed in the
paper, "Designing Robot Learners that Ask Good Questions,"… "People are not
so good at teaching robots because they don't unde
rstand the robots' learning
mechanism," said lead author Maya Cakmak, Ph.D…study attempted to discover
the role "active learning" concepts play in human
-
robot interaction. In a nutshell,
active learning refers to giving machine learners more control over t
he
information they receive…designed two separate experiments (see video below):
first, she asked human volunteers to assume the role of an inquisitive robot
attempting to learn a simple task by asking questions of a human instructor.
Having identified the

three main question types (feature, label and
demonstration), Cakmak tagged each of the participants' questions as one of the
three. The overwhelming majority (about 82 percent) of questions were feature
queries, showing a clear cognitive preference in hu
man learning for this query
type…Type of question: Example


Label query: "Can I pour salt like this?"


Demonstration query: "Can you show me how to pour salt from here?"


Feature query: "Can I pour salt from any height?"


Next, Cakmak recruited humans to t
each Simon new tasks by answering the
robot's questions and then rating those questions on how "smart" they thought
they were. Feature queries once again were the preferred interrogatory, with 72
percent of participants calling them the smartest questions…
"These findings are
important because they help give us the ability to teach robots the kinds of
questions that humans would ask,"…