LIF IN MCATRONICS: HUMANS AND ROBOTS BCOM ON IN TH HOM

earthblurtingAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

488 views

Conference Session A7

Paper # 3051


University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering


March 7
, 2013

1

LIF
E

IN M
E
CATRONICS: H
UMANS AND ROBOTS B
E
COM
E

ON
E

IN TH
E

HOM
E


Nick Jean
-
Louis, nij16@pitt.edu, 0012, Budny, 4:00pm Ademusoyo Awosika
-
Olumo, ada35@ pitt.edu, 0012, Budny,
4:00pm


Abstract
-
The process of Human
-
Robotic Interaction (HRI)
f
or home and companion usage is a future bound
innovation
that allows humans and robots to work
together

to perform
everyday tasks in the home more efficiently
.
HRI technology
can improve
its user’s quality of life

i
n various ways, such as
enhancing home se
curity through physical recognition
technology, creating interactive homes that have personal
assistants with automatic speech recognition software to
make features of the home more accessible and user
friendly, and designing robots to assist
in social ski
ll
development.
This paper will discuss areas in the household
where HRI can be beneficial, explain the processes behind
HRI needed to make interactions realistic and a

safe.
It will
begin
by
providing a description of the main proces
s
behind
HRI and detailing
how each of the disciplines
all contribute
to HRI development

and involve in sustainability
.

We will

provide

detailed and analyzed research done in the labs as
well as the research involving the impleme
ntation in the
home environme
nt
.

We will
discuss the safety concerns of
the robots in a home environment and what has been done

to
guarantee and ensure safety.


Finally we will
discuss where
the future of HRI for the
home and companionship is
headed
.

T
he benefits and importance of Hum
an Robotic
Interaction for Home and Companionship

for th
e

futur
e

will
also be discussed
. Through this paper, readers will gain a
better understanding of how HRI can be beneficial to our
future as we move further into the era of technology.


K
e
y Words

Comp
ut
e
r
, companionship, hom
e
,

Human
Robot Int
e
raction
,
e
ngin
ee
ring, Mechanical
syst
e
ms
,

M
e
chatronics
,



INTRODUCTION
: HUMANS AND ROBOTS
WORK

TOGETHER




Aft
e
r you wash your hands in th
e

bathroom, you put your
hands und
e
r th
e

dry
e
r to dry th
e
m. Wh
e
n you g
e
t on th
e

Port
Authority bus, you plac
e

a card against th
e

machin
e

to signal
that you hav
e

pai
d
. Wh
e
n you want to s
e
nd a quick t
e
xt
m
e
ssag
e

on your iPhon
e

whil
e

driving, you hold you
r phone
to

talk to Siri to
input
what you want to b
e

s
e
nt in a t
e
xt to a
sp
e
cific p
e
rson.

H
umans

and Robots int
e
ract
e
v
e
ry day to
perform b
asic proc
e
ss
e
s that
allow humans to do simple
tasks
. Robots ar
e

wir
e
d and programm
e
d to
b
e

abl
e

to do
basic

tasks that hav
e

b
ee
n preset
in

th
e

robot’s int
e
rfac
e
.
H
umans us
e

machin
e
s in ord
e
r

to do things fast
e
r and
more
efficient.
Tog
e
th
e
r, humans and robots
int
e
ract to maximiz
e

e
ffici
e
ncy and improv
e

human quality of lif
e
. This meth
o
d is
call
e
d Human Robot Int
e
raction (HRI); th
e

study of th
e

int
e
raction b
e
tw
ee
n humans and robots. HRI
applications ar
e

spr
e
ad into various s
e
ctors

of t
e
chnology

such as
e
nt
e
rtainm
e
nt and
e
ducation;

how
e
v
e
r
,

our focus for th
is

pap
e
r will b
e

th
e

applications
of Human Robotic Int
e
raction
in th
e

hom
e
.


BEHIND THE SCENES: MECHATRONIC
S



Th
e

proc
e
ss b
e
hind
th
e

robotic compon
e
nt of HRI
can b
e

mor
e

simply d
e
scrib
e
d by m
e
chatronics. M
e
chatronics

is an
int
e
rdisciplinary
e
ngin
ee
ring fi
e
ld that r
e
sults in th
e

d
e
sign
and development of
e
l
e
ctrom
e
chanical syst
e
ms. [1] An
e
l
e
ctrom
e
chanical syst
e
m such as a robot would

b
e

abl
e

to
pick up signals from its
e
nvironm
e
nt, proc
e
ss thos
e

signals
to g
e
n
e
rat
e

outputs into various forms of m
otion

and action
s

M
e
chatronics is split into
three

major
e
ngin
ee
ring
disciplin
e
s:
M
e
chanical, Electrical, and
Comput
e
r
E
ngin
ee
ring.


History
of Mechatronics



The term “Mechatronics” was originated in 1969 by
senior engineer Tetsura Mori of Yaskawa Electric
Corporation.

He wanted to create a word that described the
use of electronic features for manufacturing mechanical
equipment, ergo he c
ombined the terms ‘mechanical’ and
‘electronics’ to create ‘mechatronics’
[
1
]
.


The term was based on
mechanical and electronic

components which developed through the years
. During the
1970
s mechatronics was focused on servo technology,
(technology whi
ch uses error
-
sensing negative feedback to
correct the performance of a mechanism.), in which its
implementation supported technology involved with
complex control methods such as automatic doors and
auto
-
focus cameras. By the 1980
s
me
chatronics
incorporated

computer technology and was used to focus on information
technology (technology involving the development,
maintenance, and use of computer systems, software, and
networks for the processing and distribution of data.), in
which microprocessors

were infused into mechanical
systems to improve performance in products such as
transaction machines and telephones
.

Now it is mainly
utilized as a way to inexpensively optimize productivity of
nearly all systems under a time constraint.
[1]


Awosika
-
Olumo

Jean
-
Louis



2

M
E
CHATRONICS:

BR
E
AKING IT DOWN
FURTH
E
R


The main concept
of this
m
e
chatronics
is the integration of
the three different engineering disciplines: mechanical
engineering, electrical engineering and computer
engineering. Each discipline brings a major contribution to
the
table that the other may not or would struggle with. This
creates an effective workspace in which each
discipline
can
focus on what they know and build upon the contribution of
the other in order to create an efficient product.



FIGURE 1



K
e
vin Craig’s
D
e
finition of M
e
chatro
nics
[1]


Mechanical Engineering



As represented in the photo, Mechatronics is composed
of 4 different systems, two of which are within the
mechanical engineering field: control systems and
mechanical systems. Also know together as mechatronics
systems. And as you can see the
diagram
displ
ays how these
systems overlap with computer and electrical engineering
and the ter
ms of these overlaps such as Computer Aided
Design (CAD)

and control electronics. It is at these sections
that the engineers work together but whenever they aren’t
working to
gether mechanical engineers specifically focus on
their own field.


Mechanical Systems is broadly defined as a system of
elements that interac
t on mechanical principles and are
usually paired with Signal Processing.
Signal processing is
the enabling te
chnology for the generation, transformation,
and
interpretation of information. It
comprises the theory,
algorithms, architecture, implementation, and applications
related to processing information
that is

contained in many
different formats broadly design
ated as signals
. [2
]

It deals
more with the external portion of the mechanical
engineering than the internal which is more involved in
control systems. Control systems are defined as
“i
nterconnections of components forming system
configurations which will
provide a desired system response
as time progresses.


[3]

An example of a control system is a
thermostat in a room. We set the thermostat to a certain
temperature and as a result the thermostat controls the
heating and air conditioning units to produce th
e desire
d
o
utput.


Mechanical Engineering products today are made to be
sustainable. Mechanical Engineering concerns itself with
reduced energy consumption and reduced emissions. This
involves being able to have robots operating for an extended
amount
of time with a minimal energy requirement for
usage. As for the emissions, this applies to robots that may
operate on a type of fuel in which the consumption of such
fuel causes a release of an emission. These emissions are
usually harmful to our environme
nt
and reducing the

amount
of emissions released
can save

the

environment from being
destroyed by the
robots that will be advanced in the future
.


Although
m
e
chanical
e
ngin
ee
ring syst
e
ms app
e
ar to b
e

simpl
e
, th
e
y ar
e

mor
e

complex than their functions may
seem to be. Mechatronics systems are deeply rooted in the
integration of
digital control, sensors and

actuators, and
information technology,

in order to make a user friendly
product. Each element of a mechatronics system w
orks in
association with the other in order to make the process more
efficient

and ensure that a system runs well as a whole
.


Digital Control



Digital control is defined as the
use of digital or discrete
technology to maintain conditions in operatin
g systems as
close as possible to desired values despite changes in the
operating environment. Digital control is performed through
the usage of transfer functions which are the relationship
between the inputs into a system and its outputs. There are
three

types

of

systems

i
n which the transfer functions
perform different operations: closed
-
loop systems, forward
-
loop syste
ms a
nd open
-
loops sy
stems. Each of these systems
possesses

a different
relationship between the system
s


input
and output signals.



A
closed loop system uses feedback. The system’s output
from the system is fed back through a controlle
r into the
input of the system.



FIGURE 2

Awosika
-
Olumo

Jean
-
Louis



3



Closed Loop System

[2]



The figure above represents the system processing of
a

thermostat and portrays the input as a set temperature and
the output being sent to the heater/air conditioner and the
output being the resulting room temperature. This resulting
temperature is the negative feedback that gets sent to the
thermostat which
repeats the process until it reaches the set
temperature.


A forward
-
loop system is a part of a controlled system
and its name represents its function in which it moves an
input forward into a
controller.
Usually the loop includes
the uncontrolled s
ystem streamed with the controller.

An
open
-
loop system is a system that supplies no feedback, in
which it is an uncontrolled system. In this loop there is no
‘control loop’ (the process of maintaining a process variable
at a desired set point), connecting

the output of the system to
its input.


Sensors



Sensors are instruments used for monitoring the
performance of machines and processes. Distance,
movement, proximity, stress/strain/force, temperature, and
speed are common classifications of sensors
used in
mechatronic applications.

A sensor will detect a given value
or change in values and convert it from a physical
phenomenon into a proportionally electrical equivalent. This
electrical equivalent is really a conditions signal output that
is then tra
nsformed into a digital form either for display on a
computer or to be sent into a controller

as demonstrated in
figure 3
.


FIGURE
3



Sensor in Feedback Loop

[2]


Actuators



Being able to sense the outside world
is essential to

HRI
technolo
gy. A robot’s ability
to sense human input a
nd send
it through its system

to accomplish the desired task

is
accomplished through the use of an actuator.
An actuator is a
mechanism that activates process control equipment by the
use of electronic signals. T
his is done by its ability to
convert electrical energy into mechanical energy

by
producing

motion or actions such as linear motions (motion
in a straight line) or angular motions. The electronic signals
originate from the signals that the sensor sends thr
ough the
system. The actuator then takes these signals and performs
the action required.


FIGURE 4


Example of a System

[2]



The photo
is an example of a mechatronics system. This
can be a representation of a CD drive where the 1
st

action
taken is the push of the button to open the drive. This push is
sensed by sensor 1 and a signal is sent into the controller.
The controller then derives the action of the actuator which
is the opening of the drive. Of course, one would place or
rem
ove a CD or simply play with the drive for fun but after
said actions the drive will then need to be closed. So the
button is pushed again but this time it is sensed by sensor 2.
Sensor 2 then sends a signal to the controller which then
again derives the a
ction of the actuator resulting in the
closing of the drive.


Design



Although the electronic and software portion of the
product are definitely important, the hardware is just as
important as well. The design of the product must functional
as in it m
ust get the job done. Usually the internal portion of
the product is done first, at which point the mechanical
Awosika
-
Olumo

Jean
-
Louis



4

engineers design the

shell and hardware of the

product from
an inside
-
out

point of view.



Electrical Engineering


Electrical engineering deals
with the implementation of
electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism in a given
system. In HRI technology, robots are wired through circuits
and electromagnetism in order for the robot to receive the
signals from the software processes of the robot in
teraction
with humans and the mechanical responses that will result in
those processes.


Electrical Engineering throughout a robotic
system bridges the gap between the Mechani
cal Processes
and the software th
e

systems us
e
s.


Computer Engineering


Comput
er

E
ngin
ee
ring int
e
grat
e
s
e
l
e
ctrical
e
ngin
ee
ring and
comput
e
r sci
e
nc
e

to d
e
v
e
lop hardwar
e

and softwar
e
. It
provides

th
e

groundwork

in allowing th
e

actions r
e
sulting in
th
e

stimuli around a robot

to b
e

proc
e
ss
e
d by th
e

cod
e
d
information. Comput
e
r
E
ngin
ee
ring
is th
e

brain b
e
hind th
e

robot and is constantly advancing to advanc
e

th
e

way robots,
proc
e
ss and r
e
spond to int
e
ractions b
e
tw
ee
n humans.



Software Engineering



S
oftwar
e

engineering i
nvolv
e
s th
e

d
e
sign, d
e
v
e
lopm
e
nt,
pr
o
cess, and conserva
t
ion of
softwar
e
.

[3
]


A software
system consists of executable computer code and the
supporting documents needed to manufacture, use, and
maintain the code. For example, a word processing system
consists of an executable program (the word processor), user
manuals
, and the documents, such as requirements and
designs, needed to produce the executable program and
manuals.
”[3]

Through th
e

application of softwar
e

e
ngin
ee
ring in m
e
chatronics, th
e

proc
e
ss
e
s and algorithms
ar
e

coded,
transcrib
e
d and
e
ncry
p
ted

into the
rob
ot

to allow
th
e

syst
e
m

to

s
e
ns
e
, d
e
ciph
e
r, proc
e
ss, and
p
er
form

a

s
e
t

of

functions and tasks that
th
e

robotic sci
e
ntists
would lik
e

to
take
plac
e

while

humans ar
e

int
e
racting with the robot
.

Th
e

softwar
e

b
e
ing d
e
v
e
lop
e
d has to b
e

adaptabl
e

as w
e
ll as
autonomous so that th
e

robot is abl
e

to adapt without
n
ee
ding to b
e

r
e
s
e
t.

Each robot
is
implemented with

a

set of
processes that allow the robot to perform the tasks that it has
been designed and created to do.



Systems Engineering



Syst
e
ms
e
ngin
ee
ring

implements computer engineering
by

focus
ing
on
th
e

ov
e
rvi
e
w of a syst
e
m
and
e
nsuring that a
syst
e
m is running w
e
ll and up to dat
e
.

[4]

“S
ystems
engineering was first applied to the organization of
commercial telephone systems in the 1920s and '30s. Ma
ny
systems
-
engineering techniques were developed during
World War II in an effort to deploy military equipment more
efficiently. Postwar growth in the field was spurred by
advances in electronic systems and by the development of
computers and information t
heory

[
4
]
. Systems engineering
usually involves incorporating new technology into
complex, man
-
made systems, in which a change in one part
affects many others. One tool used by systems engineers is
the flowchart, which shows the system in graphic form, wit
h
geometric figures representing various subsystems and
arrows representing their interactions. Other tools include
mathematical models, probability theory, statistical analysis,
and computer simulations.

It

involv
e
s th
e

controlling of a
syst
e
m from

th
e

m
e
chanics to th
e

e
l
e
ctrics in ord
e
r
to mak
e

sur
e

all ar
e
as of th
e

syst
e
m control and communicat
e

e
ff
e
ctiv
e
ly

to
e
stablish long
-
t
erm int
e
raction b
e
tw
ee
n
humans and robots
.



Systems engineering explores alternative forms that can
be used to power a system such as us using solar power or
energy efficient lights to power a system and increase its
sustainability. With this, the amount of energy needed to
power a system will
be less harm
ful to the environment and
reduce the energy costs within the home.

Through th
e

application of syst
e
ms
e
ngin
ee
ring to m
e
chatronics,

th
e

r
e
liability and
e
ffici
e
ncy of a robot will b
e

vi
e
w
e
d to mak
e

sur
e

a syst
e
m will b
e

us
e
d for as long as possi
bl
e

without
losing
p
roduc
t
ivity and r
e
liability.


THE TEAM COMES TOGETHER



Throughout the process of creating this product the
various engineers come together to map out how their
different portions will agree with each other.
If this wasn’t
done, the attempt to piece together the product would have
the same result as making a building with blocks from
different companies.


These meetings are represented

by the overlaps in
FIGURE 1: mechanical CAD, electro
-
mechanics, digita
l
control systems and control electronics. Mechanical CAD

(Computer
-
Aided Design) is a high speed program that
allows objects to be created using real world characteristics
and displays its functions as if it were already built.
Computer and mechanical eng
ineers use CAD as a way to
view how the mechanics behind the hardwar
e of the product
will function before it is built in order to reduce error and
cost in the design of the product.
As computer engineers and
mechanical interact so do the other engineers, w
hich makes
work more effective and efficient than if one set of engineers
were to work on their own.



RESEARCH
:
HOW CAN THIS WORK?




Although w
e

s
ee

impl
e
m
e
ntation of human robotic
int
e
raction in
e
v
e
ryday lif
e
,

for instance

subway tick
e
t
stations, moti
on hand dry
e
r machin
e
s
,

and touch scr
ee
n
d
e
vic
e
s, much r
e
s
e
arch still n
ee
ds to b
e

don
e

in ord
e
r to
und
e
rstand how humans and robots can prop
e
rly int
e
ract and
Awosika
-
Olumo

Jean
-
Louis



5

b
e

tak
e
n

from common public

s
e
ttings

to privat
e

s
e
ttings
lik
e

th
e

hom
e
.
Important things to consid
e
r in ord
e
r to mak
e

thing
s
possibl
e

is th
e

e
ff
e
ctiv
e
n
e
ss
e
as
e

of th
e

communication b
e
tw
ee
n robots and humans, th
e

robot’s
r
e
spons
e
s to human mov
e
m
e
nt, and its visual app
e
al.


Communication is Key



A k
e
y factor for humans and robots to int
e
ract
e
ffectiv
e
ly
with
e
ach oth
e
r is for th
e

robot to hav
e

a r
e
liabl
e

dialogue
syst
e
m. [5] Communication involv
e
s th
e

ability for humans
to
e
xpr
e
ss th
e
i
r
d
e
sir
e
s, f
ee
lings, or con
c
erns in a way that
can facilitat
e

som
e

sort of f
ee
dback for an action to tak
e

plac
e
. Not on
ly do
e
s th
e

communication syst
e
m n
ee
d to b
e

availabl
e

and

e
ffici
e
n
t,
it n
ee
ds to b
e

adaptabl
e

and hav
e

th
e

capabilities to
p
e
rform

th
e

many tas
ks that
ar
e

n
ee
d
e
d for th
e

day, just as humans hav
e

th
e

cap
a
bility too. Th
e

dialogu
e

that go
e
s into a robot n
ee
ds

to b
e

cyph
e
r
e
d and cod
e
d in a
way that th
e

robot will b
e

abl
e

to und
e
rstand and r
e
spond to
it accordingly.

An example of this would be telling Siri to
remind you of an important task and Siri encoding it and
reminding you of it when the time comes.

Human
s and
Robots tog
e
th
e
r must work on succ
e
ssfully d
e
v
e
loping a
form of communication that will allow tasks to b
e

compl
e
t
e
d
in th
e

hom
e

s
uc
c
essf
u
lly.


Motions Sensors



Wh
e
n wanting to
e
xpr
e
ss wh
e
r
e

an obj
e
ct is, it is
e
asi
e
r to
point at an obj
e
ct th
an
it is to
v
e
rbally
e
xplain wh
e
r
e

th
e

obj
e
ct is. B
e
caus
e

of this
,

r
e
s
e
arch
e
rs

sugg
e
st th
e

inclusion
of a vision bas
e
d int
e
rfac
e

that allo
ws p
e
opl
e

to instruct
robots via g
e
stur
e
s. [6] Pr
e
viously, robots w
e
r
e

e
ncod
e
d
with th
e

ability t
o

r
e
spon
d

to static arm g
e
stur
e
s, but now
r
e
s
e
arch is b
e
ing impl
e
m
e
nt
e
d for robots to b
e

abl
e

to
r
e
spond to motion g
e
stur
e
s as w
e
ll.
In ord
e
r for motion
g
e
stur
e

d
e
t
e
ction to

b
e

e
ff
e
ctiv
e
; robots must b
e

e
quipp
e
d
with a visual syst
e
m that is small
e
nough to fit on t
h
e

robot
that also

contains a
big enough proc
e
ssor to s
e
ns
e
, r
e
spond,
and adapt to th
e

diff
e
r
e
nt light chang
e
s whil
e

moving

around
an ar
e
a
.

For example, when playing Xbox Kinect Dance
Central, the machine picks up your motions and responds to
them by deciphering weather your movement was correct or
incorrect from what was displayed on the screen.
This form
of t
e
chnology
e
quipp
e
d to th
e

robots

will allow humans and
robots to
int
e
ract almost
as naturally as human to human
int
e
raction.


FIGURE
5


R
e
s
e
arch at MIT involving a robots r
e
spons
e

to th
e

g
e
stur
e
s
mad
e

by human
s
.

[7
]


Visual Appeal



An important factor to consider is th
e

visual look of th
e

robots. Aft
e
r conducting a r
e
s
e
arch study amongst 28 adults,
it was conclud
e
d that p
e
opl
e

pr
e
f
e
r a robot to look in a way
that r
e
pr
e
s
e
nts th
e

robots sp
e
cific tasks.

Th
e

adults
e
xplain
e
d
that if th
e
y had a

robot
that performed
mor
e

s
e
rio
us tasks

rel
ated to

caring

for an
e
l
d
erly

person, the robot

should look
mor
e

s
e
rious than a robot
b
e
ing us
e
d
for
e
nt
e
rtainm
e
nt
within th
e

hom
e

[8
]
.

Th
e

d
e
sign of th
e

robot is important in
order to
mak
e

sur
e

that th
e

robot is aesthetically pl
e
asing so
that
humans would b
e

mor
e

motivat
e
d

to int
e
ract with

th
e

robot

th
an th
e
y would if th
e

robot was not

as visually
app
e
aling. At th
e

sam
e

ti
me
, it is also important to mak
e

sur
e

that th
e

robot can still function to its maximum ability.
With th
e

und
e
rstanding of th
e

psychology of th
e

human
mind and th
e

t
e
chnical skills
possessed by engineers
,
d
e
signing a robot that is
e
ff
e
ctiv
e

and app
e
aling is a m
u
st to
incr
e
as
e

th
e

popularity of having robots in th
e

hom
e
.


PUTTING OUR ID
E
AS INTO ACTION



Th
e

communication syst
e
m, motion d
e
t
e
ction, and visual
app
e
al ar
e

all important factors in d
e
v
e
loping HRI
t
e
chnology for hom
e

usag
e
. Although HRI is a n
e
w fi
e
ld of
study

and much r
e
s
e
arch n
ee
ds to b
e

don
e

in th
e

labs,
articl
e
s
hav
e

shown

som
e

mild impl
e
m
e
ntation in th
e

hom
e
.
Wh
e
th
e
r it is a small r
e
lativ
e
ly basic d
e
vic
e

or a larg
e

advanc
e
d d
e
vic
e
, HRI is making its way into hous
e
holds.


Roomba



In 1990, thr
ee

stud
e
nts from MIT cr
e
at
e
d a program
call
e
d iRobot. iRobot d
e
v
e
lops Robots that ar
e

impl
e
m
e
nt
e
d
in th
e

gov
e
rnm
e
nt as w
e
ll as at hom
e
. In 2002, iRobot
d
e
v
e
lop
e
d
Roomba; a robotic devic
e

that cl
e
ans th
e

hous
e
.
Roomba i
s autonomous m
e
aning
e
v
e
ryday it d
e
cod
e
s and
d
e
ciph
e
rs th
e

n
e
w obstacl
e
s that ar
e

pr
e
s
e
nt
e
d ev
e
ry day for
it to cl
e
an without any r
e
s
e
t of th
e

data. Robots lik
e

Roomba
can work to giv
e

humans back tim
e

to do oth
e
r things
Awosika
-
Olumo

Jean
-
Louis



6

throughout th
e

day.
Although iRobot b
e
li
e
v
e
s that in th
e

n
e
ar
-
futur
e

robot intelligence and human intelligence won’t
b
e

on th
e

sam
e

l
e
v
e
l, som
e
day
, robots will b
e
com
e

mor
e

and
mor
e

autonomous and humans and robots will int
e
ract mor
e

e
ffici
e
ntly. [9]



FIGURE
6


iRobot Roomba

[9]


W
eight Loss Coach



A study conduct
e
d in th
e

MIT m
e
dia lab involv
e
d
e
ncouraging w
e
ight loss by th
e

us
e

of

s
e
v
e
nt
ee
n

robots to
e
xplor
e

long
-
t
e
rm HRI. Th
e

study found that important
factors for long
-
t
e
rm HRI ar
e

th
e

amount of
e
ngag
e
m
e
nt by
th
e

us
e
r, th
e

trust th
e

us
e
r has
in
th
e

system, and th
e

motivation th
e

us
e
r has to us
e

th
e

syst
e
m.

[10]

T
h
e

study
r
e
sults show
e
d that th
e

b
e
caus
e

of th
e

w
e
ight loss robot,
us
e
rs w
e
r
e

mor
e

willing to los
e

w
e
ight

and b
e

on a w
e
ight
loss
program

as oppos
e
d to using any oth
e
r form of w
e
ight
loss program.
This study show
e
d that th
e

robot’s ability to
guid
e

and dir
e
ct th
e

us
e
r
e
ncourag
e
d us
e

it and show
e
d that

with th
e

right
design, reliability and software, Robots

can b
e

impl
e
m
e
nt
e
d throughout oth
e
r ar
e
as of th
e

hom
e

or as
companions

for long p
e
riods of tim
e
. [10]


The Care
-
O
-
Bot 3



Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and
Automation IPA

cr
e
at
e
d a robot that
puts it
e
ms
within a
hous
e

back into
its d
e
signat
e
d

plac
e
. This Car
e
-
O
-
bot’s
st
e
r
e
o
-
vision color cam
e
ras, las
e
r scann
e
rs, and a 3
-
D rang
e

cam
e
ra allow it to r
e
gist
e
r its surroundings and proc
e
ss th
e

action n
ee
d
e
d to
put
e
v
e
rything in ord
e
r. Th
e

Car
e
-
O
-
bot
tak
e
s t
e
chnology on
e

st
e
p furth
e
r and
r
e
cogniz
e
s and
proc
e
ss
e
s n
e
w
obj
e
ct
s that it has not s
ee
n
b
e
for
e

by picking
up

th
e

obj
e
ct and constructing its own analysis

what th
e

obj
e
ct is

to and wh
e
r
e

it b
e
longs.
[11]
Th
e

Car
e
-
O
-
bot
d
e
monstrat
e
s th
e

important asp
e
cts of HRI t
e
chnology for
th
e

hom
e

and shows that HRI in th
e

hom
e

is possibl
e

can be

don
e
.


WHAT ABOUT
SAF
E
TY
?



As engineers we have a duty to ensure the safety of
humanity. Any product that is made must guarantee that no
life wil
l be harmed. Prototypes of all products must go
through a trial of safety experiments before being produced.
The same rules apply for mechanisms, designed for direct
H.R.I., that have potential to harm a person or people.


At the moment we have small
implementations of H.R.I
in places like hospitals where robots distribute the meals and
robots that clean floors. Yet our main goal is to allow
humans and robots to interact in
th
e

hom
e

as on
e

unit
.


Safety Concerns



For humans to be able to interact within the same
workspace as robots, three safety requirements must be met.


“A human
-
friendly robot must be controlled in such
a way that humans and robots are able to safely
share a common workplace
.


[
1
2
]


In a fa
ctory, robots have complete disregard of human
presence and will continue to operate until turned off. If a
person was to come within a dangerous range of an
operating robot
,

the rob
ot would no
t be able to sense that the
human was there and continue to ope
rate. A robot with such
capabilities cannot be placed in the home.
This r
e
sults in th
e

poor
perception of the robot

b
e
ing a saf
e
ty hazard

for
humans
. Will
robots

be able to sense when a human is
within its range? What happens when
robots recogniz
e

that a
h
uman is
with
in its vicinity?


“The bandwidth of operation by a human
-
friendly
robot must be restricted to allow a human operator
to fully understand and predict the motion of the
robot.” [
1
2
]



Part of avoiding an accident comes from knowledge of
when an accident can occur. If
the human completely
understand

the scope of the robots abilities and when a
collision can occur
,
then it can

most lik
e
ly

be avoided. This
is especially necessary
for
robots to
b
e

able

interrelate

with
humans

in the home. The actions of the robot must remain
simple and predictable. Is it possible to simplify the actions
so much as to make them predictable but still complex
enough to perform a wide variety of commands?


“The collision of a human
-
friendly robot with a
stationary person must not result in any serious
injury to the person.” [
1
2
]



In the event of an accident injuries must remain minimal
as to not cause a person to be sent
the

hospital.
A
robot must
be ab
le to anticipate when a coll
ision cannot be avoided or
be abl
e

to reduce
the impact of a collision. Also, th
e

chance
of large collision must remain minimal because many homes
Awosika
-
Olumo

Jean
-
Louis



7

contain more than just adults who may be able to with
stand a
large collision. So
the

qu
e
stion r
e
mains: can a
robot be
designed to keep from seriously harming a child?



Steps to Improvement



Several solutions have been implemented to improve the
safety of humans interacting with robots. Robots are now
infused with visual sensors,

lasers and ultrasonic
h
e
aring
giving them the ability to sense their surroundings. Although
this is an improvement
,
safety

is still not 100% guaranteed.
T
o increase safety
,

the user must have full co
ntrol of the
robots actions. This
will
allow humans to
b
e

able to predict
the outcomes of the commands that were
input
t
ed

into the
system. It gives

the user the same control as

driving a
vehicle. The vehicle will make no movements that
were not
inputted by the driver
making the motion of the vehicle
predictabl
e and understandable.

[12]


A more reliable solution

is to allow the safety core of the
robot to make decisions on the commands that are inputted.

It is therefore necessary for the safety core to be able to
classify actuator commands as safe or unsafe
. Safe actuator
commands should be passed through to the robot while
unsafe commands must be rejected.
” [12]

This safety core
will be able to keep the robot from perform
ing

an unsafe
command and thus prevent the user from harming him or
herself.


HRI AND T
HE FUTURE



HRI technology is still a relatively new and fast
developing

fi
e
ld
.

B
e
caus
e

HRI is a v
e
ry int
e
rdisciplinary
fi
e
ld, s
e
v
e
ral
e
xp
e
rts in various sp
e
cialtie
s

ar
e

n
ee
d
e
d in
ord
e
r to cr
e
at
e

th
e

id
e
al robot
that can b
e

impl
e
m
e
nt
e
d in th
e

hom
e
.
Much is l
e
ft to b
e

discov
e
r
e
d about th
e

proc
e
ss
e
s
b
e
hind th
e

human brain and how to translat
e

thos
e

proc
e
ss
e
s
into a robot to
e
nsur
e

e
ff
e
ctiv
e

Human Robot int
e
raction.

Many of
these processes include social

and physical
interaction,
emotional feedback,
memory processing and
adaptation.

In addition researchers need to take in account
alternative sources to power the robots and increase
sustainability in the home to allow long lasting use with
minimal need for addition
al

energy

while still maximizing
the p
roductivity
.

Robotics Sci
e
ntists ar
e

working towards
f
inding ways for robots to perform more actions in the
current one in a

b
e
tt
e
r

manner
. It is uncl
e
ar how fast robots
will b
e

abl
e

to proc
e
ss th
e

sam
e

way humans do without
th
e
r
e

b
e
ing a sort of lag b
e
tw
e
e
n th
e

proc
e
ss
e
s
,

but r
e
s
e
arch
is continuously b
e
ing don
e

to
e
nabl
e

robots and humans to
int
e
ract mor
e

e
ffici
e
ntly.

The future for H.R.I
involves

complete robot involvement in our daily

lives. Such
involvement does not

necessarily mean robot domination
,
but rather the

involvement in places where they can aid
humans

in performing tasks quickly and efficiently
.


As supporters of H.R.I
,

we hope that robots will be able
to aid in search and rescue missions, national security,
education and healthcare
.


B
as
e
d on our r
e
s
e
arch findings, it
is our hope that

in th
e

futur
e

th
e

incorporation

of robots into
the home and will

make life ar
ound the house
easier by
increasing

efficiency and productivity in the home. As
engineers, we are always trying to find ways to
discover,
improve, and implement new technology into the human
lifestyle and as HRI has already been applied to several
places such as the subways, the buses and bathrooms, the
next step is have them implemented

in full force around the
home.


REFERENCES


[1]
Brown, Alan S. “Mechatronics News, Conferences and
Careers.”

Mechatronics News, Conferences and Careers
.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, n.d. Web.


[2
] IEEE Tunisia SPS Chapter “About Us” N.p.,n.d Web



[3
]

"ACM HomeJoin | Renew | Subscribe."

Computing
Degrees & Careers » Software Engineering
. N.p., n.d.
Web. 06 Mar. 2013.


[4
] Abran, Alain, and James W. Moore.

Guide to the
Software Engineering Body of Knowledge
. Los Alamitos,
CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2004. Print.


[5] Fong, Terrence, Charles Thorpe, and Charles Baur.
"Collaboration, Dialogue, Human
-
Robot
Interaction."

Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics
. Vol. 6.
N.p.: n.p., 2003. 255
-
66. Print.


[6] Romero, Roseli, and Sebastian Thrun. "A Gesture Based
Interface fo
r Human
-
Robot Interaction."

Autonomous
Robots.

By Stefan Waldher. Vol. 9. [Dordrecht]: Kluwer
Academic., n.d. 151
-
73. Print.


[7] "Human
-
Robot Dynamic Social Interaction."

NTT
-
MIT:
NTT9904
-
01 Human
-
Robot Dynamic Social Interaction
.
N.p., n.d.

Web. 06 Mar. 2013.


[
8
]
Dautenhahn, Kerstin, Sarah Woods, Christina Kaouri,
Michael L. L. Walters, Kheng Lee Koay, and Iain Werry.
(2005) “What Is a Robot Companion


Friend, Assistant or
Butler?*.” N.p., n.d. Web


[9]
Nusca, Andrew. "Predicting the Futur
e of
Robotics."

SmartPlanet
. N.p., 24 Feb. 2011. Web. 06 Mar.
2013.


[10] Kidd, Cory D., and Cynthia Breazeal. "Robots at
Home: Understanding Long
-
Term Human
-
Robot
Interaction." (2008): n. pag. Print.


Awosika
-
Olumo

Jean
-
Louis



8

[11] "New Generation Of

Home Robots Have Gentle
Touch."

ScienceDaily
. ScienceDaily, 14 July 2008. Web. 07
Mar. 2013.


[
1
2
]
Heinzmann, Jochen, and Alexander Zelinsky. (2003)
"Quantitative Safety Guarantees for Physical Human
-
Robot
Interaction."



ADDITIONAL SOURCES


(2004)
“Introduction to Mechatronics.” N.p., n.d Web


Popovchenko M. (2006) “Introduction to Mechatronics and
Mechatronics in Real Life.” Np., n.d Web.


Robins, B., K. Dautenhahn, R. Te Boekhorst, and A. Billard.
(2005) "Robotic Assistants in Therapy and Educatio
n of
Children with Autism: Can a Small Humanoid Robot Help
Encourage Social Interaction Skills?" N.p., n.d. Web


S. Brown A. (2011) “Mechatronics and the Role of
Engineers.”
ASME

N.p., n.d Web.


Stiefelhagen, R., C. Fugen, P. Gieselmann, H. Holzapfel, K.
Nickel, and A. Waibel. (2004) "Natural Human
-
Robot
Interaction Using Speech, Head Pose and Gestures." N.p.,
n.d. Web.



ACKNOWL
E
DG
E
M
E
NTS


W
e

would lik
e

to thank our Co
-
Chair Brian D
e
Will
e

for
h
e
lping us through th
e

proc
e
ss of writing our
pap
e
r
as w
e
ll
as our writing instructor for providing
f
ee
dback
e
v
e
ry st
e
p of
th
e

way
. W
e

would also lik
e

to thank our Dr. Budny for
cr
e
ating this id
e
a for us as fr
e
shm
e
n to discov
e
r r
e
al world
e
ngin
ee
ring issu
e
s

and thus

aiding

us to discov
e
r what our
tru
e

int
e
r
e
sts
ar
e
. Last but not l
e
ast, w
e

would lik
e

to thank
our par
e
nts for giving us th
e

opportunity to go to a
n amazing
school lik
e

th
e

Univ
e
rsity of Pittsburgh and our fri
e
nds h
e
r
e

for always giving us constant support.












4