Humanoid Robotics final report - prateek h lal's blog

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Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Humanoid robotics


Shep
h
erd school of Engg&

Technology


Seminar Report

On



HUMANOID ROBOTICS
"

Submitted To:





Submitted By:

Er.ArunShukla





Prateek

H
oor
i
L
al

(10BTCSE004)








J
itendra

S
hamual

(10BTCSE011)








Lal

B
ahadur

Y
adav

(10BTCSE
05
5)

Humanoid robotics


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


We extend my sincere gratitude towards

Er.
Arun

Shukla

for giving us his
invaluable knowledge and wonderful technical guidance


I express my thanks to
all staff members

of the
computer science & IT

department for their kind co
-
operation and guidance.


I also thank all the
other faculty members
of
CS&IT

department and
my
friends

for their endless help and support.




Submitted By:
-

Prateek

H
oori

L
al

(10BTCSE004)


J
itendra

S
hamual

(10BTCSE011)


Lal

B
ahadur

Y
adav

(10BTCSE055)








Humanoid robotics


ABSTRACT

The field of humanoids robotics is widely recognized as the current challenge for
robotics research .The humanoid research is an approach to understand and
realize the complex
real world interactions between a robot, an environment, and
a human. The humanoid robotics motivates social interactions such as gesture
communication or co
-
operative tasks in the same context as the physical dynamics.
This is essential for three
-
term int
eraction, which aims at fusing physical and
social interaction at fundamental levels.

People naturally express themselves through facial gestures and expressions.
Our goal is to build a facial gesture human
-
computer interface for use in robot
applications.

ROBOT
---
Mechatronic device consists of Brain (computer) and sensors

and mechanical parts. There are four laws to be followed for
Roboimplimentation

Robots predict like Human by applying ARRTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
concept to them.

Then they can think like Hu
mans that is they acquire SIXTH SENSE.

RISE OF MACHINES that is ROBOT has undergone four types of step by step
Generation.

Robot is a combination of many systems such as Controller, Mobility, Sensor
etc…

The robot Hands are moved using the MATRIX Transform
ation techniques.

Robots have advantage over many fields such as medical, space, agriculture
etc…

There are some dangerous things may happen by robots when they do dangerous
jobs.

Humanoid robotics


1:Introduction


A

humanoid robot

is a

robot

with its body shape built to resemble that of
the

human body
. A humanoid design might be for functional purposes, such

as
interacting with human tools and environments, for experimental purposes, such as
the study of bipedal locomotion, or for other purposes. In general, humanoid robots
have a torso, a head, two arms, and two legs, though some forms of humanoid
robots may

model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up. Some
humanoid robots may also have heads designed to replicate human facial features
such as eyes and mouths.

An
droids

are humanoid robots built to aesthetically
resemble humans.
In Japan, important humanoid projects, started in the last
decade, have been carried on by the Waseda University and by Honda Motor Co.

The Humanoid Project of the Waseda University, started

in 1992, is a joint
project of industry, government and academia, aiming at developing robots which
support humans in the field of health care and industry during their life and that
share with human information and behavioral space, so that particular at
tention
have been posed to the problem of human
-
computer interaction. Within the
Humanoid Project, the Waseda University developed three humanoid robots, as
research platforms, namely Hadaly 2,Wabian and Wendy.Impressive results have
been also obtained by
Honda Motor Co. Ltd with P2 and P3, self
-
contained
humanoid robots with two arms and two legs, able to walk, to turn while walking,
to climb up and down stairs. These laboratories on their humanoid robots carry
on studies on human
-
robot interaction, on hum
an
-
like movements and behavior
and on brain mechanics of human cognition and sensory
-
motor learning
.

Humanoid robotics



2:laws of robotics

Asimov proposed the “Laws of Robotics”




Law 1
: A robot may not injure a human being or
through inaction, allow a human being to come
to harm




Law 2
: A robot must obey orders given to it by human
beings, except where such orders would conflict with a
higher order law




Law 3
: A robot must protect its own existence as long as
such protection does not conflict with a higher order law



Zeroth

Law
: "A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow
humanity to come to harm"


Humanoid robotics


3:why humanoid??




Anthropomorphism



Humans have built complex environments, tools and equipment's very
much adapted to our selves.




Robots with human
-
like morphology and motion capabilities have a
greater potential acting in living environments created for humans,
than e.g. wheeled robots.



Embodiment



The form of our
bodies is critical to the
representations that we
develop and use for

both our internal thought and our language.




If we are to build a robot with human like intelligence then it must
have a human like
body in order to be able to develop similar
sorts of
representations.



Important aspects of being human are
interaction and
communication with
other
humans.



Humanoids can
communicate in a manner that
supports the natural
communication modalities of humans. Examples include: facial
expression, body posture, gesture, gaze direction, and voice.




If a robot has humanoid form, then
it will be both easy and natural for
humans to
interact with it in a humanlike
way.

Humanoid robotics


4
:history

The idea of a robot is not new. For thousands of years man has been imagining
intelligent mechanized devices that perform human
-
like tasks. He has built
automatic

toys and mechanisms and imagined robots in drawings, books, plays and
science fiction movies


What is the definition of a 'robot'?

"A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material,
parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the
performance of a variety of tasks" Robot Institute of America, 1979

Where did the word 'robot' come f
rom?

In fact, the term "robot" was first used in 1920 in a play called "R.U.R." Or
"Rossum's universal robots" by the Czech writer Karel Capek. The plot was
simple: man makes robot then robot kills man! Many movies that followed
continued to show robots a
s harmful, menacing machines
.

Robotics Terminology

Robot

-

Mechanical device that performs human tasks, either automatically or by
remote control. (From the Czech word robota.)

Humanoid robotics


Robotics

-

Study and application of robot technology.

Telerobotics

-

Robot that is operated remotely.

After year of evolution of robots and there continuous changing forms
,we have
come to humanoid robotics .


Humanoid Evolution

Humanoid robotics


5
:purpose


Humanoid robots are used as a research tool in several scientific area.

Researchers need to understand the human body structure and behavior
(biomechanics) to build and study humanoid robots. On the other side, the attempt
to the simulation of the human body leads to a better understanding of it.

Human cognition is a field of
study which is focused on how humans learn from
sensory information in order to acquire perceptual and motor skills. This
knowledge is used to develop computational models of human behavior and it has
been improving over time.

It has been suggested that ve
ry advanced robotics will facilitate the enhancement
of ordinary humans. See

transhumanism
.

Although the initial aim of humanoid research was to build
better

orthosis

and

prosthesis

for human beings, knowledge has been transferred
between both disciplines. A few examples are: powered leg prost
hesis for
neuromuscularly impaired, ankle
-
foot orthosis, biological realistic leg prosthesis
and forearm prosthesis.

Besides the research, humanoid robots are being developed to perform human
tasks like personal assistance, where they should be able to ass
ist the sick and
elderly, and dirty or dangerous jobs. Regular jobs like being a receptionist or a
worker of an automotive manufacturing line are also suitable for humanoids. In
essence, since they can use tools and operate equipment and vehicles designed
for
Humanoid robotics


the human form, humanoids could theoretically perform any task a human being
can, so long as they have the proper

software
. However, the complexity of doing so
is deceptively great.

Th
ey are becoming increasingly popular for providing entertainment too. For
example, Ursula, a female robot, sings, play music, dances, and speaks to her
audiences at Universal Studios. Several Disney attractions employ the use of
animatrons, robots that loo
k, move, and speak much like human beings, in some of
their theme park shows. These animatrons look so realistic that it can be hard to
decipher from a distance whether or not they are actually human. Although they
have a realistic look, they have no cogni
tion or physical autonomy. Various
humanoid robots and their possible applications in daily life are featured in an
independent documentary film called

Plug & Pray
, which was
released in 2010.

Humanoid robots, especially with

artificial intelligence

algorithms
, c
ould be useful
for future dangerous and/or distant

space exploration

missions
, without having th
e
need to turn back around again and return to

Earth

once the mission is completed.

There are many which robot can do when it is hardaous for man like


Fire Fighting and Disaster Relief ::

Robot
s, which can move, climb a ladder and lift or transfer human beings
and objects would be very useful in relieving humans of dangerous tasks such as
fire fighting. Robots could enter areas closed to human beings because of
poisonous gas discharges during ea
rthquakes, storms, floods, and forest fires. They
could also be used in remote controlled searches for missing people, and remote
surveillance of disaster conditions.




Space Exploration ::


Space exploration and space research offer a wide field of application for
robots. Robots could be of help in assembling structures in outer space and in the
operation of outer space factories. Robots can maintain and service thousands of
man
-
made celestia
l bodies already orbiting the earth. Planetary exploration
becomes an easy task when robots are sent to other planets. The Russians had sent
a self
-
propelled mobile robot called
Lunakhod

to the moon. This robot explored the
surface of the moon, took lunar
-
earth samples, subjected them to chemical and X
-
ray analysis and sent the results of the experiments to Earth. The Voyager II
Humanoid robotics


mission of USA was successful partly because of the two on
-
board robots that
were helping with various operations of the mission.

Etc…

6
:component of a humanoid



Robots are comprised of several systems working together as a

whole. The type of job the robot does dictates what system elements it needs. The

general categories of robot systems are:




Controller

The controller is the
robot's brain and controls the robot's

movements. It's usually a computer of some type which is used to store
information

about the robot and the work environment and to store and execute programs

which operate the robot.The control system contains program
s, data algorithms,
logic analysis and various other processing activities which enable the robot to
perform.


Microcontroller

Humanoid robotics




Sensors


A

sensor

is a device that measures some attribute of

the world. Being one of the
three primitives of robotics (besides planning and control), sensing plays an
important role in

robotic paradigms
.

Sensors can be classified
according to the physical process with which they work
or according to the type of measurement information that they give as output. In
this case, the second approach was used.



Proprioceptive Sensors

Gyroskope ADXRS150/300


Proprioceptive

sensors sense the position, the orientation and the speed of the
humanoid's body and joints.

In human beings inner ears are used to maintain balance and orientation.
Humanoid robots use

accelerometers

to measure the acceleration, from which
velocity can be calculated by integration;

tilt sensors

to measure inclination; force
sensors placed in robot's hands and feet to measure contact force with
environment; position sensors, that indicate the actual position of the robot (from
which the velocity can be calculated by derivation) or even speed sens
ors.

Humanoid robotics




Exteroceptive Sensors


An artificial hand holding a lightbulb


ExteroceptiveSensorscausingsentation of touch

Arrays of

tactels

can be used to provide data on what has been touched.
The

Shadow Hand

uses an array of 34 tactels arranged beneath
its
polyurethane

skin on each finger tip.
[3]

Tactile sensors also provide information
about forces and torques transferred between the robot and other objects.

Vision

refers to processing data from any modality which uses the electromagnetic
spectrum to produce an image. In humanoid robots it is used to recognize objects
and determine their properties. Vision sensors work most similarly to the

eyes of
human beings. Most humanoid robots use

CCD

cameras as vision sensors.

Sound sensors allow humanoid robots to hear speech and environmental sounds,
and pe
rform as the ears of the human being.

Microphones
are usually used for this
task.

ROBOT SENSING:

The use of external sensing mechanisms allows a robot to interact with its

environment i
n a flexible manner. This is in contrast to preprogrammed operations
in

which a robot is “taught” to perform repretitive tasks via a set of preprogrammed

functions.

The use of sensing technology to endow machines with a greater degree of

Humanoid robotics


intelligence in de
aling with their environment is indeed an active topic
of research and

development in the robotics field.

The function of robot sensors may be divided into two principal
categories:

1. Internal state.

2. External State.

Internal state sensors
deal with the

detection of variables such as

arm joint position, which are used for robot control.

External state sensors
, on the other hand, deal with the detection of

variables such as range, proximity and touch.

External sensing
is used for robot guidance as well as

for object

identification and handling. Although proximity,, touch, vision is recognized as the
most

powerful of robot sensory capabilities, Robot vision may be defined as the process
of

extraction, characterizing, and interpreting information from images

of a
threedimensional

world. The process, also commonly referred to as machine or computer

vision, may be subdivided into six principal areas:

1. Sensing.

2. Preprocessing.

3. Segmentation.

4. Description.

5. Recognition.

6. Interpretation.

It is convenie
nt to group these various areas of vision according to the

sophistication involved in their implementation. We consider three levels of
processing:

low, medium and high level vision.

Here, we shall treat sensing and preprocessing as
low
-
level vision

functions
. This will take us from the image formation process itself to
compensations

such as noise reduction, and finally to the extraction of primitive image features
such as

intensity discontinuities.

Humanoid robotics


By 2050 robot "brains" based on computers that execu
te 100 trillion

instructions per second will start rivaling human intelligence




Actuators


Actuators

are the motors responsible for motion in the robot.

Humanoid robots are constructed
in such a way that they mimic the human body,
so they use actuators that perform like

muscles

and
joints
, though with a different
s
tructure. To achieve the same effect as human motion, humanoid robots use
mainly rotary actuators. They can be either
electric,

pneumatic
,

hydraulic
,

piezoelectric

or

ultrasonic
.

Hydraulic and electric actuators have a ver
y rigid behavior and can only be made
to act in a compliant manner through the use of relatively complex feedback
control strategies . While electric coreless motor actuators are better suited for high
speed and low load applications, hydraulic ones operat
e well at low speed and high
load applications.

Piezoelectric actuators generate a small movement with a high force capability
when voltage is applied. They can be used for ultra
-
precise positioning and for
generating and handling high forces or pressures
in static or dynamic situations.

Ultrasonic actuators are designed to produce movements in a micrometer order at
ultrasonic frequencies (over 20

kHz). They are useful for controlling vibration,
positioning applications and quick switching.

Humanoid robotics


Pneumatic actuat
ors operate on the basis of

gas

compressibility
. As they are
inflated, they expand along the axis, and as they defla
te, they contract. If one end is
fixed, the other will move in a linear

trajectory
. These actuators are intended for
low speed and low/medium load applications. Between pneumatic actua
tors there
are:

cylinders
,

bellows
, pneumatic engines, pneumatic stepper motors
and

pneumatic artificial muscles
.



Planning and control

In planning and control, the essential difference between humanoids and other
kinds of robots
(like

industrial

ones) is that the movement of the robot has to be
human
-
like, using legged locomotion, especially biped

gait
. The ideal planning for
humanoid movements during normal walking should result in minimum energy
consumption, like it does in the human body. For this reason, studies
on

dynamics

and

control

of these kinds of structures become more and more
important.

To maintain dynamic balance during the

walk
, a robot needs information about
contact force and its current and desired motion. The solution to this problem relies
on a major concept, the

Zero Moment Point

(ZMP).

Another characteristic of humanoid robots is that they move, gather information
(using sensors) on the "real world" and interact with it. They don’t stay still like
factory manipulators and other robots that work in highly struc
tured environments.
Humanoid robotics


To allow humanoids to move in complex environments, planning and control must
focus on self
-
collision detection, path planning and obstacle avoidance.

Humanoids don't yet have some features of the human body. They include
structures wit
h variable flexibility, which provide safety (to the robot itself and to
the people), and redundancy of movements, i.e. more

degrees of
freedom

and
therefore wide task availability. Although these characteristics are desirable to
humanoid robots, they will bring more complexity and new problems to planning
and control.


7
:application of humanoid


APPLICATION OF ROBOTS IN THE HOME ENVIRONM
ENT:
-



robot is the one used for entertainment purposes. Since this is an entertainer, any of
the tricks adopted by an entertainer (a magician, for example) can be used by the
robot. The robot can use such a robot. Such a robot can be used at home when
there is a

gathering of guests or it can be used in a supermarket to attract
Humanoid robotics


customers. Here is an example of an entertaining robot; it is about 75 cm tall.
There is a video screen on the top. On the video screen there is the sketch of the
face of a human; the face
shows details such as nose, eyes, lips, teeth, etc. the robot
entertains the persons in from of its as follows: A person standing in front can ask
questions (the limitation on the questions is that they should be of only such a
nature that a total stranger

standing in front can answer by observing the
questioner). The robot will answer all the questions correctly to the amazement of
the bystanders. The working of the robot may be as follows: A built
-
in microphone
receives the questions of the person in fron
t of the robot. The microphone is
connected to a tiny radio transmitter inside the body of the robot. The radio
transmitter transmits the questions. A person hidden from the bystanders monitors
the transmitted signals. This person observes the questioner a
nd bystanders with
the help of a pair of binoculars. After hearing the question and watching through
the binoculars, he will meaningfully answer the questions. The reply is transmitted
through another radio transmitter and received by another radio receive
r within the
body of the robot. The answers are given out through speakers in the body of the
robot; when the answers are being broadcast, a computer program makes the
picture on the video screen move appropriately (eyes are moved, and teeth
displayed when

necessary; these movements are controlled by the person hiding at
a distance) and the bystanders get the illusion that the robot is answering the
questions by itself
.


Radioactive Materials Handling ::

Nuclear energy experiments require handling of radioa
ctive chemicals,
which can be successfully managed by robots. This relieves the human being from
doing such tasks, which are hazardous, like having to handle radioactive materials
in a nuclear power station. Robots can also be helpful in the disposal of ra
dioactive
wastes from nuclear plants and in maintenance work, periodic inspections and
disassembly of nuclear plants.


Fire Fighting and Disaster Relief ::

Robots, which can move, climb a ladder and lift or transfer human beings and
objects would be very useful in relieving humans of dangerous tasks such as fire
fighting. Robots could enter areas closed to human beings because of poisonous
gas discharges duri
ng earthquakes, storms, floods, and forest fires. They could also
Humanoid robotics


be used in remote controlled searches for missing people, and remote surveillance
of disaster conditions

Medical Applications ::


Robots have been valuable in the areas of orthotics and pros
thetics.
Prosthetics

is a medical specialty concerned with the artificial replacement of
missing parts of the human body. In cases of persons who have lost their arms or
legs due to amputation, artificial legs or arms can be provided and the manipulator
can be controlled usin
g robotic principles. Measuring the EMG (electromyograph)
signals from the umamputated part of the body, and processing the
electromyograph signals, the actual command given by the brain can be understood
and this information can be used in controlling the

artificial limb. Orthotics is
concerned with providing exo
-
skeletal structures on an invalid arm or leg or in
cases where the invalidity has been caused by the loss of nervous control due to
paralysis. The exo
-
skeletal limb can be controlled as in the cas
e of the artificial
limb. Some prostheses and orthoses can be controlled by voice commands.


8
:conclusion

Today, robots are enjoying resurgence. Faster and cheaper

computer processors make robots smarter and less expensive. Meanwhile,
researchers

are worki
ng on ways to make robots move and "think" more efficiently. Although
most

robots in use today are designed for specific tasks, the goal is to make universal
robots,

robots flexible enough to do just about anything a human can do.

The ROBOT which terminate
s every job within a shortest period has no
termination.

Human brain has boundaries up to which it thinks, but for Computers no

Humanoid robotics


limitations .That is we have to use the brain up to the capacity of neurons in our brain.

But there is no limit to computer memo
ry.

9
:bibllilography

The resources refferd to was :

www.wikipedia.com

www.seminarprojects.com

www.seminarsonly.com

and a
magazine times of indiatechgeek…

K. Yokoi, N. E. Sian, T. Sakaguchi, H. Arisumi, E. Yoshida, O. Stasse,

Y. Kawai, K. Maruyama, T. Yoshimi, and S. Kajita, “Humanoid robot

hrp
-
2 no.10 with human supervision,” in
International Symposium on

Robotics, ISR
.
Tokyo, Japan: IEEE, November 29
-

December 1 2005.

1
0
:appendix

Communication Robots


WE
-
4




Saya in front of rubber skin


K
-
bot



Kismet


Mexi


Humanoid robotics


Manipulation Robots


Wendy



Cog



ARMAR DLR Hand II FZK
-
Hand


Challenges

• Artificial muscles


• Light
-
weight frames

• Soft covers

• Energy supply








• Efficient locomotion

• Robust control

• Managing complexity

of high number of DOFs

• Multimodal perception

• Team coordination

• Learning