erd school of Engg&
We extend my sincere gratitude towards
for giving us his
invaluable knowledge and wonderful technical guidance
I express my thanks to
all staff members
computer science & IT
department for their kind co
operation and guidance.
I also thank all the
other faculty members
for their endless help and support.
The field of humanoids robotics is widely recognized as the current challenge for
robotics research .The humanoid research is an approach to understand and
realize the complex
real world interactions between a robot, an environment, and
a human. The humanoid robotics motivates social interactions such as gesture
communication or co
operative tasks in the same context as the physical dynamics.
This is essential for three
eraction, which aims at fusing physical and
social interaction at fundamental levels.
People naturally express themselves through facial gestures and expressions.
Our goal is to build a facial gesture human
computer interface for use in robot
Mechatronic device consists of Brain (computer) and sensors
and mechanical parts. There are four laws to be followed for
Robots predict like Human by applying ARRTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
concept to them.
Then they can think like Hu
mans that is they acquire SIXTH SENSE.
RISE OF MACHINES that is ROBOT has undergone four types of step by step
Robot is a combination of many systems such as Controller, Mobility, Sensor
The robot Hands are moved using the MATRIX Transform
Robots have advantage over many fields such as medical, space, agriculture
There are some dangerous things may happen by robots when they do dangerous
with its body shape built to resemble that of
. A humanoid design might be for functional purposes, such
interacting with human tools and environments, for experimental purposes, such as
the study of bipedal locomotion, or for other purposes. In general, humanoid robots
have a torso, a head, two arms, and two legs, though some forms of humanoid
model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up. Some
humanoid robots may also have heads designed to replicate human facial features
such as eyes and mouths.
are humanoid robots built to aesthetically
In Japan, important humanoid projects, started in the last
decade, have been carried on by the Waseda University and by Honda Motor Co.
The Humanoid Project of the Waseda University, started
in 1992, is a joint
project of industry, government and academia, aiming at developing robots which
support humans in the field of health care and industry during their life and that
share with human information and behavioral space, so that particular at
have been posed to the problem of human
computer interaction. Within the
Humanoid Project, the Waseda University developed three humanoid robots, as
research platforms, namely Hadaly 2,Wabian and Wendy.Impressive results have
been also obtained by
Honda Motor Co. Ltd with P2 and P3, self
humanoid robots with two arms and two legs, able to walk, to turn while walking,
to climb up and down stairs. These laboratories on their humanoid robots carry
on studies on human
robot interaction, on hum
like movements and behavior
and on brain mechanics of human cognition and sensory
2:laws of robotics
Asimov proposed the “Laws of Robotics”
: A robot may not injure a human being or
through inaction, allow a human being to come
: A robot must obey orders given to it by human
beings, except where such orders would conflict with a
higher order law
: A robot must protect its own existence as long as
such protection does not conflict with a higher order law
: "A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow
humanity to come to harm"
Humans have built complex environments, tools and equipment's very
much adapted to our selves.
Robots with human
like morphology and motion capabilities have a
greater potential acting in living environments created for humans,
than e.g. wheeled robots.
The form of our
bodies is critical to the
representations that we
develop and use for
both our internal thought and our language.
If we are to build a robot with human like intelligence then it must
have a human like
body in order to be able to develop similar
Important aspects of being human are
communicate in a manner that
supports the natural
communication modalities of humans. Examples include: facial
expression, body posture, gesture, gaze direction, and voice.
If a robot has humanoid form, then
it will be both easy and natural for
interact with it in a humanlike
The idea of a robot is not new. For thousands of years man has been imagining
intelligent mechanized devices that perform human
like tasks. He has built
toys and mechanisms and imagined robots in drawings, books, plays and
science fiction movies
What is the definition of a 'robot'?
"A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material,
parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the
performance of a variety of tasks" Robot Institute of America, 1979
Where did the word 'robot' come f
In fact, the term "robot" was first used in 1920 in a play called "R.U.R." Or
"Rossum's universal robots" by the Czech writer Karel Capek. The plot was
simple: man makes robot then robot kills man! Many movies that followed
continued to show robots a
s harmful, menacing machines
Mechanical device that performs human tasks, either automatically or by
remote control. (From the Czech word robota.)
Study and application of robot technology.
Robot that is operated remotely.
After year of evolution of robots and there continuous changing forms
come to humanoid robotics .
Humanoid robots are used as a research tool in several scientific area.
Researchers need to understand the human body structure and behavior
(biomechanics) to build and study humanoid robots. On the other side, the attempt
to the simulation of the human body leads to a better understanding of it.
Human cognition is a field of
study which is focused on how humans learn from
sensory information in order to acquire perceptual and motor skills. This
knowledge is used to develop computational models of human behavior and it has
been improving over time.
It has been suggested that ve
ry advanced robotics will facilitate the enhancement
of ordinary humans. See
Although the initial aim of humanoid research was to build
for human beings, knowledge has been transferred
between both disciplines. A few examples are: powered leg prost
neuromuscularly impaired, ankle
foot orthosis, biological realistic leg prosthesis
and forearm prosthesis.
Besides the research, humanoid robots are being developed to perform human
tasks like personal assistance, where they should be able to ass
ist the sick and
elderly, and dirty or dangerous jobs. Regular jobs like being a receptionist or a
worker of an automotive manufacturing line are also suitable for humanoids. In
essence, since they can use tools and operate equipment and vehicles designed
the human form, humanoids could theoretically perform any task a human being
can, so long as they have the proper
. However, the complexity of doing so
is deceptively great.
ey are becoming increasingly popular for providing entertainment too. For
example, Ursula, a female robot, sings, play music, dances, and speaks to her
audiences at Universal Studios. Several Disney attractions employ the use of
animatrons, robots that loo
k, move, and speak much like human beings, in some of
their theme park shows. These animatrons look so realistic that it can be hard to
decipher from a distance whether or not they are actually human. Although they
have a realistic look, they have no cogni
tion or physical autonomy. Various
humanoid robots and their possible applications in daily life are featured in an
independent documentary film called
Plug & Pray
, which was
released in 2010.
Humanoid robots, especially with
ould be useful
for future dangerous and/or distant
, without having th
need to turn back around again and return to
once the mission is completed.
There are many which robot can do when it is hardaous for man like
Fire Fighting and Disaster Relief ::
s, which can move, climb a ladder and lift or transfer human beings
and objects would be very useful in relieving humans of dangerous tasks such as
fire fighting. Robots could enter areas closed to human beings because of
poisonous gas discharges during ea
rthquakes, storms, floods, and forest fires. They
could also be used in remote controlled searches for missing people, and remote
surveillance of disaster conditions.
Space Exploration ::
Space exploration and space research offer a wide field of application for
robots. Robots could be of help in assembling structures in outer space and in the
operation of outer space factories. Robots can maintain and service thousands of
l bodies already orbiting the earth. Planetary exploration
becomes an easy task when robots are sent to other planets. The Russians had sent
propelled mobile robot called
to the moon. This robot explored the
surface of the moon, took lunar
earth samples, subjected them to chemical and X
ray analysis and sent the results of the experiments to Earth. The Voyager II
mission of USA was successful partly because of the two on
board robots that
were helping with various operations of the mission.
:component of a humanoid
Robots are comprised of several systems working together as a
whole. The type of job the robot does dictates what system elements it needs. The
general categories of robot systems are:
The controller is the
robot's brain and controls the robot's
movements. It's usually a computer of some type which is used to store
about the robot and the work environment and to store and execute programs
which operate the robot.The control system contains program
s, data algorithms,
logic analysis and various other processing activities which enable the robot to
is a device that measures some attribute of
the world. Being one of the
three primitives of robotics (besides planning and control), sensing plays an
important role in
Sensors can be classified
according to the physical process with which they work
or according to the type of measurement information that they give as output. In
this case, the second approach was used.
sensors sense the position, the orientation and the speed of the
humanoid's body and joints.
In human beings inner ears are used to maintain balance and orientation.
Humanoid robots use
to measure the acceleration, from which
velocity can be calculated by integration;
to measure inclination; force
sensors placed in robot's hands and feet to measure contact force with
environment; position sensors, that indicate the actual position of the robot (from
which the velocity can be calculated by derivation) or even speed sens
An artificial hand holding a lightbulb
ExteroceptiveSensorscausingsentation of touch
can be used to provide data on what has been touched.
uses an array of 34 tactels arranged beneath
skin on each finger tip.
Tactile sensors also provide information
about forces and torques transferred between the robot and other objects.
refers to processing data from any modality which uses the electromagnetic
spectrum to produce an image. In humanoid robots it is used to recognize objects
and determine their properties. Vision sensors work most similarly to the
human beings. Most humanoid robots use
cameras as vision sensors.
Sound sensors allow humanoid robots to hear speech and environmental sounds,
rform as the ears of the human being.
are usually used for this
The use of external sensing mechanisms allows a robot to interact with its
n a flexible manner. This is in contrast to preprogrammed operations
which a robot is “taught” to perform repretitive tasks via a set of preprogrammed
The use of sensing technology to endow machines with a greater degree of
intelligence in de
aling with their environment is indeed an active topic
of research and
development in the robotics field.
The function of robot sensors may be divided into two principal
1. Internal state.
2. External State.
Internal state sensors
deal with the
detection of variables such as
arm joint position, which are used for robot control.
External state sensors
, on the other hand, deal with the detection of
variables such as range, proximity and touch.
is used for robot guidance as well as
identification and handling. Although proximity,, touch, vision is recognized as the
powerful of robot sensory capabilities, Robot vision may be defined as the process
extraction, characterizing, and interpreting information from images
world. The process, also commonly referred to as machine or computer
vision, may be subdivided into six principal areas:
It is convenie
nt to group these various areas of vision according to the
sophistication involved in their implementation. We consider three levels of
low, medium and high level vision.
Here, we shall treat sensing and preprocessing as
. This will take us from the image formation process itself to
such as noise reduction, and finally to the extraction of primitive image features
By 2050 robot "brains" based on computers that execu
te 100 trillion
instructions per second will start rivaling human intelligence
are the motors responsible for motion in the robot.
Humanoid robots are constructed
in such a way that they mimic the human body,
so they use actuators that perform like
, though with a different
tructure. To achieve the same effect as human motion, humanoid robots use
mainly rotary actuators. They can be either
Hydraulic and electric actuators have a ver
y rigid behavior and can only be made
to act in a compliant manner through the use of relatively complex feedback
control strategies . While electric coreless motor actuators are better suited for high
speed and low load applications, hydraulic ones operat
e well at low speed and high
Piezoelectric actuators generate a small movement with a high force capability
when voltage is applied. They can be used for ultra
precise positioning and for
generating and handling high forces or pressures
in static or dynamic situations.
Ultrasonic actuators are designed to produce movements in a micrometer order at
ultrasonic frequencies (over 20
kHz). They are useful for controlling vibration,
positioning applications and quick switching.
ors operate on the basis of
. As they are
inflated, they expand along the axis, and as they defla
te, they contract. If one end is
fixed, the other will move in a linear
. These actuators are intended for
low speed and low/medium load applications. Between pneumatic actua
, pneumatic engines, pneumatic stepper motors
pneumatic artificial muscles
Planning and control
In planning and control, the essential difference between humanoids and other
kinds of robots
ones) is that the movement of the robot has to be
like, using legged locomotion, especially biped
. The ideal planning for
humanoid movements during normal walking should result in minimum energy
consumption, like it does in the human body. For this reason, studies
of these kinds of structures become more and more
To maintain dynamic balance during the
, a robot needs information about
contact force and its current and desired motion. The solution to this problem relies
on a major concept, the
Zero Moment Point
Another characteristic of humanoid robots is that they move, gather information
(using sensors) on the "real world" and interact with it. They don’t stay still like
factory manipulators and other robots that work in highly struc
To allow humanoids to move in complex environments, planning and control must
focus on self
collision detection, path planning and obstacle avoidance.
Humanoids don't yet have some features of the human body. They include
h variable flexibility, which provide safety (to the robot itself and to
the people), and redundancy of movements, i.e. more
therefore wide task availability. Although these characteristics are desirable to
humanoid robots, they will bring more complexity and new problems to planning
:application of humanoid
APPLICATION OF ROBOTS IN THE HOME ENVIRONM
robot is the one used for entertainment purposes. Since this is an entertainer, any of
the tricks adopted by an entertainer (a magician, for example) can be used by the
robot. The robot can use such a robot. Such a robot can be used at home when
there is a
gathering of guests or it can be used in a supermarket to attract
customers. Here is an example of an entertaining robot; it is about 75 cm tall.
There is a video screen on the top. On the video screen there is the sketch of the
face of a human; the face
shows details such as nose, eyes, lips, teeth, etc. the robot
entertains the persons in from of its as follows: A person standing in front can ask
questions (the limitation on the questions is that they should be of only such a
nature that a total stranger
standing in front can answer by observing the
questioner). The robot will answer all the questions correctly to the amazement of
the bystanders. The working of the robot may be as follows: A built
receives the questions of the person in fron
t of the robot. The microphone is
connected to a tiny radio transmitter inside the body of the robot. The radio
transmitter transmits the questions. A person hidden from the bystanders monitors
the transmitted signals. This person observes the questioner a
nd bystanders with
the help of a pair of binoculars. After hearing the question and watching through
the binoculars, he will meaningfully answer the questions. The reply is transmitted
through another radio transmitter and received by another radio receive
r within the
body of the robot. The answers are given out through speakers in the body of the
robot; when the answers are being broadcast, a computer program makes the
picture on the video screen move appropriately (eyes are moved, and teeth
necessary; these movements are controlled by the person hiding at
a distance) and the bystanders get the illusion that the robot is answering the
questions by itself
Radioactive Materials Handling ::
Nuclear energy experiments require handling of radioa
which can be successfully managed by robots. This relieves the human being from
doing such tasks, which are hazardous, like having to handle radioactive materials
in a nuclear power station. Robots can also be helpful in the disposal of ra
wastes from nuclear plants and in maintenance work, periodic inspections and
disassembly of nuclear plants.
Fire Fighting and Disaster Relief ::
Robots, which can move, climb a ladder and lift or transfer human beings and
objects would be very useful in relieving humans of dangerous tasks such as fire
fighting. Robots could enter areas closed to human beings because of poisonous
gas discharges duri
ng earthquakes, storms, floods, and forest fires. They could also
be used in remote controlled searches for missing people, and remote surveillance
of disaster conditions
Medical Applications ::
Robots have been valuable in the areas of orthotics and pros
is a medical specialty concerned with the artificial replacement of
missing parts of the human body. In cases of persons who have lost their arms or
legs due to amputation, artificial legs or arms can be provided and the manipulator
can be controlled usin
g robotic principles. Measuring the EMG (electromyograph)
signals from the umamputated part of the body, and processing the
electromyograph signals, the actual command given by the brain can be understood
and this information can be used in controlling the
artificial limb. Orthotics is
concerned with providing exo
skeletal structures on an invalid arm or leg or in
cases where the invalidity has been caused by the loss of nervous control due to
paralysis. The exo
skeletal limb can be controlled as in the cas
e of the artificial
limb. Some prostheses and orthoses can be controlled by voice commands.
Today, robots are enjoying resurgence. Faster and cheaper
computer processors make robots smarter and less expensive. Meanwhile,
ng on ways to make robots move and "think" more efficiently. Although
robots in use today are designed for specific tasks, the goal is to make universal
robots flexible enough to do just about anything a human can do.
The ROBOT which terminate
s every job within a shortest period has no
Human brain has boundaries up to which it thinks, but for Computers no
limitations .That is we have to use the brain up to the capacity of neurons in our brain.
But there is no limit to computer memo
The resources refferd to was :
magazine times of indiatechgeek…
K. Yokoi, N. E. Sian, T. Sakaguchi, H. Arisumi, E. Yoshida, O. Stasse,
Y. Kawai, K. Maruyama, T. Yoshimi, and S. Kajita, “Humanoid robot
2 no.10 with human supervision,” in
International Symposium on
Tokyo, Japan: IEEE, November 29
December 1 2005.
Saya in front of rubber skin
ARMAR DLR Hand II FZK
• Artificial muscles
• Soft covers
• Energy supply
• Efficient locomotion
• Robust control
• Managing complexity
of high number of DOFs
• Multimodal perception
• Team coordination