Chemical Engineering - Anna University

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UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENTS

ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI :: CHENNAI 600 025

REGULATIONS


2008

CURRICULUM FROM III & IV SEMESTERS FOR


B.TECH. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING



SEMESTER III


CODE NO

COURSE TITLE

L

T

P

C

THEORY

MA 9211

Mathematics I
II

3

1

0

4

CY 9211

Organic Chemistry

3

0

0

3

CY 9213

Instrumental Methods of Analysis

3

0

0

3

CH 9203

Mechanics of Solids

3

0

0

3

CH 9204

Ba
sic Mechanical Engg

3

0

0

3

CH 9205

Process Calculations

3

0

0

3

CH 9206

Fluid Mechanics

3

0

0

3

PRACTICAL

CY 9212

Organic Chemistry Lab

0

0

4

2

CH 9208

Electrical Engineering Lab

0

0

4

2


TOTAL




26



SEMESTER IV


CODE NO

COURSE TITLE

L

T

P

C

THEORY

MA 9262

Numerical Methods

3

1

0

4

CY9261

Physical Chemistry

3

0

0

3

PH 9166

Material Science and Technology

3

0

0

3

CH 9253

Chemical Engg. Thermodynamics I

3

0

0

3

CH 9254

Mechanical Operations

3

0

0

3

CH 9255

Heat Transfe
r

3

0

0

3

PRACTICAL

CY9262

Technical Analysis Lab

0

0

4

2

CH 9257

Mechanical Engineering Lab

0

0

4

2

CH 9258

Fluid Mechanics Lab

0

0

4

2


TOTAL




25

















2



III SEMESTER


MA9211
MATHEMATICS III


L

T

P

C

3

1

0

4

Aim:

To facilitate the understanding of the principles and to cultivate the art of formulating
physical problems in the language of mathematics.



Objectives:



To
introduce Fourier series analysis which is central to many applications in
engineering apart from its use in solving boundary value problems



To acquaint the student with Fourier transform techniques used in wide variety of
situations in which the functions

used are not periodic



To introduce the effective mathematical tools for the solutions of partial differential
equations that model physical processes



To develop Z
-

transform techniques which will perform the same task for discrete time
systems as Laplac
e Transform, a valuable aid in analysis of continuous time systems




1. FOURIER SERIES








9+3



Dirichlet’s conditions


General Fourier series


Odd and even functions


Half
-
range Sine
and Cosine series


Complex form of Fourier series


Parseval’s identity


Harmonic
Analysis.


2. FOURIER TRANSFORM











9+3


Fouri
er integral theorem


Fourier transform pair
-
Sine and Cosine transforms


Properties


Transform of elementary functions


Convolution theorem


Parseval’s identity.





3. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

9+3


Formation


Solutions of first order equations


Standard types and Equations reducible to
stan
dard types


Singular solutions


Lagrange’s Linear equation


Integral surface passing
through a given curve


Solution of linear equations of higher order with constant coefficients.











4. APPLICATIONS OF PA
RTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS




9+3


Method of separation of Variables


Solutions of one dimensional wave equation and one
-
dimensional heat equation


Steady state solution of two
-
dimensional heat equation


Fourier
series solutions in Cartesian coordinat
es.







5. Z


TRANSFORM AND DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS






9+3


Z
-
transform


Elementary properties


Inverse Z
-
transform


Convolution theorem


Initial
and Final value theorems


Formation of difference equatio
n


Solution of difference equation
using Z
-
transform.



3


L: 45, T: 15, Total : 60



TEXT BOOKS



Grewal, B.S. “Higher Engineering Ma
thematics”, Khanna Publications (2007)



REFERENCES



1) Glyn James, “Advanced Modern Engineering Mathematics, Pearson Education (2007)

2)

Ramana, B.V. “Higher Engineering Mathematics” Tata McGraw Hill (2007).

3)

Bali, N.P. and Manish Goy
al, “A Text Book of Engineering 7
th

Edition (2007) Lakshmi
Publications (P) Limited, New Delhi.





CY9211
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY



(Common to Chemical, Textile, Leather, Petroleum Refining & Petrochemicals and Apparel
Technology)



L T P C


3 0 0 3


AIM



To learn fundamental and applied aspects of organic chemistry towards different applications.


OBJECTIVES


To acquire knowledge about chemical bonding, hybridization, bond fission, different types of
chemical reactions and their mechanism, isomerism in
organic molecules, synthesis of
organic compounds and various applications of organic products.


1. Structural concept of organic molecules






(5)



Nature of bonding (covalent, hydrogen)


atomic orbitals


hybridization


electronegativity


co
njugation


mesomerism and resonance


hyper
-
conjugation


inductive effect.



2. REACTION AND THEIR MECHANISM






(10)


Homolytic bond fission


free radicals


heterolytic bond fission


electrophiles, carbonium
ion, nucleophiles


acids and bases



Bronsted
-

Lowry concept, Lewis concept, strength of
acids and bases. Substitution reactions


S
N
1, S
N
2, S
N
i, Addition reactions


carbon


carbon
(double bond), Addition of dienes


carbon


oxygen (double bond), carbon


carbon (triple
bond)


poly ad
dition reactions, Elimination reactions


E1, E2, Condensation


simple and
polycondensation , Redox reactions.


3. ISOMERISM










(6)


Structural isomerism


stereoisomerism


optical isomerism


racemic mixture


resolution,
racemisation


asym
metric synthesis, Walder Inversion.

Geometrical isomerism


cis, trans isomerism, syn, anti isomerism


determination of
configuration of geometrical isomers


tautomerism.



4. HYDROCARBONS AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION




(10)



4

Alkanes


alkenes


alkynes


alicylic compounds


Bayers
-
strain theory
-

Hydrocarbons
related to petrol, diesel, kerosene, lube oil and waxes. Benzene and its homologues


aromatic substitution, Friedal
-

Crafts reactions, Kolbe’s synthesis


Riemer


Tiemann
reaction, Benzoin conden
sation, Perkin reaction, Beckmann rearrangement, Claison
condensation, Hoffmann rearrangements.


5. SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMISTRY






(7)





Synthesis of different types of compounds


alcohol


aldehyde


carboxylic acid


ester


ether


nitrocompo
unds


amines


amides (industrial methods only). Synthetic reagents


acetoacetic ester


malonic ester and Grignard reagent.



6. APPLIED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY







(7)


Polysaccharides


starch and cellulose


Proteins


amino acids and peptides


Dy
es and
dyeing


colour and constitution


classification of dyes based on chemical constitution and
applications.



Total Number of Periods = 45



TEXT BOOKS:


1.

B.S. Bahl and Arun Bahl, “Essentials of Organic Chemistry”, S.Chand and Company,
New Delhi (2005
).

2.

K.S. Tiwari, N.K. Vishnoi and S.N. Malhotra “A Text Book of Organic Chemistry”,
Third Edition, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi (2006).



REFERENCE BOOKS:


1.

R.T. Morrison and R.N. Boyd “Organic Chemistry” VI Edition, Prentice Hall of
India Pvt
. Ltd., New Delhi (2000).

2.

I L Finar “Organic Chemistry”, Volume


I, IX Edition, Pearson Education
(Singapore) Pte. Ltd., New Delhi (2004).

3.

I L Finar “Organic Chemistry”, Volume


II, VII Edition, Pearson Education
(Singapore) Pte. Ltd., New Delhi (2004).






CY 9213
INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS

(Common to Chemical, Textile, Leather, Ceramic and


Petroleum Refining & Petrochemicals)


L T P

C


3 0 0 3


AIM


To know the principle and importance of various analytical instruments used for the
characterization of various materials



OBJECTIVES


To have thorough understanding of theory, instrumentation and applications of analytical
equipments used in industries for testing quality of raw materials, intermediates and finished
products


5

To know the importance of analytical instrumentatio
n
during the purification, compounding
and formulating the finished product


UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO SPECTROSCOPICAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS

12

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION: Various ranges, Dual properties, Various energy levels,
Interaction of photons

with matter, absorbance & transmittance and their relationship,
Permitted energy levels for the electrons of an atom and simple molecules, Classification of
instrumental methods based on physical properties

QUANTITATIVE SPECTROSCOPY: Beer
-
Lambert's law,
Limitations, Deviations (Real,
Chemical, Instrumental), Estimation of inorganic ions such as Fe, Ni and estimation of Nitrite
using Beer
-
Lambert's Law


UNIT II

UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROCOPY







12


Various electronic transitions in organic and

inorganic compounds effected by UV, and Visible
radiations, Various energy level diagrams of saturated, unsaturated and carbonyl compounds,
excitation by UV and Visible radiations, Choice of solvents, cut off wavelengths for solvents,
Lamda max and epsil
on max rules, Woodward
-
Fieser rules for the calculation of absorption
maxima ( Lamda max) for dienes and carbonyl compounds, Effects of auxochromes and
efffects of conjugation on the absorption maxima, Different shifts of absorption peaks( Batho
chromic,

hypsochromic, hypochromic), Multicomponent analysis ( no overlap, single way
overlap and two way overlap), Instrumentation for UV and VISIBLE spectrophotometers
(source, optical parts and detectors), Photometric titration ( Experimental set
-
up and vario
us
types of titrations and their corresponding curves), Applications of UV and VISIBLE
spectroscopies


UNIT III


IR , RAMAN AND ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY


10


Theory

of IR spectroscopy, Various stretching and vibration modes for diatomic and triatomic
molecules (both linear and nonlinear), various ranges of IR (Near, Mid, Finger print and Far)
and their usefulness, Instrumentation (Only the sources and detectors used
in different
regions), sample preparation techniques, Applications.Raman spectroscopy: Theory,
Differences between IR and Raman. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry: Principle,
Instrumentation (Types of burners, Types of fuels, Hollow cathode lamp, Chopper

only) and
Applications, Various interferences observed in AAS (Chemical, radiation and excitation)
Flame photometry: Principle, Instrumentation, quantitative analysis (Standard addition
method and internal standard method) and applications

Differences be
tween AAS and FES.




UNIT IV

THERMAL

METHODS
:







5


Thermogravimetry: Theory and Instrumentation, factors affectin
g the shapes of thermograms
(Sample Characteristics and instrumental characteristics), thermograms of some important
compounds (CuSO4. 5H
2
O, CaC
2
O
4
. 2H
2
O, MgC2O4, Ag
2
CrO
4
, Hg
2
CrO
4
, AgNO
3

etc),
applications. Differential thermal analysis: Principle, Instrum
entation and applications,
differences between DSC and DTA. Applications of DSC (Inorganic and Polymer samples)


6
.
CHROMATOGRAPHIC METH
ODS:






6



Classification of chromato
graphic methods, Column, Thin layer, Paper, Gas, High
Performance Liquid Chromatographical methods (Principle, mode of separation and
Technique). Separation of organic compounds by column and Thin layer, mixure of Cu, Co
and Ni by Paper, separation of amin
o acids by paper, estimation of organic compounds by
GC and HPLC












Total =
45

REFERENCES


1.

Willard, H.H., Merritt.l.l., Dean J.a., and Settle,F.A., Instrumental methods of analysis,
Sixth edition, CBS publishers,1986


6

2.

Skoog D.A and Wes
t D.M, Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, Saunders
-
college
Publishing, 1982.

3.

Banwell, G.C., Fundamentals of molecular spectroscopy, TMH,1992.

4.

A.I. Vogel's Quantitative Inorganic analysis . V Edition

5.

Day R.A Underwood A.L Qualitative Inorganic analysis

( A. I. Vogel).


V Edition, Prentice
-
Hall of India ( P) Ltd, NewDelhi

6.

Sharma, B.K., Instrumental Methods of Analysis, Goel publishing House,1995

7.

Kalsi .P.S. Spectroscopy of organic compounds, 6
th

Edition, New Age International
Publishers,2006

8.

Willia
m Kemp, Organic Spectroscopy, 3
rd

Edition, Palgrave publishers, 2007

9.

Sathya Narayana. D. N. Vibrational Spectroscopy, First Edition 2004 and Reprint 2005,
New Age International publishers.






CH 9203
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS





3 0 0 3


AIM

To given
them knowledge on structural, Mechanical properties of Beams, columns.


OBJECTIVES


The students will be able to design the support column, beams, pipelines, storage
tanks and reaction columns and tanks after undergoing this course. This is precursor
for t
he study on process equipment design and drawing.


UNIT I


STRESS, STRAIN AND DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS



9


Rigid bodies and deformable solids


forces on solids and supports


equilibrium and stability


strength and stiffness


tension, compression and shea
r stresses


Hooke’s law and simple
problems


compound bars


thermal stresses


elastic constants and poission’s ratio


welded joints


design.


UNIT II


TRANSVERSE LOADING ON BEAMS





9


Beams


support conditions


types of Beams


transverse loading

on beams


shear force
and bending moment in beams


analysis of cantilevers, simply


supported beams and over
hanging beams


relationships between loading, S.F. and B.M. In beams and their
applications


S.F.& B.M. diagrams.


UNIT III


DEFLECTIONS OF B
EAMS






9


Double integration method


Macaulay’s method


Area


moment theorems for computation
of slopes and deflections in beams


conjugate beam method


UNIT IV


STRESSES IN BEAMS







9


Theory of simple bending


assumptions and derivation of ben
ding equation (M/I = F/Y = E/R)


analysis of stresses in beams


loads carrying capacity of beams


proportioning beam
sections


leaf springs


flitched beams


shear stress distribution in beams


determination
of shear stress in flanged beams.


UNIT V


TORSION








9


Torsion of circular shafts


derivation of torsion equation (T/J = C/R = G0/L)


stress and
deformation in circular and hollow shafts


stresses and deformation in circular and hollow
shafts


stepped shafts


shafts fixed at both ends


stresses in helical springs


deflection of
springs


spring constant


UNIT VI


COLUMNS



7

Axially loaded short columns


columns of unsymmetrical sections


Euler’s theory of long
columns


critical loads for prismatic columns with different end conditions



effect of
eccentricity.




TOTAL : 45





TEXT BOOKS


1.

Junarkar, S.B., Mechanics of Structure Vol. 1, 21
st

Edition, Character Publishing
House, Anand, Indian, (1995)

2.

William A.Nash, Theory and Problems of Strength of Materials, Schaum’s Outline
Series. M
cGraw Hill International Editions, Third Edition, 1994.


REFERENCE

1.

Elangovan, A., Thinma Visai Iyal (Mechanics of Solids in Tamil), Anna University,
Madras, 1995.








CH 9204
BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 3 0 0 3

AIM

To impart k
nowledge on thermodynamics and thermal engineering power generating units
such as engines and theory of machines


OBJECTIVE

Students should learn thermodynamics and thermal engineering to understand the
principles behind the operation of thermal equipments

like IC engines and turbines etc.,
Students should be able to appreciate the theory behind operation of machinery and be
able to design simple mechanisms


UNIT 1:

LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS





10


Basic concepts and hints; Zeroth law; First Law of Ther
modynamics
-

Statement
and application; Steady flow energy equation
-
problems
-

Second law of Thermodynamics


Kelvin
-

Plank statement and Clausius statement
-

problems; Limitations; Heat Engine,
Refrigerator and Heat Pump, Available energy, Equivalence ent
ropy; Reversibility:
Entropy charts; Third law of Thermodynamics
-

Statement.


UNIT 2:

HEATING AND EXPANSION OF GASES




6



Expressions for work done, Internal energy and heat transfer for Constant Pressure,
Constant Volume, Isothermal, Adiabatic

and Polytropic processes
-
Derivations and
problems; Free expansion and Throttling process.


UNIT 3:

AIR STANDARD CYCLES







6



Carnot cycle; Stirlings cycle; Joule cycle; Otto cycle; Diesel cycle; Dual combustion
Cycle
-

Derivations and proble
ms.





UNIT 4: I.C. ENGINES, STEAM AND ITS PROPERTIES AND STEAM


TURBINES








12



Engine nomenclature and classification; SI Engine; CI Engine; Four Stroke cycle,
Two stroke cycle; Performance of I.C.Engine; Brake thermal efficiency; Indicated The
rmal
Efficiency, Specific fuel consumption.


8


Steam
-

Properties of steam; Dryness fraction; latent heat; Total heat of wet steam; Dry
steam; Superheated steam. Use of steam tables; volume of wet steam, volume of
superheated steam; External work of evaporat
ion; Internal energy; Entropy of vapour,
Expansion of vapour, Rankine cycle.


Steam turbines


Impulse and Reaction types
-

Principles of operation.


UNIT 5 : SIMPLE MECHANISM, FLY WHEEL, DRIVES AND BALANCING


11


Definition of Kinematic Links, Pairs and

Kinematic Chains; Working principle of Slider
Crank mechanism and inversions; Double slider crank mechanism and inversions.


Flywheel
-
Turning moment Diagram; Fluctuation of Energy.

Belt and rope drives; Velocity ratio; slip; Creep; Ratio of tensions; Leng
th of belt; Power
Transmitted; gear trains
-
types.

Balancing of rotating masses in same plane; Balancing of masses rotating in different
planes.



Total Number of Periods = 45


Text Books:

1.

Nag, P.K., " Engineering Thermodynamics ", II Edition, Tata M
cGraw

Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., 1995.

2.

Rajput, R .K, “Thermal Engineering”, Laxmi publications (P) Ltd, 2001.


3.

Khurmi R.S., and Gupta J.K, “Theory of Machines”, Eurasia Publishing
House (P) Ltd., 2004.



References Books

1.

Smith, " Chemical Thermodynamics

", Reinhold Publishing Co., 1977.

2.

Bhaskaran, K.A., and Venkatesh, A., " Engineering Thermodynamics ",

3.

Tata McGraw Hill, 1973.

4.

Pandya A. and Shah, " Theory of Machines ", Charatakar Publishers, 1975.

5.

Khurmi R.S., and Gupta J.K, “Thermal Engineering”, S.Cha
nd & Company (P)
Ltd.,2001.

6.

Kothandaraman and Dhomkundwar,”: A course in Thermal Engineering (SI Units)”,
Dhanpat Rai and Sons, Delhi (2001)






9




CH 9205
PROCESS CALCULATIONS
















L T P C


3 0 0 3


AIM

The aim of this course is to give fundamental knowledge on material and energy
balances and steady state simulation.


OBJECTIVES

To teach concept of degree of freedom and its application to solution of mass and energy
balance equations for single and network of units and introduce to process simulators.



UNIT I












6

Units,
dimensions and conversion; Process variables and properties; Degree of freedom;


UNIT II











11

Concept of material balance Material balance calculations not involving and involving single
and multiple reactions including combustion Material balance

calculations involving phase
change


UNIT III











11

Heat capacity; Calculation of enthalpy changes without phase change; Energy balance
calculations without and with reactions including combustion.


UNIT IV











11

Simultaneous material and

energy balance calculations for Humidification, vaporization,
condensation, mixing, crystallization.


UNIT V












6

Material balance and energy balance calculations for network of units without and with
recycle. Demonstration of ASPEN Process Sim
ulator


L = 45; Total number of periods = 45


TEXT BOOKS

1.

Himmelblau, D.M., "Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering ", EEE
Sixth Edition, Prentice Hall Inc., 2003

2.

Bhatt, B.L., Vora, S.M., "Stoichiometry ", 4
th

Edition,Tata McGraw
-
Hill (20
04)

3.

Felder, R. M. and Rousseau, R. W., “Elementary Principles of Chemical
Processes”,3
rd

Edn., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000.


REFERENCES

1.

Hougen O A, Watson K M and Ragatz R A, “Chemical process principles” Part I, CBS
publishers (1973).



CH 9206
FLU
ID MECHANICS




3 0 0 3



AIM

To understand the principles and applications fluid mechanics.


OBJECTIVES

To impart to the student knowledge on fluid properties, fluid statics, dynamic characteristics
for through pipes and porous medium, flow measurement

and fluid machineries




10

UNIT I











6


Methods of analysis and description
-

fluid as a continuum


Velocity and stress field
-

Newtonian and non
-
Newtonian fluids


Classification of fluid motion


UNIT II











9

Fluid statics


basic equation
-

equilibrium of fluid element


pressure variation in a static fluid
-

application to manometry


Differential analysis of fluid motion


continuity, Euler’s and
Bernoulli equation


UNIT III











9

The principle of dimensional homogeneity


dimensional analysis, the Pi
-
theorem
-

non
-
dimensional action of the basic equations
-

similitude
-

relationship between dimensional
analysis and similitude
-

use of dimensional analysis for scale up studies


UNIT IV











12

Reynolds number regimes, i
nternal flow
-

flow through pipes


pressure drop under laminar
and turbulent flow conditions


major and minor losses; Line sizing; External flows
-

boundary
layer concepts, boundary layer thickness under laminar and turbulent flow conditions
-

Flow
over a

sphere


friction and pressure drag
-

flow through fixed and fluidized beds.



UNIT V












9

Flow measurement
-

Constant and variable head meters; Velocity measurement techniques;
Types, characteristics and sizing of valves; Classification, perform
ance characteristics and
sizing of pumps, compressors and fans


L = 45; Total number of periods = 45


Text Books

1.

Noel de Nevers, "Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers ", Second Edition,
McGraw
-
Hill, (1991).

2.

Munson, B. R., Young, D.F., Okiishi, T.H. “F
und
amentals of Fluid Mechanics”, 5th
Edition
“, John Wiley, 2006


References

1.

White, F.M., "Fluid Mechanics ", IV Edition, McGraw
-
Hill Inc., 1999.

2.

James O Wilkes and Stacy G Bike, “Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers’
Prentice Hall PTR (International series
in Chemical Engineering) (1999)

3.

McCabe W.L, Smith, J C and Harriot. P “Unit operations in Chemical Engineering”,
McGraw Hill, V Edition, 2001



III SEMESTER


CY 9212
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY LAB

(Common to Chemical and Petroleum Refining & Petrochemicals )











L T P C











0 0 4 2


OBJECTIVE


To learn basic principles involved in analysis and synthesis of different organic derivatives.


1.

Analysis of nature of organic compounds


To identify aliphatic/aromatic,
saturated/unsaturated
compounds.


11

2.

Identification and characterization of various functional groups by their characteristic
reactions: a) alcohol, b) aldehyde, c) ketone, d) carboxylic acid, e) phenol, f) ester,


g) primary, secondary and tertiary amines h) amide i)

nitro compounds.

3.

Analysis of an unknown organic compound and preparation of suitable solid
derivatives.

4.

Analysis of carbohydrates.

5.

Analysis of proteins.

6.

Methodology of filtration and recrystallization.

7.

Introduction to organic synthetic procedures:

i.

Acetyla
tion


Preparation of acetanilide from aniline.

ii.

Hydrolysis


Preparation of salycilic acid from methyl salyciliate.

iii.

Substitution


Conversion of acetone to iodoform.

iv.

Nitration


Preparation of m
-
dinitrobenzene from nitrobenzene.

v.

Oxidation


Preparation of
benzoic acid from benzaldehyde/ benzyl
alcohol

Total Number of Periods =
60


Reference Manual

1.

Organic Chemistry Lab Manual, Chemistry Division, Chemical Engineering
Department, A.C.Tech, Anna University (2007).












CH9208
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING L
ABORATORY












L T P C

0 0 4 2

AIM


To provide the practical knowledge and control methods of electrical machines



OBJECTIVE


To impart practical knowledge on

I.

Characteristic of different machines

II.

Method of speed control o
f machines

III.

Measurement of various electrical parameters




1.

Study of DC & AC Starters

2.

Study of Transducers

3.

Wheatstone Bridge and Schering Bridge

4.

ADC and DAC Converters


12

5.

Speed Control of DC Shunt Motor

6.

Load Test on DC Shunt Motor

7.

OCC & Lo
ad Characteristics of DC Shunt Generator

8.

Load Test on Single
-
Phase Transformer

9.

Load Test on Three
-
Phase Induction Motor

10.

Load Test on Single
-
Phase Induction Motor.




MA 9262
NUMERICAL METHODS

L

T

P

C

3

1

0

4

Aim:


T
his course gives a complete procedure for solving numerically different kinds of
problems occurring in engineering and technology.


Objectives:



The students would be acquainted with the basic concepts of


numerical methods and their applicati
ons.



1. SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS AND EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS 9 +3



Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations


Fixed point iteration method


Newton
-
Raphson method


Solution of linear system of equations


Gaus
s Elimination
method


Pivoting


Gauss
-
Jordan methods


Matrix Inversion by Gauss
-
Jordan method


Iterative methods of Gauss
-
Jacobi and Gauss
-
Seidel


Eigenvalues of a matrix by
Power method and by Jacobi’s method.


2. INTERPOLATION AND APPROXIMATION

9 + 3



Interpolation with unequal intervals


Lagrange interpolation


Newton’s divided difference
interpolation


Cubic Splines


Interpolation with equal intervals


Newton’s forward and

backward difference formulae.


3. NUMERICAL DIFFERENTATION AND INTEGRATION 9 + 3



Approximation of derivatives using interpolation polynomials


Numerical integration using
Trapezoidal, Simpson’s 1/3 and

Simpson’s 3/8 rules


Romberg’s method


Two point
and three point Gaussian quadrature formulae


Evaluation of double integrals by
Trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules.


4. INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS FOR ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 9 + 3



Singl
e step
-
methods


Taylor’s series method


Euler’s method


Fourth order Runge
-
Kutta method for solving first and second order equations


Multi
-
step methods


Milne’s
and Adams
-
Bashforth predictor
-
corrector methods for solving first order equations.


5.
BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS IN ORDINARY AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS 9 + 3



Finite difference methods for solving two
-
point linear boundar
y value problems. Finite
difference techniques for the solution of two dimensional Laplace’s and Poisson’s
equations on rectangular domain


One dimensional heat
-
flow equation by explicit and
implicit (Crank Nicholson) methods
-

One dimensional wave equati
on by explicit method.


L: 45, T: 15, Total : 60


13

TEXT BOOKS


1.

Grewal, B.S. and Grewal,J.S., “ Numerical methods in Engineering and Science”, 6
th

Edition, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, (2004).

2.

Sankara Rao, K. “Numerical methods for Scientists and Engineers’,

3
rd

Edition Prentice
Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi, (2007).




REFERENCES


1.

Chapra, S. C and Canale, R. P. “Numerical Methods for Engineers”, 5
th

Edition, Tata
McGraw
-
Hill, New Delhi, (2007).

2.

Gerald, C. F. and Wheatley, P. O., “Applied Numerical An
alysis”, 6
th

Edition, Pearson
Education Asia, New Delhi, (2006).

3.

Brian Bradie, “A friendly introduction to Numerical analysis”, Pearson Education Asia,
New Delhi, (2007).








CY 9261
PHYSICAL CHEMSITRY

(Common to Chemical, Textile, Leather and Petroleu
m Refining & Petrochemicals )



L T P C

3 0 0 3


AIM


To know the basic concepts of physical chemistry and its applications.


OBJECTIV
ES


To acquire knowledge in the field of electrochemistry, solubility behaviour, chemical reaction
kinetics, photochemical reactions and colloidal chemistry towards different applications.


UNIT I ELECTROCHEMISTRY







9


Electrical

conductance


Specific conductance


Equivalent conductance


variation with
dilution


Kohlrausch’s law


Transport number


Galvanic cells


EMF and its measurement


Reference electrode


Standard Hydrogen electrode


Nernst equation
-

Electrochemical

series


Applications of EMF measurements: Fuel cells


Hydrogen
-
Oxygen fuel cell


Chemical and electrochemical corrosion


Corrosion control


Different methods.


UNIT II IONIC EQUILIBRIA









9


Acids and bases


Arrhenius concept


Lewis
concept


Dissociation of weak acid, weak
base


Ionic product of water


Buffer solutions


calculation of pH


Henderson’s equation


Hydrolysis of salts


Degree of hydrolysis


Determination


acid
-
base indicators


their
applications


solubility prod
uct principle


Ionic equilibria involving complex ions.



UNIT III CHEMICAL KINETICS








9


Order of a reaction


Zero order, First order, Se
cond order and Third order reactions


Molecualrity of a reaction


Unimolecular and Bimolecular reactions


Experimental methods
of determining order of a reaction


Kinetics of parallel and opposing reactions


Concept of

14

activation energy


Arrhenius eq
uation


Collision theory of reaction rates


Theory of
absolute reaction rates


Kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions.


UNIT IV PHOTOCHEMISTRY







9


Laws of Photochemistry, Quantum efficiency, Photochemical reactions, Actinometry,

Kinetics
and mechanism of Hydrogen


Bromine reaction, Hydrogen


Chlorine reaction


Photosensitization, Chemiluminscence.


UNIT V COLLOIDS










9


Introduction to colloids


properties of colloids


coagulation of solutions


Origin of ch
arge on
colloidal particles


Determination of size of colloidal particles


Donnan Membrane
equilibrium


Emulsions


Gels


Applications of colloids


Nanoparticles (Au, Ag, Pt)


Preparation


Characterization


Properties


Application in catalysis an
d drug delivery
systems.



Total Number of Periods = 45



TEXT BOOKS:


1.

Kund and Jain, Physical Chemistry, S.Chand and Company, New Delhi (1996).

2.

Puri B.H. Sharma L.R. and M.S.Prathama, “Principles of Physical Chemisry”,
S.Chand and Company, New Delhi (200
1).

3.

B.S.Bahl, Arun Bahl and G.D.Tuli, “Essentials of Physical Chemistry”, S.Chand and
Company, New Delhi (2005).



REFERENCE BOOKS:


1.

Gordon M. Barrow, Physical Chemistry, Sixth Edition, Tata McGraw Hill (1998).

2.

Peter Atkins & Julio de Paula, Atkins’ Physic
al Chemistry, 7
th

Edition, Offord
university press. (2002).
























15

PH 9166
MATERIAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

3 0 0 3


3 0 0 3


AIM

To impart knowledge in material properties and manufacturing methods


OBJECTIVES

Students

will be able to understand various material and its properties and manufacturing
methods

UNIT 1



INTRODUCTION







(10 )

Selection criteria and processes: General criteria of selection of materials in process
industries. Properties: Mechanical, Thermal,

Chemical, Electrical, Magnetic and
Technological properties. Processing of Metals and Alloys
-

Casting, Hot and cold rolling,
Forging, Extrusion, Deep drawing.







UNIT 2


MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR






(8)

Elastic, Anelastic and Viscoelastic Behaviour


Plas
tic Deformation by Slip: Critical resolved
shear stress, Mechanism of Creep, Creep Resistant Materials


Fracture: Ductile and Brittle ,
Fatigue fracture, Griffith’s theory, S
-
N curves , Fracture toughness


UNIT 3


PHASE DIAGRAMS AND P
HASE TRANSFORMATIONS


(8)

Gibb’s Phase rule : Uniary and Binary phase diagrams , Al
2
O
3

-

Cr
2
O
3
, Pb
-
Sn, Ag
-
Pt and
Iron
-

Iron Carbide Phase Diagram


Lever rule


Invariant reactions
-

TTT diagrams


Micro
structural changes


Nucleation and growth


Martensitic transformation
s


Solidification and
Crystallization


Glass transition


Recrystallization and Grain growth


UNIT 4



FERROUS, NON
-
FERROUS METALS AND C
OMPOSITES

(10)

Pig iron, Cast iron, Mild Steel
-
properties, Applications and Manufacturing methods; Stainless
steels,
Special Alloy steels
-
properties and uses; Heat treatment of plain
-
carbon steels.

Manufacturing methods of Lead, Tin and Magnesium. Properties and applications in process
industries

FRP
-
Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP), Different types of manufacturing met
hods; Asphalt and
Asphalt mixtures; Wood


UNIT 5



NANOMATERIALS







(9)

Introduction to Nanotechnology
-

Zero Dimensional Nano Structures


Nano particles


One
Dimensional Nano Structures
-

Nano wires and Nano rods


Two Dimensional Nano
Structures, Film
s


Special Nano Materials
-

Nano Structures fabricated by Physical
Techniques


Characterisation and Properties of Nano Materials


Applications of Nano
Structures.



16













Total Number Of Periods = 45











Text Books

1.

Khanna O P, “Material Sc
ience and metallurgy” Dhnapat Rai Publications (1995)

2.

Raghavan V, “Materials and Engineering” Prentice Hall of India, Newdelhi (2006)

3.

Brenner D, “Hand book of Nanoscience and technology” (2002)



References Books


1.

Henry R Clauster, “Industrial and Engin
eering materials” McGraw Hill Book Co.
(1975)


2.

Kingery W D and Bowen H K and Unimann D R, “Introduction to Ceramics” Jhon
Wiley and sons, Second edition (1991)


3.

Fahrner W R
, “Nanotechnology and Nanoeletronics” Springer International edition
(2005)


4.

B
udinsky K G and Budinsky K M “ Engineering materials
-

Properties and Selection”
Prentice Hall of India (2002)

5.

Arumugam M, “ Material Science” Anuradha technical book publishers (1997)








CH 9253
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS
-

I



3 0 0 3



AIM

To introduce fundamental thermodynamic principles and their application


OBJECTIVES

Students will learn PVT behaviour of fluids, laws of thermodynamics, thermodynamic property
relations and their application to fluid flow, power generation and refrige
ration processes.



UNIT I











6

Scope of thermodynamics; Definition of system, control volume, state and path function,
equilibrium, reversibility, energy, work and heat. zeroth law; temperature scales


UNIT II











7

PVT behaviour of fluids; M
athematical representation of PVT behaviour; Generalized
compressibility factor correlation; Generalized equations of state


UNIT III











12

Joule’s experiment, internal energy, first law, energy balance for closed systems, mass and
energy balance fo
r open systems Statements of the second law of thermodynamics, heat
engine and refrigerator, Carnot cycle and Carnot theorems, thermodynamic temperature
scale, entropy and its calculation, second law of thermodynamics for a control volume, Third
law of th
ermodynamics, entropy from a microscopic point of view.






17

UNIT IV











12

Thermodynamic potentials


internal energy, enthalpy, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free
energy; thermodynamic property relations


Maxwell relations


partial derivatives and
Jacobian method; residual properties; thermodynamic property tables and diagrams


UNIT V











8

Duct flow of compressible fluids, Compression and expansion processes, steam power plant,
internal combustion engines, jet and rocket engines, refrigeratio
n


vapour compression and
absorption refrigeration cycles; liquefaction processes.


L = 45; Total number of periods = 45


Text Book

1.

Smith, J.M., Van Ness, H.C and Abbot M.M "Introduction to Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ", McGraw Hill Publishers, VI

edition, 2003

2.

Narayanan, K.V.
A Textbook of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics

Prentice
Hall India, 2004


References

1.

Kyle, B.G., "Chemical and Process Thermodynamics III Edition", Prentice Hall of
India Pvt. Ltd., 1999.

2.

Elliott J.R., Lira, C.T., “Intro
ductory chemical engineering thermodynamics”, Prentice
Hall, 1998

3.

Rao, Y.V.C., “Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics” Universities Press, 2005




CH 9254
MECHANICAL OPERATIONS



3 0 0 3



AIM

To impart knowledge on solid handling and solid liquid separat
ion


OBJECTIVES

The students will learn characterization of solids, size reduction, techniques of solid


fluid separation and mixing



UNIT I











9

General characteristics of solids, different techniques of size analysis, shape factor, surface
area
determination, estimation of particle size. Screening methods and equipment, screen
efficiency, ideal and actual screens.


UNIT II











9

Laws of size reduction, energy relationships in size reduction, methods of size reduction,
classification of equ
ipments, crushers, grinders, disintegrators for coarse, intermediate and
fine grinding, power requirement, work index; size enlargement
-

principle of granulation,
briquetting, pelletisation, and flocculation.


UNIT III











9

Gravity settling, sedime
ntation, thickening, elutriation, double cone classifier, rake classifier,
bowl classifier. Centrifugal separation
-

continuous centrifuges, super centrifuges, design of
basket centrifuges; industrial dust removing equipment, cyclones and hydro cyclones,
electrostatic and magnetic separators, heavy media separations, floatation, jigging


UNIT IV











9

Theory of filtration, Batch and continuous filters, Flow through filter cake and filter media,
compressible and incompressible filter cakes, filtration

equipments
-

selection, operation and
design of filters and optimum cycle of operation, filter aids.



18

UNIT V











9

Mixing and agitation
-

Mixing of liquids (with or without solids), mixing of powders, selection of
suitable mixers, power requirement

for mixing. Storage and Conveying of solids
-

Bunkers,
silos, bins and hoppers, transportation of solids in bulk, conveyer selection, different types of
conveyers and their performance characteristics.


L = 45; Total number of periods = 45


Text Book

1.

McCa
be, W.L., Smith, J.C., and Harriot, P., "Unit Operations in Chemical
Engineering", 6
th

Edn., McGraw
-
Hill, 2001.

2.

Badger W.L. and Banchero J.T., "Introduction to Chemical Engineering", Tata
McGraw Hill, 1997.

3.

Foust, A. S., Wenzel, L.A., Clump, C.W., Naus, L
., and Anderson, L.B., "Principles of
Unit Operations", 2
nd

Edn., John Wiley & Sons, 1994.


References

1.

Coulson, J.M. and Richardson, J.F., "Chemical Engineering" Vol. I, 4
th

Edn., Asian
Books Pvt. Ltd., India, 1998.




CH 9255
HEAT TRANSFER



3 0 0 3


A
IM

To understand the principles and applications heat transfer


OBJECTIVES

To learn heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation and heat transfer equipments
like evaporator and heat exchanger


UNIT I











9

Importance of heat transfer in Ch
emical Engineering operations
-

Modes of heat transfer
-

Fourier's law of heat conduction
-

one dimensional steady state heat conduction equation for
flat plate, hollow cylinder,
-

Heat conduction through a series of resistances
-

Thermal
conductivity mea
surement; effect of temperature on thermal conductivity; Heat transfer in
extended surfaces.


UNIT II











9

Concepts of heat transfer by convection
-

Natural and forced convection,
analogies between
transfer of momentum and heat
-

Reynold’s analogy,

Prandtl and Coulburn analogy.
Dimensional analysis in heat transfer, Correlations for the calculation of heat transfer
coefficients, heat transfer coefficient for flow through a pipe, flow through a non circular
conduit, flow past flat plate, flow throu
gh packed beds. Heat transfer by natural convection.


UNIT III











9

Heat transfer to fluids with phase change
-

heat transfer from condensing vapours, drop wise
and film wise condensation, Nusselt equation for vertical and horizontal tubes, conden
sation
of superheated vapours, effect of non
-
condensable gasses on rate of condensation. Heat
transfer to boiling liquids
-

mechanism of boiling, nucleate boiling and film boiling.


UNIT IV











9

Theory of evaporation
-

single effect and multiple ef
fect evaporation
-

Design calculation for
single and multiple effect evaporation. Radiation heat transfer
-

Emissive power, Black body
radiation, Emissivity, Stefan
-

Boltzman law, Plank’s law, radiation between surfaces,







19


UNIT V











9

Parallel
and counter flow heat exchangers
-

Log mean temperature difference
-

Single pass
and multipass heat exchangers; plate heat exchangers; use of correction factor charts; heat
exchangers effectiveness; number of transfer unit
-

Chart for different configurati
ons
-

Fouling
factors


L = 45; Total number of periods = 45


Text Books

1.

Holman, J. P., ‘Heat Transfer ’, 8
th

Edn., McGraw Hill, 1997.

2.

Ozisik, M. N.,
Heat Transfer: A Basic Approach,
McGraw
-
Hill, 1984

3.

Kern, D.Q., "Process Heat Transfer ", McGraw
-
Hill, 1999
.


Reference

1.

McCabe, W.L., Smith, J.C., and Harriot, P., "Unit Operations in Chemical
Engineering", 6
th

Edn., McGraw
-
Hill, 2001.

2.

Coulson, J.M. and Richardson, J.F., "Chemical Engineering " Vol. I, 4
th

Edn., Asian
Books Pvt. Ltd., India, 1998.



CY 9262
TE
CHNICAL ANALYSIS LAB

(Common to Chemical and Petroleum Refining & Petrochemicals)












L T P C

0 0 4 2

OBJECTIVE


To learn basic principles involved in estimation and characterization of industrially
important
materials.


I. Soap Analysis


a. Estimation of total fatty acid


b. Estimation of percentage alkali content


II. Oil Analysis

a.

Estimation of free acid

b.

Determination of Saponification value

c.

Determination of iodine value


III. Cement Analysis

a.

Esti
mation of Silica content

b.

Estimation of mixed oxide content

c.

Estimation of calcium oxide content

d.

Estimation of calcium oxide by rapid method


IV. Coal Analysis

a.

Estimation of Sulphur present in coal

b.

Ultimate analysis of coal

c.

Proximate analysis of coal


V. Ana
lysis of Bleaching Powder


a. Estimation of available chlorine


VI. Analysis of Glycerol

a.

Estimation of purity of glycerol


VII. Analysis of fuels


a. Flash point


b. Fire point
c. Cloud point d. Pour point
e. Aniline point.



20

Total Number of Periods =

60


REFERENCE MANUAL


Technical Analysis Manual, Chemistry Division, Chemical Engineering Department, A.C.Tech,
Anna University (2007).










CH 9257
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING LAB



0 0 4 2




AIM

To impart practical knowledge in operating IC

engines and conduct experiments. To
understand test procedures in testing material for engineering applications


OBJECTIVES

Students will be able to understand Power
-
generating units such as engines and operate
IC engines and conduct tests. They will be a
ble to appreciate the theory behind the
functioning of engines. Material properties, their behavior under different kinds of loading
and testing can be visualized.


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS *


1.

Port timing diagram

2.

Valve timing diagram

3.

Study of 2,4 stroke I C Eng
ines

4.

Load test on 4
-
stroke petrol engine

5.

Performance test on 4
-
stroke single cylinder diesel engine

6.

Performance test on 4
-
stroke twin cylinder diesel engine

7.

Heat balance test on diesel engines

8.

Tension test

9.

Compression test

10.

Deflection test

11.

Hardness test (Ro
ckwell and Brinell)

12.

Spring test

13.

Torsion test

14.

Impact test



Total Number of Periods = 60





* Minimum 10 experiments shall be offered













21


CH 9258
FLUID MECHANICS LAB



0 0 4 2



AIM

To understand the concepts of fluid mechanics through experi
ments


OBJECTIVES

To learn experimentally to calibrate flowmeters, find pressure loss for fluid flows and
determine pump characteristics.



List of Experiments

1.

Viscosity measurement of non Newtonian fluids

2.

Calibration of constant and variable head meters

3.

Calibration of weirs and notches

4.

Open drum orifice and draining time

5.

Flow through straight pipe

6.

Flow through annular pipe

7.

Flow through helical coil and spiral coil

8.

Losses in pipe fittings and valves

9.

Characteristic curves of pumps

10.

Pressure drop studies in
packed column

11.

Hydrodynamics of fluidized bed

12.

Drag coefficient of solid particle


Equipments required

1.

Viscometer

2.

Venturi meter

3.

Orifice meter

4.

Rotameter

5.

Weir

6.

Open drum with orifice

7.

Pipes and fittings

8.

Helical and spiral coils

9.

Centrifugal pump

10.

Packed column

11.

Flu
idized bed


P = 60; Total number of periods = 60