Key Point - Ware County School System

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Copyright © 2005 aha!
Process, Inc.

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OHT
1

A Framework for
Understanding

Poverty

aha! Process, Inc., Highlands, TX


www.ahaprocess.com

Ruby K. Payne, Ph.D.


PowerPoint Presentation

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OHT
2

This is a workshop
about economic
diversity, not racial or
cultural diversity.





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OHT
3

Our

Objectives
:

Participants will be able to …


Analyze the eight resources of a student.



Give examples of hidden rules among classes.



Identify discipline interventions that are effective.


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OHT
4


Establish a mental
framework for
understanding
economic realities.


Objective for
Module 1:

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5


1. Poverty is
relative.


Key Point


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OHT
6


2. Poverty occurs in
all races.



Key Point


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OHT
7

GROUP

AVERAGE
HOUSEHOLD
INCOME

RANGES: 2003


LOWEST 20%

$0

$17,984


SECOND 20%

$17,985

$34,000


THIRD 20%

$34,001

$54,440


FOURTH 20%

$54,441

$86,860


HIGHEST 20%

$86,861+


*TOP 5% (part


of highest
20%)

$154,120+

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census

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OHT
8

Breakdown of U.S. households by total annual

income and benefit compensation:





% of All


Income


Households U.S. Households


(in millions)



<$10k



10



9.3%


$10k

$14.9k



7



6.5%


$15k

$24.9k


14


13.0%



$25k

$34.9k


13


12.0%


$35k

$49.9k


17


15.7%


$50k

$74.9k


21


19.4%


$75k

$99.9k


12


11.1%


$100k

$149.9k


10



9.3%


$150k

$199.9k



3



2.8%


$200k+




3



2.8%



Median household income: $43,564

Mean household income: $58,036


Source: Census Supplementary Survey (in 2003 inflation
-
adjusted dollars)

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OHT
9

POVERTY STATISTICS


Extreme
-
poverty, poverty, and near
-
poverty rates for children under age 5 by
living arrangement: 2003.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census

2.8%
9.7%
14.5%
32.3%
53.7%
62.4%
0.0%
10.0%
20.0%
30.0%
40.0%
50.0%
60.0%
70.0%
EXTREME
POVERTY
POVERTY
NEAR POVERTY
Rate (%)
Living with married parents
Living with single mother only
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10


3.
Generational
and situational
poverty are
different.


Key Point


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11


4. This work is based
on patterns. All
patterns have
exceptions
.



Key Point


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12


5. Schools operate
from middle
-
class
norms and values.


Key Point


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13


Survival


Relationships


Entertainment



Work


Achievement


Material

security


Political,
financial,
social
connections



Key Point


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OHT
14

6.
Individuals bring with
them the hidden
rules of the class in
which they were
raised.


Key Point


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15


7. There are cultural
differences in poverty. This
study is cross
-
cultural and
focuses on economics.


Key Point


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16


8. We must neither
excuse them nor
scold them. We
must teach them.


Key Point


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17


9. We must teach
them that there are
two sets of rules.


Key Point


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18


10. To move from poverty to
middle class, one must give
up (for a period of time)
relationships for
achievement.


Key Point


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19


11. Two things that
help one move out of
poverty are:




education



relationships


Key Point


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20


12. Four reasons one
leaves poverty are:



too painful to stay



vision or goal



key relationship



special talent/skill


Key Point


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OHT
21

"
No significant

learning occurs

without a

significant

relationship."


Dr. James Comer

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OHT
22


Will be in control


Will be smarter


Will win more often


Won’t be cheated


Will be safe when you are
old


Also:


Life is like a card game

you get bad hands



The mind is tool or weapon
that no one can take away

You need to

learn this,

or do this,

so that you:

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23


Analyze the eight resources of
an individual and make
interventions based on the
resources that are present.



Understand that failure is often
related to missing pieces

and
identify ways to provide missing
resources.

Objectives for
Module 2:

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24


Financial


Having the money to purchase goods and services.



Emotional


Being able to choose and control emotional responses, particularly
to negative situations, without engaging in self
-
destructive
behavior. This is an internal resource and shows itself through
stamina, perseverance, and choices
.



Mental



Having the mental abilities and acquired skills (reading, writing,
computing) to deal with daily life.



Spiritual



Believing in divine purpose and guidance.



Physical



Having physical health and mobility.



Support Systems



Having friends, family, and backup resources available to access in
times of need. These are external resources.



Relationships/Role Models




Having frequent access to adult(s) who are appropriate, who are
nurturing to the child, and who do not engage in self
-
destructive
behavior.



Knowledge of Hidden Rules



Knowing the unspoken cues and habits of a group.

Resources

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25


Name


Financial resources


Emotional resources


Mental resources


Spiritual resources


Physical resources


Support systems


Relationships/role models


Knowledge of hidden rules































































































































Resource Analysis

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OHT
26


Name


Financial resources


Emotional resources


Mental resources


Spiritual resources


Physical resources


Support systems


Relationships/role models


Knowledge of hidden rules

John/Adele







?









Otis/Vangie







?









Opie/Oprah

















Maria/Noemi







(?)









?

Eileen/Wisteria

?

?









?



Juan/Rámon

















Sally/Sueann

?





?





?

?

Tijuana







?









Tahiti/Theresa





?

?









Magnolia







?









Habib





?

?









Steve













?

?

Geraldo

















Raquel

















Resource Analysis

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OHT
27

QUESTIONS TO ASK ABOUT RESOURCES


FINANCIAL


Is there $340 per month per person available?


Is the issue the use of the finances versus the amount of finances?


Is the approach “You owe me because I am poor”? Or is the approach “I am proud; you will never know that I am
in financial need”?



EMOTIONAL


Is there evidence that the individual has persistence?


Can the individual be alone, or does he/she always need people around him/her?


Does the individual act on feelings, i.e., hit when he/she is angry?


Does the individual have coping strategies for adverse situations that are not destructive to self or others?



MENTAL


Can the individual read, write, and compute?


Can the individual plan?


Can the individual problem
-
solve?


Can the individual understand cause and effect, then identify consequence?



SPIRITUAL


Does the individual believe in divine guidance and assistance?


Does the individual have religious affiliation

e.g., church, mosque, synagogue?



PHYSICAL


Can the individual take care of himself/herself without help?


Does the physical body allow the person to work and to learn?



SUPPORT SYSTEMS


Who is available to help this individual with time, money, know
-
how, and advice?


Is this person the main support system for the household?


What connections are available for this person?


What coping strategies are available in this household?


How much time is available to this person to devote to school and learning?



RELATIONSHIPS/ROLE MODELS


Who in the household cares about this person? Who does this person care about in the household?


Is there someone who cares about this individual who is not destructive to self or to others?



KNOWLEDGE OF MIDDLE
-
CLASS HIDDEN RULES


Does this individual know the hidden rules of work and school?


How important are achievement and work?


Will this individual give up achievement and work for relationships?

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28

1. Analyze a student’s resources. Make
interventions based on the resources that
are present.


2. Understand that failure is often related to
missing resources. Is there a way to provide
missing resources?



For example: a nurturing adult.

RESOURCES

What can you do
in the classroom?

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29



Understand and give
examples of the hidden rules of
the three socioeconomic
classes.


Objective for
Module 5:

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30

COMPLETE THE QUIZ:

Put a check by each item you know how to do.


______1.

I know which churches and sections of town have the

best rummage sales.

______2.

I know which rummage sales have “bag sales” and

when.

______3.

I know which grocery stores’ garbage bins can be

accessed for thrown
-
away food.

______4.

I know how to get someone out of jail.

______5.

I know how to physically fight and defend myself

physically.

______6.

I know how to get a gun, even if I have a police record.

______7.

I know how to keep my clothes from being stolen at

the Laundromat.

______8.

I know what problems to look for in a used car.

______9.

I know how to live without a checking account.

______10.

I know how to live without electricity and a phone.

______11.

I know how to use a knife as scissors.

______12.

I can entertain a group of friends with my personality

and my stories.

______13.

I know what to do when I don’t have money to pay the

bills.

______14.

I know how to move in half a day.

______15.

I know how to get and use food stamps or an


electronic card for benefits.

______16.

I know where the free medical clinics are.

______17.

I am very good at trading and bartering.

______18.

I can get by without a car.


Could you survive in poverty?

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31

Could you survive in middle class?

COMPLETE THE QUIZ:

Put a check by each item you know how to do.


______1.

I know how to get my children into Little League, piano


lessons, soccer, etc.

______2.

I know how to set a table properly.

______3.

I know which stores are most likely to carry the clothing


brands my family wears.

______4.

My children know the best name brands in clothing.

______5.

I know how to order in a nice restaurant.

______6.

I know how to use a credit card, checking account, and


savings account

and I understand an annuity. I


understand term life insurance, disability insurance, and


20/80 medical insurance policy, as well as house


insurance, flood insurance, and replacement insurance.

______7.

I talk to my children about going to college.

______8.

I know how to get one of the best interest rates on my


new
-
car loan.

______9.

I understand the difference among the principal,


interest, and escrow statements on my house payment.

______10.

I know how to help my children with their homework and


do not hesitate to call the school if I need additional


information.

______11.

I know how

to decorate the house for the different holidays.

______12.

I know how to get a library card.

______13.

I know how to use most of the tools in the garage.

______14.

I repair items in my house almost immediately

when they


break

or know a repair service and call it.


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32

Could you survive in wealth?

COMPLETE THE QUIZ:

Put a check by each item you know how to do.


______1.

I can read a menu in French, English, and another


language.

______2. I have several favorite restaurants in different




countries of the world.

______3.

During the holidays, I know how to hire a decorator



to identify the appropriate themes and items with which to


decorate the house.

______4.

I know who my preferred financial advisor, legal


service, designer, domestic
-
employment service,



and hairdresser are.

______5.

I have at least two residences that are staffed and



maintained.

______6.

I know how to ensure confidentiality and loyalty


from my domestic staff.

______7.

I have at least two or three “screens” that keep


people whom I do not wish to see away from me.

______8.

I fly in my own plane or the company plane.

______9.

I know how to enroll my children in the preferred


private schools.

______10. I know how to host the parties that “key” people


attend.

______11. I am on the boards of at least two charities.

______12. I know the hidden rules of the Junior League.

______13. I support or buy the work of a particular artist.

______14. I know how to read a corporate financial statement



and analyze my own financial statements.


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OHT
33

POVERTY

MIDDLE CLASS

WEALTH

POSSESSIONS

People.

Things.

One
-
of
-
a
-
kind objects,
legacies, pedigrees.

MONEY

To be used, spent.

To be managed.

To be conserved, invested.

PERSONALITY

Is for entertainment.

Sense of humor is highly
valued.

Is for acquisition and stability.

Achievement is highly valued.

Is for connections.

Financial, political, social
connections are highly
valued.

SOCIAL

EMPHASIS

Social inclusion of the
people they like.

Emphasis is on self
-
governance and self
-
sufficiency.

Emphasis is on social
exclusion.

FOOD

Key question: Did you have
enough?

Quantity important.

Key question: Did you like it?

Quality important.

Key question: Was it
presented well?

Presentation important.

CLOTHING

Clothing valued for
individual style and
expression of personality.

Clothing valued for its quality
and acceptance into the
norms of middle class. Label
important.

Clothing valued for its
artistic sense and
expression.

Designer important.

TIME

Present most important.

Decisions made for moment
based on feelings or
survival.

Future most important.

Decisions made against future
ramifications.

Traditions and past history
most important.

Decisions made partially
on basis of tradition
decorum.

EDUCATION

Valued and revered as
abstract but not as reality.

Education is about facts.

Crucial for climbing success
ladder and making money.

Necessary tradition for
making and maintaining
connections.

DESTINY

Believes in fate. Cannot do
much to mitigate chance.

Believes in choice. Can
change future with good
choices now.

Noblesse oblige.

LANGUAGE

Casual register. Language is
about survival.

Formal register. Language is
about negotiation.

Formal register.

Language is about
connection.

FAMILY
STRUCTURE

Tends to be matriarchal.

Tends to be patriarchal.

Depends on who
has/controls money.

WORLD VIEW

Sees world in terms of local
setting.

Sees world in terms of
national setting.

Sees world in terms of an
international view.

LOVE

Love and acceptance
conditional, based on
whether individual is liked.

Love and acceptance
conditional, based largely on
achievement.

Love and acceptance
conditional, related to
social standing and
connections.

DRIVING FORCES

Survival, relationships,
entertainment.

Work and achievement.

Financial, political, social
connections.

Hidden Rules of Economic Class

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34

POVERTY


Present most important


Decisions made for the moment based on
feelings or survival



MIDDLE CLASS


Future most important


Decisions made against future ramifications


WEALTH


Traditions and past history most important


Decisions made partially on basis of
tradition/decorum

Time

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35

POVERTY


Believes in fate


Cannot do much to mitigate
chance


MIDDLE CLASS


Believes in choice


Can change future with good
choices now



WEALTH


Noblesse oblige


Destiny

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36

believes that one is

fated or destined

the behavior


not get caught

deny

punished

forgiven

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37

POVERTY

People


MIDDLE CLASS

Things


WEALTH

One
-
of
-
a
-
kind objects,
legacies, pedigrees



Possessions

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38


HIDDEN RULES



1. Direct
-
teach the hidden
rules.



2. Teach that there are two
sets of rules.



3. Understand the hidden
rules that students bring
with them.

What can you do
in the classroom?

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39


Understand student
behaviors related to poverty.



Identify discipline
interventions that are
effective.


Objectives for
Module 6:

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40


In what ways could this be resolved?


What factors will be used to determine the

effectiveness, quality of ______?


I would like to recommend ______.


What are choices in this situation?


I am comfortable (uncomfortable) with ______.


Options that could be considered are ______.


For me to be comfortable, I need the

following things to occur: ______.


These are the consequences of that choice/action: ______.


We agree to disagree.




Quit picking on me.




You don't love me.




You want me to leave.




Nobody likes (loves) me.




I hate you.




You're ugly.




You make me sick.




It's your fault.




Don't blame me.




She, he … did it.




You make me mad.




You made me do it
.

VOICES

C
H

I

L
D

A
D
U
L

T


You (shouldn't) should do that.


It's wrong (right) to do ______.


That's stupid, immature, out of line, ridiculous.


Life's not fair. Get busy.


You are good, bad, worthless, beautiful (any
judgmental, evaluative comment).


You do as I say.


If you weren't so ______, this wouldn't happen to you.


Why can’t you be like ______?

P

A

R

E

N

T

Adapted from work of Eric Berne

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OHT
41

Three Types of Parenting:


Permissive



Authoritarian



Negotiated

Choices


Consequences


Parameters

Three Concepts Necessary to

Be Self
-
Governing:

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42


1.

What did you do?


2.

When you did
that, what did
you want?


4.

What will you
do next time?


3.

What are four other
things you could
have done instead?

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OHT
43

Behavior
Analysis


1. Decide what behaviors the student needs to



have in order to be successful.



2. Does the student have the resources to develop
those behaviors?



3. Will it help to contact parent(s)?




Are resources available through them?




What resources are available through the



school/district?



4. How will behaviors be taught?



5. What are other choices the student could



make?



6. What will help the student repeat the



successful behavior?

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OHT
44


TESA (Teacher Expectations & Student Achievement) identified 15
behaviors that teachers use with good students.



The research study found that when teachers used these interactions
with low
-
achieving students, their achievement made significant gains.

What can a

teacher do to

build relationships?

1.
Calls on everyone in room equitably.

2.
Provides individual help.

3.
Gives “wait” time (allows student enough time to answer).

4.
Asks questions to give student clues about answer.

5.
Asks questions that require more thought.

6.
Tells students whether their answers are right or wrong.

7.
Gives specific praise.

8.
Gives reasons for praise.

9.
Listens.

10.
Accepts feelings of student.

11.
Gets within arm’s reach of each student each day.

12.
Is courteous to students.

13.
Shows personal interest and gives compliments.

14.
Touches students (appropriately).

15.
Desists (does not call attention to every negative student
behavior).

Adapted from
TESA
(Teacher Expectations & Student Achievement),

Los Angeles Department of Education

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OHT
45

To discipline

your child/student,

use these steps:


1. STOP the behavior that



is inappropriate.



2. Tell the child WHAT



he/she did that was



wrong.



3. Tell the child WHY the



behavior was wrong



and its consequences.



4. Tell the child HOW to




behave the next time.

STOP

because



3


2

1

next time

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OHT
46


DISCIPLINE



1. Use the adult voice first, then
the parent voice.



2. To avoid arguments with
parents and students, use the
adult voice.


3. Use discipline interventions as
an opportunity for instruction.


4. Use the parent voice to stop
behaviors. Use the adult voice to
change behaviors.

What can you do
in the classroom?