Linked Data as An Element to

drillchinchillaInternet and Web Development

Oct 21, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Linked Data as An Element to
Support Resource Discovery: The
Need for Harmonization of
Metadata Standards


Praveenkumar Vaidya

Librarian, Tolani Maritime Institute, Pune

and

Dr. N. S. Harinarayana, Associate Professor,
DOS LIS, University of Mysore, Mysore


1


Introduction


Libraries and Linked Data


Metadata, Interoperability, crosswalks and
harmonization


Conclusion

Preview

2


Information deluge and information overflow.


Challenge in Information Retrieval.


Lee’s vision: Semantic Web may be one of the
solutions, where even machines can answer
the queries.


Bibliographic and subject standards are used
in library world are translated into the
language of Semantic Web and Linked Data.

Introduction

3


Linked Data is growing body of datasets on the
WWW that are interconnected by means of
the Resource description Framework (RDF).
(W3C, 2004)


RDF
-
grammar for a language of data
-

consists
-
subject, predicate, object
-
to form
-
RDF graph.



LCSH
-
2009
-
Published library standards in RDF.


W3C
-
2011
-
Linked Data Incubator group
-
accepted
-
RDF as tool
-
integration of Library
Data.


Introduction…

4


Basically, to create highly structured
metadata.


To allow computers to understand the relation
between objects to yield precise web search.


W3C
-
working on RDF
-
allows computer to
understand the meaning of the content rather
just matching text
-
Result: Web search engine
works like RDBMS
-
Throws precise search
result.



Libraries and Linked

Data

5


As Freie Universitat Berlin defined
-

First, to
employ the RDF data model to publish
structured data of the Web. Second, to (use
http URIs) to set explicit RDF links between
data items within different data sources”


This gives two distinct aspects of Linked Data:
exposing data as RDF and linking RDF entities
together.

Libraries and Linked Data…

6


Sharable, extensible and easily re
-
usable. With
the concepts like language
-
agnostic URIs, it
supports multilingual functionality for data
and user services.


A query can draw related information from
any link that is available on the world wide
network of data, to get useful results from the
web.

Benefits of Linked

Data…

7


Links between libraries and non library services
-

Wikipedia, Geo names, MusicBrainz, the BBC and
The New York Times will connect into larger
universe of the information on the Web which
seamlessly flow to local user.


If, information Hub linked between Publishers,
Aggregators, Book and Journal vendors, Subject
Authorities, Name Authorities and other Libraries


Can handle selection, ordering, cataloguing,
authority control, taxonomy development and
search. Can also handle intelligent queries.

Benefits of Linked Data…

8


Despite movements like DCMI and FRBR
-
Linked Data compatible
-
Not much has been
integrated with web resource
-
still in
databases.


Existing library standards such as MARC
format or information retrieval protocol
Z39.50 are developed for library specific
context
-
standards should be broadened and
standardized to Linked Data format.

Current Status of Libraries

9


There is disparity in concepts and terminologies
used between libraries and Semantic Web
communities.


Essential for both communities to foster mutual
understanding to bring their respective expertise.


Some hiccups like privacy, trust, rights
management and collaboration with multiple
users exist in full fledge adoption of Linked Data,
much effort is required.

Current Status of Libraries…

10


Libraries have four major roles in the Linked
Data


Exposing collections
-

use Semantic Web
technologies to make content available


Webifying thesaurus/mapping /services


Sharing lessons learned


Persistence (Miller, 2004)




Towards standardization

11


W3C Library Linked Data incubator group
(W3C, 2011) insists on Semantic Web
standardization by using available standards
such as Simple Knowledge Organisation
System (SKOS), Web Ontology Language
(OWL) and RDF.


However, lack of institutional support for
metadata can threaten the long term
persistence.

Towards standardization…

12


In the networked information environment,
both contents and services are identified as
resources


Linking these resources is crucial



Metadata is the key to identify and link these
resources


Across domains and over time



Metadata interoperability

13

14

Metadata


Fundamental Model


Definition: (Structured
) Data about Data


Description about a resource from a certain
point of view in accordance with the
requirements in the domain

resource

Metadata

Metadata

Metadata


Fundamental Model

Bibliographic Information

Book Reviews

Teaching / Learning

Requirements

I want to find a book
about history of India.

I want to find a book
appropriate for my class.

I want to buy a book
about India for my trip.

I want to properly sort
my bookshelf.

Book Classification

Different purposes for a single object

15

Metadata


Fundamental Model

Different objects for a same purpose

I want to find a content to
learn history of India.

I want to buy a content
appropriate for my class.

16

Why Metadata?


Users
search
,
access
,
evaluate

a resource, and
pay

money for the resource on the network


Can we do anything without metadata?

Tasks over the Net

17

Metadata Interoperability


Fundamental Issue


Standards are crucial for interoperability


International / national standards of metadata schemas,
e.g. MARC, MODS, METS, Dublin Core, ISAD(G), PREMIS,
OAIS, etc.


Metadata is used
on the Web / Internet



Open Community, Use/Reuse resource across
communities


Conventional standards are designed by and for a specific
community (
-
ies
)


Metadata Interoperability
across Communities

and
over Time


Need to collect, preserve and provide access to metadata
schemas

18

Metadata Interoperability…


Interoperability is a key issue for metadata


Interoperability across communities


Interoperability over time
---

Preservation


A fundamental barrier is the semantic gap
between communities


Same word but different concepts


Different words for a same concept


Linked Open Data


Sharing concepts expressed as
data, i.e., terms, phrases, etc.

19

Metadata Interoperability…


Promote sharing and reuse of metadata
vocabularies


Metadata vocabulary


a controlled set of terms used
to express metadata


is semantic basis of metadata


“Sharing
M
etadata
V
ocabulary” = “Sharing
C
oncepts”


Application Profile concept of Dublin Core


Mixing and matching metadata vocabularies


Clear separation of metadata vocabularies and
structural constraints in a metadata schema


Share semantics by sharing metadata vocabularies

20

Metadata Interoperability…


Resource Description Framework is a crucial
standard to share metadata on the Web.


Application Profile is separation of


Metadata terms (metadata vocabulary), and


Structure definition (or structural constraints)


Concrete syntax and other related information
should be included in a complete metadata schema
definition.


Singapore Framework gives a framework to define
application
profiles

http://dublincore.org/documents/singapore
-
framework
/

21


YES, but we have more to do than simply linking.


No panacea for metadata interoperability.


Use standards commonly used on the web.


Do not reinvent the metadata schemas.


Use or reuse the existing one


By sharing Metadata vocabularies and Application
Profiles



Necessity of all available standards to come
together and integrate with different domains.



Is
Linked Data the answer?

22


I thank Prof. Shigeo Sugimoto, University of
Tsukuba, Japan allowing me to use few of his
slides for this presentation.

Acknowledgement

23

References:


Berners
-
Lee, T. (2006), “Linked Data

design issues”, available
at:
http
://www.w3.org/
DesignIssues
/
LinkedData.html



DCMI Bibliographic Metadata Task Group (2011), available at
http://wiki.dublincore.org/index.php/Bibliographic_Metadata_Task_Group


Library of Congress (2011), “A bibliographic framework for the digital age”, available at:


http://www.loc.gov/marc/transition/news/framework
-
103111.html


Nilsson,M

and
Naeve
, A. (2010) Metadata
harmonization:a

roadmap for standardization
available at Nilsson, M. (2010), “From interoperability to harmonization in metadata
standardization:Designing

an evolvable framework for metadata harmonization,”
Kungliga

TekniskaHögskolan
, Stockholm, available
at:
http
://
kmr.nada.kth.se
/papers/
SemanticWeb
/
FromInteropToHarm
-
MikaelsThesis.pdf


W3C (2010) Semantic Web, available at
http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/


W3C (2011) Library Linked Data Incubator Group Final Report, W3C Incubator Group Report
25 October 2011, available at:
http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/lld/XGR
-
lld
-
20111025/



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References:


Thank you very much

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