Chapter 1 A Brief History of Microbiology 1. Introduction of ...

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Feb 12, 2013 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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Chapter

1 A Brief History of Microbiology

1. Introduction of microbiology





1) Definitions









Natural science













: The study nature









Microbiology













:An area of biology that deals with living things ordinarily too

small to
be seen without

















magnification









Microorganism













:Any organism too small to be visible to the naked eye









Pathogen













:Microorganism that causes disease









Infectious disease













:Disease caused by

pathogenic microorganism









Taxonomy













:The classification of organisms in an ordered system that indicates natural relationships





2) Microbial organisms (
microbial organisms
)









(1) Prokaryotes

















Prokaryotic organisms

















Unicellular and no nucleus

















More than 100 million species

















Classes





















Bacteria

b
acteriology





















Arch
a
ea
-
inhabit at extreme environments









(2) Viruses

virology (
Fig.1.9
)

















More than 3600 known t
ypes

















Small particles (10nm)
-
nonliving organisms









(3) Fungi

Mycology

















Eukaryotic organisms

















More than 1.5 million species

















About 70000 species described

















'Decomposers'

















Classes





















Molds
-
multiply by hypae (
Fig.1.4a
)





















Yeasts
-
multiply by budding (
Fig.1.4b
)









(4) Protista

protozoology

















More than 200,000 species

















Classes





















Protozoa (
Fig.1.5ab
,
c
)

























-
Locomotive through flagella, cilia
, or pseudopodia

























-
Unicellular





















Algae (algology; phycology) (
Fig.1.6
)

























-
Phot
osynthetic multi or unicellu
lar

























-
Sea
weeds, diatom (
diatom
)









*Taxonomic tree of life (
taxonomic tree
)


2









* Scientists and related disciplines (
Fig.1.20
)





3) Areas
in microbiology (
Table 1.3a
,
b
)









Immunology









Public health, epidemiology









Food and dairy microbiology









Agricultural microbiology









Biotechnology, genetic engineering, and recombinant DNA technology









Industrial microbiology (
Table 1.1
)





4) Microorganisms and our lives









(1) Positive aspects













Environmental, agricultural, and medical









(2) Negative aspects













Pat
hogens





5) Infectious diseases (1999) (
Infectious diseases
)









(1) Major prevalent infectious diseases

















Diarrheal diseases
(40%)

















Tuberculosis (20%)

















Intestinal worms (15%)









(2) Major infections cause death

















Respiratory infections (26%)

















AIDS (18%)

















Diarrheal diseases (18%)

















Tuberc
ulosis (11%)









(3) Inferences

















Fatality of respiratory diseases

















Threat of AIDS

















Parasites are easy to control

2. History of Microbiology





1) The Beginnings of Microbiology (1600s)









(1) Robert Ho
oke













'Micrographia' (1665)













Devised compound microscope and illumination system













Observed organisms such as
insects
, sponges
, cork ('
cella
'), and bird feathers









(2) Anton van Leeuwenhoek













'Animalcules' (1674)













Made more than 240 microscopes (
Fig.1.2
,
microscope
)
-
'lens craft'
-
270X magnification













Discovered bacteria, free
-
living and parasitic microscopic protists, sperm cells,

















blood cells, and microscopic nematodes, and much more









(3) Louis Joblot (1718)













'Descriptions and uses of several new microscopes'













Described protozoa (
Joblot
)





2)The transition period (1700s)









'Miasma'













-
Infectious diseases are caused by altered chemical qu
ality of atmosphere









(1) Dispute of 'spontaneous generation theory'













(a) Francesco Redi (1668) (
Fig.1.10
)


3





















'First
biological experiment'





















Spoiled meat experiment

























-
Maggots originate from flies













(b) John Needham (1748)





















Heated gravy experiment

























-
Supported spontaneous generati
on theory

























-
Heating was not complete













(c) Lazzaro Spallanzani (1767) (
Spallanzani
)





















Boiled gravy exper
iment

























-
Was not accepted by the society













(d) Louis Pasteur (1864) (
Fig.1.11
,
12a
,
b
)





















Boiled nutrient broth in a curved
-
neck beaker





















Disputed 'spontaneous generation theory'









(2) Epidemiology and microbiology

















Epidemiology





















-
Study of the causes, transmission, and control of disease in populations













(a) Girolamo Fracostoro

(1546)





















'Contagion'

























-
Infection that pass from one to another





















Three forms of transmission

























-
Direct contact, lifeless objects, and air













(b) Edward Jenner (1798)





















Developed 'vaccination'
-
smallpox













(c) Ignaz Semmelweis (1847)





















'Hand washing' in chlorine water













(d) John Snow (1854)





















Established relationship between 'cholera outbreak' and






























sewage
-
contaminated
water pump





















Life and Times of John Snow (
http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/snow.html
)









*Table. Some early observations in Microbiology (
people
)





3) The classical golden age of micr
obiology
(1854
-
1914)









(1) Louis Pasteur

















1854. Started working as a professor in Chemistry

















1857. Yeast as a cause of fermentation, bacteria as a cause of sour wine





















Proposed that germs cause infectio
us disease





















Developed attenuated vaccination method
-
rabies vaccination





















Revealed protozoa that cause disease in silkworm





















Developed "pasteurization" method









(2) Robert Koch













A. 187
6. Confirmed 'germ theory' by '
Koch's postulates
'

















(i) The specific organism should be shown to be present in all cases of animals su
ffering

























from a specific disease but should not be found in healthy animals.

















(ii) The specific microorganism should be isolated from the diseased animal and grown in

























pure culture on artificial
laboratory media.

















(iii) This freshly isolated microorganism, when inoculated into a healthy laboratory

























animal, should cause the same disease seen in the original animal.


4

















(iv) The microorganism should
be reisolated in pure culture from the experimental



infection.













B. 1881. Development of 'pure culture' technique (
Fig.1.17
)





















Development of solid media by using gelatin





















Reproducing microorganisms form colonies on the surface of solid media





















Each colony represent progeny of a single microorganism













*Definition of pure culture:
a population containing only a single species or strain of bacteria













C. 1905. Received Nobel Prize for the discovery of tuberculosis causing bacteria





















Also identified organisms that causing typ
hoid fever and diphtheria













*A comparison of
Pasteur and Koch









(3) 1884. Christian Gram

















Developed Gram staining m
ethod (
Fig.1.18
)









(3) 1897. Buchner's experiment (
Fig.1.15
)

















Fermentation does not require cells, rather enzymes

















Opened field of biochemistry and metabolism









(4) 1898.
Martinus Beijerinck

















Isolation of virus (
'contagion
vivum

fluidum')

















Plant virus
-
tobacco mosaic virus

















Animal virus
-
from hoof
-
and
-
mouse disease









(5) Advancement in environmental microbiology

















(a) Photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria)

















(a) Soil bacteria
with sulfur metabolism (sulfur bacteria)

















(b) Nitrogen fixing microorganism (nitrobacteria)









*Scientists and discovered pathogens (
Table 1.2
)





4) The second golden age of microbiology (1943
-
1970)













Microbial genetics and molecular biology









(1) Utilization of experimental organisms













A. 1943. Salvador Luria and Max Dulbruck used
E.coli





















Spontaneous mutation was responsible for resistance to viral infection













B. George Beadle and Edward Tatum used
Neurospora





















One gene codes for one protein













C. 1944. Oswald Avery used
Streptococcus pneumoniae





















DNA is genetic material in a cell (transformation)













D. 1953. Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase used virus (bacteriophage)





















DNA is genetic material (viral infection to
E.coli
)









(2) Invention of electron

microscope

















*1931 by Ernst Ruska

















Revealed nuclear structure of microorganisms (Fig.1.14)





















-
Distinguished structural characters of prokaryote, eukaryote, and virus









(3) Discovery of antibiotics

















1929. Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin

















1932. Selman Waksman discovered actinomycin and streptomycin





























-
He coined name 'antibiotic'

















1940. Howard Florey purified and used penicillin
for clinical purpose

















No attention was given to antibiotic resistance





5) The third golden age of microbiology
-
Now


5













Era of biotechnology
-
bioengineering













Genomics: Study of organism's DNA













Bioinformatics:

Study of biological information based on statistics and computer









(1) Challenges of microbiology













(a) Antibiotic resistance













(b) Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases





















Emerging infectious diseases: AID
S, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome,




























Lyme disease, mad cow disease





















Reemerging infectious diseases: cholera, tuberculosis, dengue fever, West Nile fever













(c) Bioterrorism





















Anthrax, sm
allpox, and plague









(2) Microbial ecology and evolution

















Forming '
biofilm
' among many microorganisms

















Ecological microorga
nisms may be decomposing and/or infectious agents

















Bioremediation
-
Uses ecological microorganisms to take care

























dangerous environmental wastes

















Utilizes genome sequence on evolutionary study









(3)
Microorganisms as 'invisible emperors' of the world