Week 6 - DMA Classes

doubleperidotAI and Robotics

Nov 30, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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Desma 101

Media Arts
-
an Introduction


Meeting
6 Art and Cybernetics; Origins of Interactive Art


******


These are just random notes; they don’t represent the entire lecture!


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From representing life to creating it


Traditionally arts have been
understood as
representations
of life, rather than as
creation

of life itself.


“The imitation of life”: art history knows cases in which the artist’s creations were so
lifelike that they were taken as life itself (about the mimetic tradition, see Erich
Au
erbach:
Mimesis
).


The artificial creation of life belonged to the field of the occult, or to the field of
engineering demonstrations (often mytological stories); mechanical ‘living’ marvels,
automata, fell outside the canons of art (although figures like
Leonardo da Vinci did
both). Jack Burnham calls this tradition “subsculptural.”


Automata were display pieces and ‘attractions’, demonstrations of human ingenuity; the
Romantic imagination ‘animated’ them (Mary Shelley, E.T.A. Hoffmann’s), often
providing
them with uncanny threatening features.


*****


Artworks as ‘living’ entities


In the second half of the 20th century the idea of art as living entity emerged. Major
early theorist was Jack Burnham. His key work was
Beyond Modern Sculpture
(1968).
Coined t
he concept “cybernetic art”. He also explored this idea in the classic
exhibition called Software, which has curated for the Jewish Museum, New York, in
1970.


According to Burnham, cybernetic art will continue the trajectory of
anthropomorphism in Western
art. “Living” artwork will inherit the role of works that
only mimic the external appearance of living creatures. For Burnham Robot could be an
artwork; robots are inheritors of the ancient tradition of automata. Burnham’s ideas
were considered controvers
ial among critics, and even ridiculed.


*****


Cybernetics as inspiration to cybernetic art


Burnham’s thinking was heavily influenced by Cybernetics. The word ‘cybernetics’ was
coined in 1948 by U.S. mathematician Norbert Wiener (1894
-
1964) at MIT. It der
ived
from Greek
kubernetes
"steersman," perhaps based on 1830s Fr.
cybernétique
("the art
of governing.")


Kybernetics is the science of control systems, theory of self
-
regulating organisms. It
provided explanations for the functioning of command and contr
ol systems. “Feedback”
was the central concept. Cybernetics offered itself potentially as an umbrella science
that could also bridge machines and organic creatures (’social cybernetics’, etc.),
explaining the modes of communication between them.


*****


Cy
bernetic art


Technology based: motors, light, sound. Often (but not always) responsive: reacted in
various ways to external stimuli (wind, light, sound; to natural elements or the visitors’
presence).


“Bachelor machines” were an anticipation of some form
s of cybernetic art. They were
absurd, often sexualized machines, imagined and sometimes realized by artists and
writers (Marcel Duchamp, Raymond Roussel, Franz Kafka: “In the Penal Colony”, Jean
Tinguely). However, these machines often had a whimsical, fa
ntastic (‘dadalike’?) quality,
that separated them from the more ‘engineer’ and ‘constructivist’

influenced nature of
cybernetics artworks. The classic book:
The Bachelor Machines
, ed. Jean Clair and
Harald Szeemann, New York: Rizzoli, 1975.


Predecessors
(artworks as machines): Duchamp: “Precision Optics”, Moholy
-
Nagy:
“Licht
-
requisit”, Naum Gabo: Permanent Wave, Len Lye’s late work, Alexander
Calder’s “Mobiles”. Calder’s mobiles were a good example of the use of feedback
(hanging structures react to win
d).


Kinetic Art (1950s
-
) was a transitory stage (active perception, user activated works);
play with perception, optical illusion; did not necessarily use technology, but often did.
Important theorist and curator of kinetic art: Frank Popper.


Leading ‘cy
bernetic’ artists: Nicolas Schöffer, Wen Ying Tsai, Takis, Frank Malina,
Edward Ihnatowitz, James Seawright. An important exhibition: The Cybernetic
Serendipity, curated by Jasia Reichadt, London, ICA, 1969.



*****

Jean Tinguely: destructive / self
-
destru
cting machines


Member or Le Nouveau Réalisme, close friend of Yves Klein. Influenced by dadaism,
surrealism, the tradition of “bachelor machines” (absurd, often erotic and conceptual
machines as artworks described by artists and writers: Duchamp, Raymond
Roussel,
Frank Kafka, Jonathan Swift). Humor meets subversion in varying degrees in Tinguely’s
works. Close collaborator Niki de Saint Phalle: became notorious for hers
tirs
,
shooting actions.


*****


Edward Ihnatowicz (1926
-
1988)


Cybernetic sculptor, par
ticipated in Jasia Reichardt’s
Cybernetic Serendipity
show,
London, 1968. Responsive sculptures: SAM (1968), Senster (1969
-
71), Bandit (1972)

Senster was a giant (15 feet long) hydraulic robot commissioned by Philips to their
permanent Evoluon showroom in
Eindhoven, Holland. Removed in 1974, thought to
have been destroyed, but recently re
-
discovered (without the electronic control
system) as a sculpture standing in front of the building of the company that constructed
it.


*****


Issues raised by cybernetic
art


Led to the idea of “art as a system”. Interesting issues: should an artwork be a self
-
regulating system? What is the role of the audience/spectator? Can art be a system that
incorporates both the work and the spectator/participant? Are hybrid
cyberne
tic/organic systems possible?


How do “responsive sculptures” differ from “interactive installations”?
-
Responsive
sculptures create one
-
to
-
one responsiveness; initiate a relationship; usually are not
really user controllable; simple forms of action
-
respo
nse. Interactivity raises the
semantic aspects of human

machine interaction in more complex ways?


How do work that respond to environmental stimuli (Alexander Calder’s
mobiles
)
differ from those than respond to human presence and actions (Ihnatowitz’s
S
enster
)?


In which sense can cybernetic artworks be considered as ‘living’ entities?


*****


Artificial Intelligence and Art, some very basic issues


Can a computer system learn, transcend pre
-
programmed constraints (take a “leap”?)


Is it possible to prog
ram a computer to be an autonomous artist?


Is it possible to create a smart conversational program that could fool a human user to
take it as another human?


Some influential early projects; Joseph Weibenbau, ELIZA, 1966; Nicholas Negroponte
and the Archi
tecture Machine Group, MIT: SEEK, 1970 (show at Burnham’s Software
exhibition, 1970).


*****


Harold Cohen: AARON


Continuously under development since the early 1970s. The most important art
project that involves artificial intelligence.


Influenced by Co
hen’s encounter with artificial intelligence research at Edward
Feigenbaum’s laboratory at Stanford University.


Aaron is an expert system that creates paintings and drawings “relatively
autonomously” (Cohen).


For 30 years, the code has been constantly re
-
written and expanded by Cohen

Series of different output devices: a drawing “turtle” moving on paper, painting
machines (designed by Cohen himself), more recently to a software application that
automatically creates pictures on the desktop


*****


AI and
A
-
Life


In the 60s and 70s artificial intelligence (AI) represented one of the frontiers of digital
culture.


From the late 1980s Artificial Life or A
-
Life became a buzzword also among media
artists. One of the original centers for A
-
Life: Santa Fe Institu
te, with Christopher
Langdon, Tom Ray. Also elsewhere Larry Yaeger at Apple created Polyworld, an
artificial life ecological simulator.


Where is the difference between AI and A
-
Life? A
-
Life a new beginning. AI was about
simulating human reasoning and inte
llect with a computer program: interest in learning
systems, natural language processing. A
-
Life simulates biological life
-
processes within
the computer: ‘theoretical, hypothetical, alternate’ biosystems. Uses genetic
algorithms.


Artists who have explored
the possibilities of A
-
Life: Christa Sommerer and Lurent
Mignonneau, Karl Sims, Troy Innocent, Jane Prophet…


*****


Origins of Interactive Media Art


What is interactive art?


Three Classics:

-
Videoplace by Myron Krueger

-
Very Nervous System by David R
okeby

-
Handsight by Agnes Hegedus


Myron Krueger:
Videoplace
(1974
-
)

-
playful software/hardware environment for human
-
machine interactions

-
Uses video camera as an input, displays colored outline figures of the use interacting
with the software features
.

-
Non
-
immersive and non
-
tactile: these were deliberate choices, as Krueger has
explained in his important book
Artificial Reality II
.


David Rokeby’s
Very Nervous System
(1982)

-
exploring the intimacy and immediacy of the human / computer feedback loop

-
visual input / sound output
-
but could be anything!

-
physical interaction; compare with ‘non
-
art’ aplications like the Mandala System, DDR,
Nintendo Wii

where is the difference?


Agnes Hegedus:
Handsight
, 1992

-
interactive art as a way of exploring
an ‘impossible’ (virtual) world

-
modified virtual reality experience using a polhemus sensor. (No bodily immersion!)

-
interactive art as an emotional experience, with intellectual and historical
connotations!


*****


The immediate context and inspiration
for artworks like these was the changing nature
and role of the computer in the 1960’s and 70’s: from a statistical calculator to a
personal interactive multimedia data processor. This impulse was perhaps more
important than the influence of the tradition
s of art.


Interface design led the development at Xerox Parc, MIT’s Architecture Machine Group
and elsewhere. A classic project that showed the way toward interactive art was
MIT
Architectural Machine Group:
The Aspen Movie Map
, 1978
-
80: interactive spat
ial
navigation system with a computer
-
controlled laserdisc (future media artists such as
Mike Naimark and Rebecca Allen were part of the team!)


*****


Interactivity
-
a ‘classic’ definition


"Mutual and simultaneous activity on the part of both participa
nts [human and machine],
usually working toward some goal, but not necessarily."


-
Andy Lippman in Stewart Brand:
The Media Lab. Inventing the Future at M.I.T.
, (1988,
p.46).


*****


Unlike it is often believed, the computer should not ‘automatically’ be
considered an
“interactive device”. Interactive computing, interactive media and interactive media art
developed over time.


*****


Interactive systems according to Ted Nelson


You sit at a keyboard, and type. The computer receives the electrical signal fr
om each
key you touch. When it is good and ready it types something back. It types on paper, or
it types on a screen. [...] In the coming years [interactive systems] will help us with
every conceivable human task
-
whether painting a picture, composing a s
onnet, or
trying to decide how to invest your money."



-
Ted Nelson: "The Magic of Interactive Computer", Nelson:
Home Computer Revolution

(1977)


*****


According to Huhtamo, to be understood, interactivity as a cultural phenomenon
should be placed within
a wider context. It can be understood in terms of a historical
dialectic:


-

Mechanization
:1800
-
; ‘full mechanization’ from around 1900.

-

Automation
(’cybernation’); origins: ‘automata’; ‘automatic machines’ in late 19th
century; ‘full automation’, from
around 1950.

-

Interactivity
; since the 1960s; entering the “culture of interactivity”, when ?


*****


Full Mechanization


Three characteristics:

-
a hierarchy of standardized segmented and subsegmented parts and subparts, all
interchangeable

-
a fully Ta
ylorized workforce, performing standardized repeated actions

-
a continuous, sequential assembly line


(Peter Wollen)


*****


From Mechanization to Automation


"Mechanization fixes his [worker's] time and fixes his movements, and he has to
produce a series
of semi
-
intelligent mechanical motions to keep the machine fed and
moving....


Automation...by being a self
-
adapting and a changing piece of mechanism, enables a man
to work at whatever pace he wants to work, because the machine will react to him."



(Bag
rit,
The Age of Automation
, 1965, p.39.)


*****


Automata
-
one of the origins of automation. Automata are self
-
regulating (feed
-
back)
mechanisms, supposed to work without human intervention, after having been started.
They are the
opposite
of interactive
media.


*****


Automation "is a process which substitutes programmed machine
-
controlled
operations for human manipulations. It is the fruit, so to speak, of cybernetics and
computers."

-
Daniel Bell, Preface to Bagrit,
The Age of Automation
(1965, p.xvii.
)


*****


Origins of Interactive Art


-
Go much further back in time than the advent of digital technology

-
Media art has been influenced by technology and popular culture, coming from
outside

the traditional art world

-
Changing the spectator and art aud
ience into active participants

-
Breaking taboos of the untouchability of the art object by bridging art and life.


*****


The ‘Counter Machine’


-
The emergence of the
‘counter machine’
in the late 19th century an important
development. These were machine
s used for pleasure, and not for productivity. The
initiative belongs to the user.

-
Counter
-
machines were used for several purposes: selling snacks, postage stamps,
etc., gaming, development of skills, fortune telling...

-
Physical pleasurable interaction
with the machine was essential (contrary to the
forced interaction in mechanized factory or office) !



*****


Some early sources of Interactive Art


-
Early 20th Century Avant
-
Garde art was influenced by popular culture,
Dadaism and
Surrealism good examp
les (circus, vaudeville, slapstich comedy)

-
The effort by the avant
-
garde to bridge art and life created interest in the use of
machines, and the human
-
machine interaction.

-
Not just avart
-
garde art, but also exhibition design contributed to the emergenc
e of
interactive art.

-
Frederick Kiesler’s design for Peggy Guggenheim’s “Art of this Century” Gallery
(New York 1942) pointed toward interactive art.


*****


Ken Feingold


Ken Feingold’s pioneering interactive installation
Surprising Spiral
(1991) is a p
layful
comment on Duchamp’s
Prière de Toucher
(and much more!)


Ken Feingold’s more recent works using talking animatronic heads with ‘behaviours’
and ‘characters’ have been influenced by automata, ventriloquist dummies, fortune
-
telling machines and other
anthropomorphic machines. They are also ambiguous
commentaries on the discourses on artificial intelligence.


*****


Roots of interactive art can be found from many different fields:


-
arcade and coin
-
operated machines

-
educational devices like ‘teaching
machines’

-
proto
-
interactive television programs like
Winky Dink and You
in the 1950s

-
driving, flying etc. simulators

-
Experimental instruments and interfaces created by artists, like Oskar Fischinger’s
Lumigraph (1955)

-
Happening and performance (Fl
uxus!)

-
Optical and other philosophical toys, including games


*****


The History of Interactive art has not been completely mapped. Discoveries are still
possible, such as the interactive machines designed and built by the Finnish scientist,
composer and
artist Erkki Kurenniemi in the beginning of the 1970s. His DIMI
-
O has
only been discovered recently as an early classic of interactive art... More discoveries
are possible...


*****


Finally: most interactive art is digital, but it does not have to be. Th
is is proven by
Bernie Lubell’s (San Francisco) amazing wooden interactive artworks.