Future Directions in Sport Biomechanics

donutsclubMechanics

Oct 24, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Future Directions in

Sport Biomechanics

D. Gordon E. Robertson, Ph.D.





Biomechanics Laboratory,

School of Human Kinetics,

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, CANADA

Themes

1.
Outlets for sport biomechanics
research (societies, conferences,
journals)

2.
Funding

3.
Research tools

4.
Research questions/ideas (where
may we be going next)

Journals


Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
(1931)


Journal of Biomechanics (1968)


Human Movement Science (1984)


Journal of Applied Biomechanics (1985, as
Int. Journal of Sport Biomechanics)


Journal of Electromyography &
Kinesiology (1991)


Sport Biomechanics (2001)


and many others including


Journals Cont’d

Almost every combination of sport, science and
medicine:


Journal of Science and Medicine in Sports


Journal of Sport Science and Medicine


Journal of Sport Science


Science and Sport (French)


British

Journal of Sports Medicine


Scandinavian

Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports


Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports and
Exercise


Journal of Science and Medicine in Sports and
Exercise


Still to come:



Journal of Sports Medicine and Science


Journal of Sports Science and Medicine


Journal of Medicine in Sport Science

Societies


Canadian Society for Biomechanics


American/Australian
-
New Zealand/European/…
Society of Biomechanics


Clinical Gait and Movement Analysis Society


International Society of Biomechanics


International Society of Biomechanics in Sports


Soci
é
té Biomccanique


many others … (ASME, ACSM, DGfB, ESMAC,
ISPGR)


Funding for Research


through national agencies (NSERC,
CHR, CFI)


industry (equipment manufacturers)


sport governing bodies


Olympic/games funds


provincial sports agencies


student/faculty interests


other countries


Current Technologies


semi
-
/automated
2D or 3D

digitizing systems


VHS/IRED/Digital/CCD
camera

systems


telemetered

force and/or EMG signals


GPS

monitoring of motion (soccer players by Hennig)


accelerometric/gyroscopic

monitoring of motion


microprocessor

monitoring/recording of EMG, ECG,
forces etc.


instrumented athletic implements

(bicycle cranks,
paddles, oars, racquets …)


force platforms
for measuring ground reaction forces
(diving platforms, starting blocks, lifting platforms …)


Technique Changes and
Sport Biomechanics


revolutionary technique changes


back
-
layout high jump


spin shot put


V
-
style ski jump


skate skiing


grab
-
start (swimming)


pole vaulting (fibreglass poles)





Sports Engineering


mechanical innovations:


rowing (sliding seats, riggings)


bicycles (disc wheels, suspensions)


wheelchairs (4 to 3 wheels)


footware


clothing


helmets


klapskate

Implements


Racquet sports


stringing


materials


racquet shape


Batting sports


materials (aluminum vs. wood)


composites (corking)


inertial properties


Paddling sports


material properties


shape/structure


fluid dynamics

Ergometers/Simulators


Treadmills


ski


instrumented with force platforms


Ergometers


bicycle


rowing


swim


Instrumented exercise machines


Cybex, KinCom, Biodex


bicycle cranks

Virtual Reality


Goalie training


Batting


Golfing


Skiing


Computer controlled equipment for accurate
reproduction of competition conditions.


Do training methods accurately represent
competition dynamics? (Specificity principle)


Computer Modelling and
Simulation


Diving


Figure skating


Trampolining


Gymnastics



Simulation of Grand Jet
é

New Implements will need
Rule Changes



corked
-
bats
” (baseball,
softball)


fluid filled discus

(less
rotational inertia, more
stability in flight?)


atlatl

used with javelin (will
need bigger stadia or protective
vests for spectators)

Vibration
-
controlled
Racquets


Racquets can “control” vibration
through a careful integration of hard and
soft materials

graphite, a ceramic alloy
and an innovative new elastic developed
by Yonex

whose combined performance
accurately
controls vibration to 150 to
170

Hz

for the best possible combination
of powerful solid feel for playability and
minimum shock and vibration for
playing comfort.


Stringing and construction can increase
“sweet spot”

areas.

Clothing


Aerodynamics


The seaming in the suit was
pushed to the front of the uniform
to create the most aerodynamic
garment possible. The Nike
innovation team estimates that
the hood helps eliminate drag by
3 per cent. This is the equivalent
to eight feet in a 2000 metre race.


Moisture
-
wicking technology

helps sustain body temperature
by drawing sweat away from the
skin and moving it to the outside
of the fabric where it evaporates.


Cooling vests

may be worn
immediately before competition
starts to combat high
temperatures.

Surfaces


Modern track surfaces use a mix of plastic rubbers
combined with other plastic binders or with solid
polyurethane, which is then glued to the ground like
carpeting.


tunable surfaces

(stiff for sprinting, softer for
distances)


variable banking of tracks

(athletics and cycling)


flat for 10 000 metres


15% grade for 200 m



pitcher’s mounds
” at high, long and triple jumps


allow “
ballista
” in long and high jumps

Footwear


Injury prevention


Traction (temporarily glue shoe or sole of
shoe or “spikes” to foot)


Energy storage/release shoes (springs)


Reducing energy absorption


Skates (what’s beyond the klapskate?)


Ski boots/bindings (microprocessor
controlled)


Computer monitoring of race by shoe

Summary

1.
Many venues are available for Sport
Biomechanics research

2.
Without funding, research will be driven
by industrial and business concerns

3.
Engineering mechanics will be an
important facet of sports biomechanics

4.
Research tools are readily available for
advanced analysis of sports techniques

5.
Many questions are yet to be explored

Your Ideas


Questions


Answers


Other directions


“It’s
Not

About the Bike.” Lance
Armstrong
.