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doctorheavenlyNetworking and Communications

Oct 24, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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1/28/2010

1/28/2010

Network Plus

IP Addressing Review


IP Address Classes

Reserved IP Addresses Ranges


Addresses cannot be all “1s”


Considered broadcast



Loopback address


127.x.y.z



Private IP address reserved for LAN, not routable
across Internet BGP routers.


Private IP Address Ranges

Subnet Masking

Default Subnet
Masks


Classful Default Masks


Class A: 255.0.0.0


Class B: 255.255.0.0


Class C: 255.255.255.0


Classless Default Masks


Class A: /8


Class B: /16


Class C: /24

Subnetting


IP Address: 192.168.1.x/24


Default Mask: 255.255.255.0


Create 3 subnets


Mask: 255.255.255.224


11100000 = 128+64+32 = 224


Subnet numbers:


001, 010, 100


Computer address 1 on subnet 001


192.168.1.33


Computer address 1 on subnet 010


192.168.1.65


Super
-
Netting


Put more computers on subnet than default mask
would allow


Example: Need 300 computers on 192.168.4.x/24


Subnet Mask (move to the left 1 bit)


255.255.254.0 or /23


Computer addresses:


192.168.00000100.00000001


192.168.4.1


192.168.00000101.111111110


192.168.5.254


Planning IP Addresses


Necessary IP Address components:


IP Address


Subnet Mask


Default Gateway

IP Configuration


Gateway and all computers must have same IP network
address on the switch


Gateway has public IP address on Internet port


Computer uses Subnet Mask to check destination
against it’s IP address. If on same network, ARP and get
MAC address of receiver. If on different networks, sends
packet to the gateway.

Computer IP Configuration Settings


IP Address: 192.168.4.1


Mask: 255.255.255.0


Default Gateway: 192.168.4.10


IP Assignment Methods


Static


Used by devices such as Printers, Servers, Routers


Assignment method depends on device or computer
OS


Dynamic


BootP (Bootstrap Protocol)


DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)


APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing)

Static IP Assignment

DHCP


Client makes
requrest
.


DHCP Server makes IP lease assignment from a range
of IP
addresses called a scope


Lease must be renewed within specified period (days or
hours)


Provides multiple parameters

APIPA


Automatic Private IP Addressing


Used by Windows when no response from DHCP
server


Microsoft Standard


Apple has similar process called Rendezvous


Address range:


169.254.x.y


Does not use Gateway


When you see a computer with this address it may have
experienced problem connecting to DHCP server such as if a
users turns on computer before WAP

IPv6 Address Overview


Composed of 8 16
-
bit fields (128
-
bits)


Each 16
-
bit field represented by 4 Hex digits separated
by colons.


F:F:0:0:0:0:3012:0CE3 same as
000F:000F:0000:0000:0000:0000:3012:0CE3


A string of “0000” fields may be represented by a
double ::


F:F::3012:CE3 ( in shorthand)


Because there are 8 16 bit fields, it is assumed 4 fields
of 0000 between the “::”


Loopback address = ::1

(0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001
)



IPv6 Address Specifications


Address reflects scope of transmission’s recipients:


First 64 bits is the network and last 64 bits is the host


Unicast

address local address


Starts with


FEC or FE8


Public Internet start with 2 or 3


Anycast

address


represents any one interface
from
a group of interfaces


Multicast
address:


Starts with


FF0x


x” is the group id


Global multicast


Starts with


FF0E


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IPv6
Address Scopes


Unicast

address (link
-
local)


FE80: … (link
-
local


packet not routable
)


1111

1110 10
(“FE8
”, “FE9”, “FEA” or “FEB
”)


FEC0
:.. (
site
-
local



not routable on public Internet)


1111 1110 11 (“FEC”, “FED”, “FEE” or “FEF
”)


Nnnn
: (Internet)


Multicast


Send to all computers in a multi
-
cast group


FF0x: … (x represents the multicast group)


Anycast

address


Standard
unicast

address assigned to multiple machines


Used
with
routers to all nearest
router
to accept
the packet


Packet can be accepted by first available device




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IPv6 Address Types

Link Scope

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Aggregatable

Global Address


Used on Public Internet routers


D
esigned from its foundation to support efficient,
hierarchical addressing and routing


Summarized to produce an efficient routing
infrastructure


Start with 001 in first three bits. (2:: or 3::)

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IPv6 Subnetting


Does not use Classes


every IPv6 address is
classless


No subnet masks


First 64
-
bits network id
(Subnet Prefix) and
last 64
-
bits is the interface id
.


Interfaces that share subnet prefix on same subnet

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Route Prefix


Interfaces that belong to same route


Vary in length defined by “/”


2608:FE10::/32


Example:


National NSP assigns regional ISP 32
-
bit route:
2608:FE10::/32


Regional ISP assigns a local ISP a 48
-
bit route block
prefix: 2608:FE10:1::/48


Local ISP assigns business 2608:FE10:1:A::/64



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That’s all folks