Glasgow 2014 - Strathprints

disgustedtukwilaInternet and Web Development

Dec 14, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

85 views





Glasgow 2014


“The Volunteers’ Legacy”


Volunteering:

Recruitment, Management and Outcomes


K. Tomazos


Wednesday
22
nd

February
2012


Focus of Research Effort

Selection
and training as part of the pre
-
task stage of the participation.

Analysis of data provided by the organisers


staffing needs


tasks


A
ttitudes and levels of satisfaction, but also the expectations of the
participants.


observation
of volunteers at
work


random interviews


Legacy, aftermath of the participation


impact
of the experience on the volunteers


the
extent to which the expectations of the volunteers have been met.



Theoretical Approach


Assumptions


Motivation


Altruism and Instrumentalism (Reciprocity): Altruistic Individualism?


Cost of Volunteering


Traditional Volunteering


Rise of New Volunteerism


Reflexive Volunteering


Volunteers Assets Model


The VAM and this Study


Volunteers at Mega Events


Volunteers and Mega Sports Events


A Volunteer labour force is critical to mega sports events such as the Olympic or
Commonwealth games
(
Preuss
, 2007: 207)


Without volunteers, such events would cease to exist
(
Goldblatt
, 2002: 110)


The costs of running such events with paid labour would be prohibitive and, as
such events increase in size and number, their reliance on volunteers has grown
apace

(Nichols and Ralston, 2010:169)




2000 Olympic Games (Sydney): 70,000 volunteers


2002 Commonwealth Games (Manchester): 10,500 volunteers


2012 Olympic Games (London): 70,000 volunteers (required)


2014 Commonwealth Games (Glasgow): 15,000 (required)

“New Volunteerism”

Challenge of
recruiting and retaining volunteers in an era of a decline in
civic engagement (Putnam, 1993;
Stolle

and
Hooghe
, 2003
).



R
e
inventing
the concept of volunteering as “revolving
-
door”, “drop
-
by”,
or “plug
-
in” volunteering (Dekker and
Halman
, 2003;
Eliasoph
, 1998
).



S
elf
-
driven
and self
-
centred volunteering could provide a new impetus
for an alternative volunteer movement using an army of dedicated
individuals serving others while meeting their own needs and writing
their own narrative of self
-
actualization (
Micheletti
, 2003; Handy and
Srinivasan
, 2004).

Reflexive Volunteering

F
undamentally
entrenched in the active (re)design of individualised
biographies and lifestyles
(
Hustinx

and
Lammertyn

2003
: 238
).



R
eflexive
volunteers invest a restricted amount of time, and perform a
limited set of activities (
Hustinx

et al, 2010
).




Scholars of volunteerism and participation document the assumed ‘passing’
of the traditional volunteer, the emergence and rise of the episodic volunteer
(
Cnnan

and Handy, 2005; Handy,
Brodeur

and
Cnaan
, 2006;
MacDuff
,
2005), an apparent loss of social capital (Putnam, 2000), the emergence of
postmodernism (
Hustinx

and
Lammertyn
, 2003), and problems of building
citizenship and community spirit (
Meijs

and
Brudney
, 2007
).



Have
we been using the wrong model of volunteer work
?


Need to focus
on the organisation’s needs and how the potential volunteers’
assets (talents, capabilities, knowledge and expertise) could serve
them best.


The Volunteer Assets Model

Service
: Offering high availability but low assets (The
traditional backbone of volunteer supply)

Star:

Offering high availability that host organisations
wish to engage precisely to benefit from their assets
(high levels of professional training or
accomplishment, influence in their community,
association with important decision makers)

Sweat:

Offering low availability and low assets. They
include younger volunteers and students engaged in
learning who may just be starting work in
organisations and lack experience. They could also
be highly professional experts who chose to perform
outside their chosen career field (i.e doctors
preparing meals etc)

Specialists:
Offering low availability, but have high
assets that they may wish to contribute (highly trained
professionals spanning different fields). They may not
have the opportunity (availability) to contribute these
valuable skills on an on
-
going basis, but are attracted
to episodic volunteering.


(Devised from the work of Brudney and Meijs, 2009)

The VAM and this Study


Volunteer administrators
should be encouraged to
find
a ‘fit’
between a potential volunteer’s
interests, needs and motivations and what they as an organisation can offer to them. Getting the
correct mix of expectations, motivations and outcomes could really make a difference in terms of a
recruitment drive
.



Looking at the model, any potential
training

could turn sweat and service volunteers into specialists,
but also the training could be perceived as an added bonus which may affect availability, especially
amongst less represented social groups for whom volunteering for 2014 could be the first form of
formal training they may have received



R
ecruitment
strategy should
communicate
to potential
volunteers:




The
context of the work, the time considerations, possible out of pocket costs, the training they offer,
the qualifications and characteristics that would be ideal and the benefits to the volunteer
.



T
he
tasks and the skills needed could make the most use of the ‘stars’ volunteers, so that certain vital
skills

do not go wasted on the wrong task.



Another
important aspect is taking care of the
costs

of volunteering participation and communicating
that to the potential participants so that there is no imbalance between the costs and the rewards of
the participation. The potential cost could be a potential barrier that perhaps keeps people with low
assets away from volunteering for the Games and as such it should become perfectly clear to them
that all costs would be covered.


Making the Most out of Volunteers

The “Volunteer
-

Fit” Model

TRAINING

Transferable Skills

Accredited Qualification

COMMUNICATION

Costs

Benefits

Organization’s Needs and


Expectation
s

RECRUITMENT/

SELECTION

Matching skills to tasks

Inclusivity

Volunteer’s Needs and


Expectations

MANAGEMENT

Rotation

Upholding Enthusiasm

Identity Reinforcement


THE EVENT

Inspiration

Community

Ethos

Change

New Model?

A Legacy Organization….

Using the Manchester Event Volunteering (MEV) organization (Nichols and
Ralston, 2010: p178) as a role model, Glasgow should perhaps set up a
similar organization


Marketing


Recruitment drives


Training
-


Develop a reliable and skilled workforce


Accreditation from a training body/ Further education


Future Employment


Code of Good Practice


Effective volunteer management/ Manual


Use of Social Media/ Network


Branding/ Making Volunteering Cool


Effectiveness/ One Voice


If all bodies work under the same umbrella
organization, then the volunteer legacy agenda could be pushed more effectively



Today’s Seminar…


Brainstorming of ideas



Dialogue on the model and how it could be expanded,
amended and perhaps tested (MRes Project)



Possible sources of funding available



Other ideas



Networking opportunities



Framing the research question

References

Anderson, F.H. (1971)
“The Philosophy of Francis Bacon”,
Octagon Books, UK

Aristotle, Tredennick, H, Barnes, J & Thomson, J.A.K. (2003).
The Nicomachean Ethics
. London: Penguin Classics.

Armstrong, M. L., Emard, R., & Korba, A. M. (1995). “Of mutual benefit: The reciprocal relationship between consumer voluntee
rs
and the
clients they serve”.
Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 19
(2), 45
-
49
.

Balenger, V. J., Sedlacek, W. E., & Guenzler, M. A. (1989).Volunteer activities and their relationship to motivational needs:

A
Study of the
Stamp Union Program Council.

Bittman, M., & Fisher, K. (2006).
Exploring the economic and social value of present patterns of volunteering in Australia
,
Social Policy and
Research Paper No. 28.
Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs.

Brudney, J.L. and Meijs, L.C.P.M (2009) “It ain’t natural: Towards a new (natural) resource conceptualisation for volunteer m
ana
gement’
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 38 (4), 564
-
581

Burns, D.J., Reid, J., Toncar, M., Anderson, C., & Wells, C. (2008) “
The Effect of Gender on the Motivation of Members of Generation Y
College Students to Volunteer

Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing
, 1540
-
6997, Volume 19, Issue 1, 2008, Pages 99


118

Clary, E., Snyder, M. & Stukas, A. (1996). “Volunteers’ motivations: findings from a national survey,”
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector
Quarterly 25
(4):485
-
505.

Cnaan, R. A., & Cascio, T. (1998). Performance and commitment: Issues in management of

volunteers in human service organizations.
Journal of Social Service Research, 24
(3/4),

1
-
37.

Cummins, R. (1998) “Leadership for Volunteers: The way it could be”
Journal of Extension
; Vol 36 (5), 5T0T2

D’ Braunstein, S. & Ebersole, P. (1992) “Categories of Life Meaning for Service Organisation Volunteers”,
Psychological Reports
; 70, 281
-
282

Dekker, P., & Halman, L. (Eds.). (2003) “
The values of volunteering: cross
-
cultural perspectives”
. New York: Kluwer Publishers.

Eliasoph N. 1998. Avoiding Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press

Ellis, S. & Noyes, K. (1990).
By the people
. San Francisco: Jossey
-
Bass Inc.

Fowler, H.W & Fowler, F.G. (1990).
The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English
. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Frisch, M.B & Gerard, M. (1981). Natural Helping Systems: Red Cross Volunteers.
American Journal of Community Psychology
, 9, 567
-
579.

Galindo
-
Kuhn, Roseanna, and Ruth M.Guzley. 2001. “The Volunteer Satisfaction Index: Construct Definition, Measurement, Developme
nt,
and Validation.”
Journal of Social Service Research
28(1): 45
-
68.



Gaskin, K (1999), “Valuing volunteers in Europe: A comparative study of the Volunteer Investment and Value Audit”, The Journa
l o
f the
Institute for Volunteering Research vol. 2 no. 1 pp. 1
-
18

Ginzburg, C. (2004)
“Extasies: Deciphering the Witched Sabbath”
, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Govekar, P.L., and Govekar, A.M. (2003) “Using Economic Theory and Research to better understand Volunteer Behaviour”,
Non
-
profit
Management and Leadership
, 13(1): 33
-
48.

Graham, M. (2000) “
The Impact of Social Change on the Roles and Management of Volunteer in Glasgow Museums
”, PhD Thesis,
Glasgow Caledonian University.

Grube, G.M.A. (1974)
“Plato's Republic”
, Hacket, UK

Hampton, D., Summer, C., & Webber, R. (1968) “
Organizational Behaviour and The Practice of Management
”, Glenview, Ill..

Handy, F., and Brudney, J. (2007), ‘When to Use Volunteer Labor Resources? An Organisational Analysis for Nonprofit Manageme
nt’
,
Vrijwillige Inzet Onderzocht (VIO, Netherlands),
4, 91
-
100.

Handy, F. & N. Srinivasan (2004). “Improving quality while reducing costs? An

economic evaluation of the net benefits of hospital volunteers.”
Nonprofit and

Voluntary Sector Quarterly 33
(1), 28
-
54.

Harmon, John D. 1982.
Volunteerism in the eighties: Fundamental issues in voluntary action
. Lanham, MD :University Press of America
.

Harvie, C. (1978) “No Gods and Precious few Heroes”,
Scotland Since 1914
, 12
-
15.

Henderson, K. A. (1981). Motivations and perceptions of volunteerism and a leisure activity
. Journal of

Leisure Research, 13
, 208
-
218.

Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. H. (1982) “
Management of organization behavior. Utilizing human resources
”. 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.:
Prentice Hall, Inc

Horton
-
Smith, D. (1981). Altruism, Volunteers and Volunteerism.
Journal of Voluntary Action Research
, 10(1), 21
-
36.

Hustinx, L. and Lammertyn, F. (2003) ‘Collective and Reflexive Styles of Volunteering: A Sociological Modernization Perspecti
ve’
,
Voluntas
14(2): 167

87.

Hustinx, L., Handy, F., Cnaan, R.A., Brudney, J.L., & Pessi, A.B. (2010) “Social and Cultural Origins of Motivations to Volun
tee
r”
International Sociology; 25, 349

Ilsley, P. J. (1990).
Enhancing the volunteer experience: New insights on strengthening volunteer participation, learning, and commitment
.
San Francisco: Jossey
-
BassPublishers.

Johnson, A.W., & Earle, T.K. (2000) “
The Evolution of Human Societies
”, Stanford University Press

Kendall, J., and Knapp, M. (1996)
“The Voluntary Sector in the UK”
, Blackwell, Canterbury.

Kuehne, V. S., & Sears, H. A. (1993). “Beyond the call of duty: Older volunteers committed to children and families”
Journal of Applied
Gerontology, 12
(4), 425
-
438.

Lohmann,R.A.(1992). “
The commons: New perspectives on non
-
profit organizations and voluntary action”.
San Francisco: Jossey
-
Bass

Latting, J.K. (1990). Motivational Difference Between Black and White Volunteers.
Nonprofit and voluntary sector quarterly
, 19, 121
-
135.

Lynn, P., and Davis Smith, J. (1992)
“The 1991 National Survey of Voluntary Activity in the UK”
, Berkhamsted, UK

Macduff, N. (2004). “
Episodic volunteering: Organizing and managing the short
-
term volunteer program”
. Walla Walla, WA: MBA Publishing

Maslow, A.H. (1943). A Theory of Motivation.
Psychological Review
.



Meijs, L., & Karr, L. B. (2004).
Managing volunteers in different settings: Membership and programme management
. In R. Stebbins & M.
Graham (Eds.),
Volunteering as leisure/Leisure as volunteering: An international assessment

(pp. 177

193). Cambridge, MA: CABI

Murningham, J. Keith, John M. Oesch, and Madan Pillutla. (2001). ʺPlayer Types and Self Impression Management in Dictator Gam
es:

Two
Experiments.ʺ
Games and Economic

Behavior
37(2): 388‒414.

Ranade, S. (2000) “Public perception of who is a volunteer: An examination of the net
-
cost approach from a cross
-
cultural persp
ective”,
Voluntas
, Vol 11, No 1:45
-
69.

Rehberg, W. (2005), “Altruistic Individualists: Motivations for International Volunteering among young adults in Switzerland”

Voluntas,

Vol
16 (2), 109
-
122

Reinke, S., & Keneson, G. (2009) “
Can we keep them coming back for more?: Volunteer motivation and job satisfaction
”, Georgia Political
Science Association. Conference Proceedings 2009

Rochester, C. (2006) “ Making sense of volunteering, a literature review”

Volunteering England: London

Ryan, R.L, Kaplan, R & Grese, R.E. (2001). Predicting Volunteer Commitment in Environmental Stewardship Programs.
Journal of
Environmental Planning and Management
, 44(5), 629
-
648.

Schlegelnilch, B & Tynan, C.C. (1989). Who Volunteers: An Investigation into the Characteristics of Charity Volunteers.
Journal of
Marketing Management
, 5(2), 133
-
151.

Seigel, P. A. & DeLizia, J. S. (1993. “Involving other members”.
Association Management, 45
(1), L52
-
L78.

Seven Steps to Achieve Effective Volunteer Support..
Canadian FundRaiser
, August 13, 1997. <http://www.charityvillage.com/

charityvillage/research/rvol16.html

Smith, D. H., Reddy, R. D. (1971). “Voluntary action and social problems”.
Journal of Voluntary Action

Res. Monograph #2

Stebbins, R. A., & Graham, M. (2004)
Volunteering as leisure/leisure as volunteering
. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CAB International.

Taylor, T., Mallinson, M., & Bloch, K. (2008). “Looking for a few good women”: Volunteerism as an interaction in two organiza
tio
ns.
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly,
37(3), 389
-
410

Tuan, Y.F. (2005) “Humanistic Geography”,
Annals of the Association of American Geographers
, 66(2), 266
-
276.

Veenhoven, R. (2000). “The four qualities of life”.
Journal of Happiness Studies
, 1, 1e39.

Wagner, S.L, Rush, M.C. (2001) “Altruistic Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: Context, Disposition and Age”,
Journal of Social
Psychology

140 (3) : 379
-
91.

Wilson, J., and Musick, M. (1997) “The Empathy


Altruism hypothesis in the Real World”,
Sociology of Religion,

56(2): 137
-
153.

Wollebæk, D. & Selle, P. 2002. ‘Does Participation in Voluntary Associations Contribute to

Social Capital? The Impact of Intensity, Scope, and Type’,
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector

Quarterly
31(2), 32

61