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Dec 14, 2013 (3 years and 3 months ago)

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America: 1820's
-
1850's


Changing


Reforming


Expanding


Themes and events in American history during the
1820's to the 1850's.

Changes in America:1820
-
1850


Industrial revolution changes how
Americans live, work, and consume.


Transportation revolution changes how
Americans travel, trade, and function as
a nation.


Immigration changes the make
-
up and
backbone of American society.

The Industrial Revolution in
America:


Brought on the modern mechanized factory system.


1792 first textile factory.


1850 census reveals that most manufacturing moved from
the home to the factory.


Factory labor compensated by wages and assisted by
power (hydro).


Eli Whitney’s “Uniformity system.”


1844 first telegraph line (Washington D.C. to Baltimore).


1858 first trans
-
Atlantic telegraph line.

The Transportation Revolution
in America:


Turnpikes and roads


Canals


Steamboats


Railroads

Rivers,
Roads,

Canals,

in 1840

Railroads in 1840 and 1855

Transportation Revolution:

Steamboats


Between 1817 and 1820 the number
of steamboats in America jumped from
17 to 69, and by 1855, the number had
reached 727. Before the advent of the
steamboat, flatboats, sometimes little
more than rafts, carried goods down the
Mississippi River. There, the boats were
broken up and sold as firewood because
they could not make the trip back
upstream. The return voyage was then
made on foot or horseback.




The US experiences exponential
growth in trade for the interior of the
nation from 1820
-
1855.

America the Melting Pot:
Immigration


America was the largest importer of people in
the world.


Why leave Europe?


Growth:


1820’s ~500,000 immigrants


1830’s & 40’s 2.5 million


1850’s 2.7 million


Irish immigrants


German immigrants

Irish immigrants:


Many came to escape the
potato famine where
10,000 had died of
starvation and 100,000
died of disease from 1845
-
1850.


Many stayed in port cities.


Many worked as laborers.
Known as strong hard
workers.


German immigrants:

German Americans:


10,000 Germans immigrate per
year by 1832.


250,000 Germans arrive in 1854
alone
.

Why leave Germany?


1816 known as the year without
a summer.


Many left Germany because of
floods and poor crops.


1829
-
1830 hard winter, many
freeze and starve.


1848 German civil war and failed
rebellion.


Germans give us PE and
Kindergarten.


Immigration

Reform movements in
America:1820
-
1845


Education


Temperance


Women’s rights


Treatment of the mentally ill and
disabled


Abolition of slavery

The abolitionist movement:


Dominantly Northern
Christians.


Had their own newspapers and
publishers.


South tried to control
abolitionist literature entering
the region.


Tended to find and publish the
worst stories.


Pro
-
slave groups frequently
attacked newspapers and even
killed and injured printers.

The institution of slavery in
America.


Slave trade outlawed in
1807 but still continued
until the Civil War.


Slave owners defended it
as an economic
institution, a way to use
man power to produce
crops. They took care of
the slaves in old age and
many slaves were treated
well (but not equal).

Slave Trade and the middle
passage:


Voyage from the West
coast of Africa to
America.


First had to survive
trip from interior to
the coast (50%
mortality). Then
shackled and branded
like animals.


Slaves were packed in
like cargo; 10
-
20%
mortality common.

The high price of slavery on the South:


Craftsmen and farmers were paid less for labor.


Immigrants avoided the South.


Money tied up in slaves could have been used for commerce or
infrastructure.


Kept the South reliant on agriculture.


Had to export raw materials and import finished goods.



Made the South a kind of colony of the North.

American expansion:

“Manifest Destiny”


In 1820 1 in 7 Americans lived in the
West. By 1840, 1 in 3.


Major settlements in 1820
-
1845:


Texas


California


New Mexico


Oregon

Settling Texas:


Started with Stephen
Austin settlement.


Had a grant with Mexico
to bring 300 families.


8000 Americans in
Texas by 1830, 30,000
by 1835.


Declared independence
from Mexico in 1836
and later becomes the
Republic of Texas.

Trails Westward:

The Oregon Trail:


Wagon trains commonly
gathered outside of
Independence, Missouri
to head West.


2000 miles by wagon
from Independence to
Willamette Valley.


Wagons made 2 mph
on a good day, 5
months of travel if all
went well.


Wagon trains were self
governing.

The Texas Problem:


Many of the settlers in
Texas came from the
South (pro
-
slave).


Petitioned to be added
to the US.


Issues with adding
Texas:1) War with
Mexico, 2) slavery
issue.

The road to the Civil War

Legislation

Missouri Compromise (1820)

The Compromise of 1850

The Kansas
-
Nebraska Act (1854)


Events

Bleeding Kansas

John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry

Fugitive Slave Act and Dred Scott Decision

“Uncle Tom's Cabin”

Lincoln's Election

The Missouri Compromise

Major issue was whether the US was going to embrace or
abandon slavery.

Specific issue was whether new states in the west were
going to allow slavery (Missouri for example).

It was important to keep a balance of slave and non
-
slave
states in the union.

The Compromise prohibited slavery in unorganized territories
West of the Mississippi and North of a line that makes up
the bottom of the state of Missouri BUT allows Missouri to
enter the union as a slave state (despite the fact it is
above the line)

It was more of a truce, both sides were biding their time.

Missouri Compromise

Compromise of 1850

California wants to join the
United States. Following
the 1849 Gold Rush.


Free or slave?

California straddles the
Missouri Compromise line.
What to do????

The South wants two
California's, North and
South (free and slave)

The North wants one free
state.

Kansas
-
Nebraska Act (1854)

Adds Kansas and
Nebraska as
Territories.

Would be allowed to
be slave or free
based on a vote by
the inhabitants.

Causes “Bleeding
Kansas”

“Bleeding Kansas”

Kansas and Nebraska
are added to the US
as territories.

The residents in the
state get to vote
whether the state is
free or slave.

“Popular sovereignty”

Leads to large scale
violence as pro and anti
-
slavery settlers move to
the state and vocally rally
support for their side.

“Sack of
Lawrence”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sack_of_La
wrence

John Brown leads a group
of men that hacks to
death pro
-
slave settlers.

“Pottawatomie
Massacre”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pottawatomi
e_Massacre


The Raid on Harpers Ferry

John Brown and several
followers raid and
seize a Federal Arsenal
at Harpers Ferry,
Virginia.

They intend to use the
weapons to arm slaves
of Virginia for a slave
revolt.

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Fugitive Slave Act and

Dred Scott Decision (1857)

Fugitive Slave Act:

"No person held to service or labor in
one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another,
shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be
discharged from such service or labor, but shall be
delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or
labor may be due."

This is later backed up by the Dred Scott case in which the
Supreme Court ruled that people of African descent brought
into the United States and held as slaves (or their
descendants, whether or not they were slaves) were not
protected by the Constitution and could never be U.S.
citizens

Uncle Tom's Cabin

Written by Harriet Beecher
Stowe, published in 1852.

Written from the slaves
viewpoint.

Shows the brutal slave system as
it was.

Was the second best selling book
of the nineteenth century.


Lincoln's Election

In the election of 1860 there were 3 pro
-
slavery candidates.

The pro
-
slave vote was split.

The South probably could have won if not for the divided vote.

The Deep South freaks out when Lincoln is elected because they
think he will ban slavery, regardless of the fact he has never
discussed his stance on the issue.