CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: DEEPTHY.B.NAIR

dinnerloafBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (4 years and 16 days ago)

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GENETICALLY ENGINEERED INSULIN
-
A REVIEW


CORRESPONDING
AUTHOR: DEEPTHY.B.NAIR

Email id :
nairdeepthy0180@yahoo.com

Phone no.: 08754415508


ABSTRACT:


To minimize the complications of diabetes,

it is essential to limit the glucose level

.For the mass production

of

therapeutics identical to proteins,

free from risk of infection

,molecular genetic

techniques are used recently .They do not induce any unnecessary
immunological responses and even can be isolated from non human sources.

It reviews about
production of insulin by recombinant DNA technology and new advancements in this arena



KEY WORDS:


Insulin Recombinant Dna Technology





INTRODUCTION:


Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of pancreas which cause cells of
liver,

skeletal muscles and fat tissue to absorb

to absorb glucose. It in
hibit
s

use of fat as energy
source by reducing release of glucagon.

Glucose in excess will be toxic which wil
l

be maintained
by insulin.

Recombinant insulin almost has replaced insulin from animal
sources such as pigs
and cattle

to treat insulin
-
dependant

diabetes.

It is done by inserting human insulin gene into the
E.coli .It became easy with development of biotechnology for the production of insulin at faster
rate and needs were met. Introducing insulin analogs are also an alternate metho
d



PURPOSE
OF SYNTHESISING INSULIN

When

b
ovine

and porcine insulin were used for long time immune system of the patient started
producing antibodies against it ,neutralizing the actions and resulting in inflammatory responses
at site of injections. It lead to the research on


Humulin


,by inserting h
uman insulin into a
vector ,e.coli

,to produce insulin similar to the one which is naturally produced

.
This was reliable
and was
made possible by recombinant DNA

technology.

STRUCTURE OF INSULIN

Insulin is a small protein. It consist of 51 amino acids, 30
of which constitute one polypeptide
chain and 21 of which constitute second chain. The genetic code for insulin is found in DNA at
top of short arms. There are four different nitrogen bases, adenine, thymine, cytosine,
guanine.
[1]

SYNTHESIS OF INSULIN

The double stranded DNA divides into exposing unpaired nitrogen bases. Using one of those
exposed DNA strands as template messengerRNA
forms for transcription.
[2].

They carry genetic
information where it attaches to ribosome.

INSERTION

Restriction enzymes

which are naturally produced by bacteria act like biological scissors. Firstly
DNA is chemically synthesized that carry specific nucleotide sequences
[3]
. The required DNA
sequence can be identified. An anti
-
codon , methionine , allows removal of insulin p
rotein from
bacterial cell amino acid. This is then introduced to E.coli cells. The insulin gene is expressed as
it replicates with the B
-
galactosidase in cell which undergo mitosis. The two chain are mixed and
reconnected to form pure Humulin.
[4]


BIOLOG
ICAL IMPLICATION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED INSULIN

Human insulin is the only animal protein to be made from bacteria which are identical to natural
molecule.
[5]

This reduces the possibility of complications resulting from antibody production.
The entire pr
ocedure is done using cell as growth medium as they secrete complete human
insulin molecule. They minimize the need for complex and costly purification procedures.


ADVANTAGES OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED INSULIN



Humulin is absorbed more rapidly



It cause
allergic reaction comparatively lesser
[6]



It is less expensive than animal insulin



It is effective in shorter duration

DISADVANTAGES OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED INSULIN



Loss lof hypoglycaemic warnings
[7]



Severe tiredness



Weight gain



Mood changes



Constant sle
eping



Joint pain


CONCLUSION


Currently human insulin are twice expensive than animal insulin, production of
recombinant human insulin is at its peak. Since there were no difference in ability to
transporting glucose, immensely help in diabetic control.



REFERENCE

1.
charce, R.E. and Frank, B.H.
-

Research, Production and Safety of Biosynthetic Human
Insulin, 1993.

2.
Court, Dr J.
-

Modern Living with Diabetes, Diabetes Australia, Melbourne, 1990.

3.
CSIRO

Research of Australia No.8, Biotechnology, Canberra, 1986.

4.
Doran, P.M.
-

Directory in Modern Biotechnology, Hawker Brownlow Education, 1990.

5.
Encyclopedia of Science Technology, McGraw
-
Hill Book Company, 1987.

6.
Genetic Engineering, Compton's Interacti
ve Encyclopedia, Compton's New Media Inc, 1994.

7.
Gillman, M.
-

Scientific American Books, W.H. Freeman and Co. New York, 1992.

8.
Hayward, G.
-

Applied Genetics, University of Bath, Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, Edinburgh,
1991.

9.
Hilson, Dr. R.


-

Diabetes,

a Beyond Basics Guide, Methuen, Melbourne, 1987.

10.
Hmge
-

Human insulin from second generation genetic engineering, Novo.

Insulin, Grolier Electronic Publishing Inc., 1992.

11.
Kammermayor K. and Clark, V. L.
-

Genetic Engineering Fundamentals, An introdu
ction to
Principles & Applications, Marcel Decker Inc., 1989.

12.
McCall, C.
-

Taming the beast of Diabetes, The Washington Times, Washington, 1992.

13.
Morris, B. (ed)
-

Genetic Engineering, Science in Action.

14.
Nacelle, G. J. V. and Coppel, R. L.
-

Reshap
ing Life: Key Issues in Genetic Engineering,
Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1989. Novo
-
Nordisk Promotional Brochure.

Recombinant DNA, Grolier Electronic Publishing., 1992.

15.
Serjeartson, Prof. S.
-

The Genetics of Diabetes, John Curitn School of M
edical Research.

16.
Watson, J.D., Gilman, M., Witkowski, J., Zoller, M.
-

Recombinant DNA, Scientific
American Books, New York, 1992.

17.
Wibon, J., Tooze, J. and Hetz, D.
-

Recombinant DNA
-

A Short Course, Scientific American
Books USA, 1983